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Between Falkirk and Castlecary is
Greenhill Junct. Stat. (Caledon.
Ely.), leading from Carlisle (Car-
stairs Junct., Rte. 5) to Stirling,
Perth, and Dundee (Scottish Cen-
tral).

The line of the rly. here becomes
identical with that part of the Roman
Wall of Antoninus, commonly known
in Scotland as G-rimcs, or Gh-ahaitts
Dyke. This Wall was built during
the Roman occupation by Lollius
Urbicus, with the intention of shut-
ting off the Lowlands from the wild
tribes to the north, and extended
from the Forth at Kinneil to the
Clyde at Kilpatrick, near Dumbarton
(Rte, 23), a distance of 27 m., in
which it was guarded and strength-
ened by 10 forts. We know the
names of three of the legions em-
ployed on the work — II. "Augusta ;"
VI. "Victrix;" and XX. " Yalens,
Victrix." An inscribed stone, now
in Glasgow College, preserves the
name of Lollius Urbicus.

Cross the vale of the Red Burn on
a Viaduct.

31 1 m. at Casthcary Stat, named
from one of the forts on the line of
the wall of Antoninus, the line
leaves Stirlingshire and enters the
county of Dumbarton, obtaining on
the right very pleasant views of the
Kilsyth Hills, the highest point of
which is Tourtain, 1484 ft.

35| m. Croy Stat.

[To the right 2 m. is the town of
Kilsyth (pop. 6000). The old Castle
stood upon the line of the Roman
road, and was probably at one time
one of its protecting forts. Its tower



is still inhabited. Kilsyth was the
scene of a battle in 1645, when Mon-
trose gained a mcst complete victory
over the Covenanters, putting 6000
of them to the sword. Colzium, a
little to the W. of the battle-field, is
a seat of the Edmonstones.]

Rt. — The long Gothic edifice, with
chapel and, spire, erected 1874, is a
Convalescent Hosintal for Glasgow.
Coal-pits occur right and left of the
line, near

41 m. Lenzie Junct. Stat., a vil-
lage composed in part of neat small
villas. [Hence a branch of 5i m.
leads to Lennoxtown, passing 2 m.
Kirkintilloch, an ancient little town
on the banks of the Luggie, near its
confluence with the Kelvin, possess-
ing traces of a Roman fort in the
shape of a mound and ditch. There
is a beautiful view from it of the
Campsie Fells, a eliarming and pic-
turesque range of hills that forms the
northern background of Glasgow, and
constitutes one of its chief places of
holiday resort. 3^ m. right at Mil-
town, where the Glazert is crossed,
are the large printworks of Kincaid.
5i m, Lennoxtown is a considerable
village, dependent on various print,
bleaching, and alum works. Some
little distance to the E., at the foot
of Lairs Hill, and near Glorat (Sir
Chas. E. F. Stirling, Bart.), are the
remains of two circular forts, which
might have been outposts of the
Roman wall. Lennox Castle is the
beautiful seat of the Hon. C. Han-
bury-Kincaid-Lennox, and was built
from designs by Hamilton of Glas-
gow. From Lennoxtown, where the
rly. ceases, a walk of a mile will
bring the visitor to Camjme, a plea-
sant little village at the entrance of
the Camp.sie Glen, a charming and
beautiful bit of scenery. The Kirk
Burn, a tributary of the Glazert,
rushes down through the defile,
forming at Craigie Linn a waterfall
about 50 ft. high. There is another
equally pretty bit a little to the W.



C. Scotland. Route 16. — Coiclairs — Glasrjoiv.



149



at the Fin Glen. The Camjjsie Fells,
which give so much variety to the
scenery around Glasgow, consist of
igneous rocks, "along the S. flank
of which the successive sheets of
ancient lava may be traced by the
eye from a distance of several miles,
rising above each other in bends of
dark rock and grassy slope." —
Geikie. The rly. is continued
through the heart of the Campsie
Hills to Strathblane and the little
town of Killearn, which is only 2^
m. from Drymen Stat, on the Fortli
and Clyde Junct. Ely. (Rte. 22).
At Killearn was born Geo. Buchanan,
the historian ; died 1582, and buried
in the Grey friars Ch., Edinburgh.]
Between Lenzie Junct. and

44 m. Bishopbriggs Stat, the peak
of Benlomond is visible on riffht.



Cowlairs Junct. Stat. (rt. Eaily. to
Helensburgh, Rte. 19) is a sulaurb
of Glasgow, which got its name in
the days cattle were driven by the
road, and rested here for the market.
Here the workshops of the X.B. Rly.
Company are placed. Thence down
a steep incline, and through a long
triple tunnel, by means of a wire
rope attached to the train, to

47^ m. Glasgow Terminus, near
George Square.

Glasgow. — Hotels: considering its
large population, and the immense
number of visitors, either on business
or pleasure, it cannot boast of very
excellent hotel accommodation. The
best are — the Queen's, Eoyal, N'orth
British, George, Clarence, and Cale-
donian, all in George-square, in the
immediate neighbourhood of the Post-
office and the Edinburgh rly. stats. ;
M 'Lean's, St. Yincent-st. (good and
quiet family hotel, but expensive) ;
Macrae's, Bath-street (good) ; AVaver-
ley Temperance H., Buchanan-street
(moderate).

Episcopal Churches. — In connec-



tion with the Ch. of England —
St. Jude's, Blythswood-square, and
St. Silas's, West-end Park. Scotch
Episcopal Ch. — St. Andrew's, \Yillow
Acre, Green ; Christ Ch., Mile -end ;
St. John's, Dumbarton Rd., Ander-
ston ; St. IMary's, Holyrood Cres-
cent ; St. Ninian's, South-side ; St.
Paul's, Buccleuch-st.

Clubs. — Western, Buchanan - st.
Strangers may be introduced by a
member ; New Club ; Junior Club.

The Post-office is on the S. side of
George-square.

Luncheon Rooms. — Lang,73 Queen-
street, near the Exchange, an ad-
mirably managed establisliment.
Everything good of its kind, and
clean. You may have your choice of
100 kinds of sandwiches, all fresh
cut.— Moderate charges. Everything
tasty and appetising for lunch — from
grouse sandwiches to toasted cheese,
mutton pies to strawberries and
cream, and excellent coffee — is laid
out for the hungry guest, who may
draw his own bitter beer or glass of
sherry, or sip his coffee at discretion.
Scott, also in Queen-st., Duncan,
and Ferguson and Forrester, both
in Buchanan-st., are recommended.
Stark, 41 Queen-st., is a good eating-
house.

Confectioner. — Forrester, Gord ou-
st, famous for cakes.

Photograjplur. — Thos. Annan, 77
Sauchiehall-st., made the very best
likeness of Dr. Livingstone.



Guide Books, Majys, and Photo-
grainhic Views. — Thos. IMurray and
Son, Buchanan Street, who publish
the best Railway Time -Tables for
Scotland.

Piailway Termini. — A. The Xorth
British Rly. Stat, (for Edinburgh
and the jSTorth, Helensburgh and



150



Bouie 16. — Glasgou



Sect. IT.



Loch Lomond, Stirling, Perth, Dun-
dee, Aberdeen), at the N.W. corner
of George-square.

B. The Caledonian Ely. Stat, (for
Carlisle and London, Lanark, Edin-
burgh, Stirling, and the North) is
situated at the head of Buchanan
Street.

A New Central Stat, in Gordon St.
is projected.

C. The Glasgow and South-
Western (for Paisley, Greenock, Ayr,
Dumfries, and Carlisle) on S. side
of Clyde, in Bridge Street, near
Glasgow 13ridge.

D. The Hamilton Ely. Stat, (also
Caledonian) a little to the S. of C,
and over Stockwell Bridge.

E. North British Ely., Airdrie
Branch, Old College Stat., High St.

F. The Dunlop-st. Stat., near
Arg}dl-st. (Glasgow Union Ely. ), con-
veying passengers across the Clyde
to Bridge-st., Greenock, direct by
Paisley, and to Ayrshire.

Glasgoiv,tlie commercial metropolis
of Scotland, and the most important
seaport, stands on the river Clyde,
60 m. from the sea. (Pop., 1871,
477,144, say 500,000.) It rivals
Liverpool in its shipping, Manchester
in its cotton-spinning, Newcastle in
its coal, the Thames and the Tyne in
its iron sliipbuilding, and Merthyr
and "Wolverhampton are equalled by
its iron furnaces, while the industry
and perseverance of its inhabitants
has converted the shallow Clyde into
a broad and deep dock for a navy of
merchant ships of 1000 and 1500
tons, lined with 8 miles of Quay,
created at a total cost of 51 millions
sterling. In addition to all this it
was the cradle of the steam-engine,
James "Watt's invention having been
perfected here.

Although, after the romantic posi-
tion of Edinburgh, that of Glasgow
must seem flat and monotonous, it is
in reality very advantageously, and,
to a certain extent, picturesquely
situated on either bank of the Clyde;



the southern suburbs known as Gor-
bals. Hutch eson|;own and Tradeston,
bearing the same relation to the city
as Southwark does to London. The
northern portion, which is laid out
in long and regular streets crossing
at right angles, rises up a considerable
slope, while, stretching away to the
"W., at a few miles' distance, are ranges
of hills, forming a good background.
It suflters from the misfortune of an
atmosphere almost always, even in
summer, tainted Avith dense smoke,
and a very rainy climate,to compensate
which it enjoys a supply of the purest
water in Europe, brought direct from
Loch Katrine, 1859. {See Introd. to
Sect. II.)

Argyll-street, which is nearly 3 m.
long, including its continuations the
Trongate and Gallowgate, is the main
thoroughfare, and is in general, espe-
cially after working hours, densely
crowded. Buchanan-street is better
built, and from its being the locality
of the gayest shops, is the great centre
of attraction. George-st. is another
avenue extending the whole length
of the city, and passing through

George-square, which is generally
the stranger's first point, because it
is central, and close to the two great
railway stations. It contains the
Post-office on its S. side, and several
hotels. It has little claim to atten-
tion for either its architecture or
sculpture, although it encloses nume-
rous Public Statues to great person-
ages — the Queen, an equestrian figure
by Marochetti (not very successful),
W., and Prince Albert, E., Sir "^Valter
Scott, raised on a doric column 80 ft.
high; in the centre is Sir John Moore
(a native), b)^ Flaxman ; S. Lord
Clvde, James AVatt, and Sir Robt. Peel ;
S.E., Dr. Graham.

In summer and autumn, the
seasons when strangers mostly visit
Glasgow, its dwelling - houses are
generally shut up, and their inhabit-
ants are "down the water," in some
of the many marine villages on the



C. Scotland. Route 16. — Glasgow Cathedral.



151



Clyde, the ready access to which is a
convenience that few places possess
in so great a degree.

Avery pretty park has been laid out
by the Corporation at Kelvin Grove,
at a cost of over £100,000, from de-
signs by the late Sir Joseph Paxton.
The visitor to it may at the same
time see the Botanic Gardens, Kibble's
Crystal Palace, and the Observatory,
which are in the neighbourhood.

The older part of Glasgow is
at the E. and N.E., 'where the
visitor will find the old College
(now a railway station) and the
Cathedral, with specimens of cha-
racteristic Scotch closes and wynds,
one inspection of which is gener-
ally sufficient, and an incredible
number of whisky-shops that crowd
the lower class of streets.

The two objects of greatest interest
in Glasgow lie at its opposite extre-
mities, about 2 m. apart — the Cathe-
dral, which far surpasses anything
else, at the E., and tlie Park and New
College at West End. On the way
from the one to the other, the stranger
may look at the Necropolis, the Old
College, the Saltmarket (for the sake
of Bailie Nicol Jarvie), the river
Clyde at the Broomielaw, and one
of the iron shipbuilding yards and
machine manufactories.

To reach the Cathedral you pass
the Royal Infirmary, in the vicinity
of which are the Barony Church and
the Barony Free Kirk, a well-designed
modern Gothic edifice.

The **Cathedral, dedicated to St.
Mungo or Kentigern, tlie finest
Gothic edifice in Scotland, stands in
a commanding position in the N. E.
of Glasgow, which it overlooks, " and
shares the distinction of being one
of the two or three Scottish cathe-
drals which have been spared to
modern days in a comparatively per-
fect state. " It is indeed a venerable
and beautiful building — "a brave
, kirk — nane o'yourwhigmaleeries and
curliewurlies and opensteek hems
about it — a' solid, weel-jointed mason -



wark, that will stand as lang as the
world, keep hands and gunpowther
dff it." — Scott. The bishopric was
first restored, and the original cathe-
dral built,, by David I. in 1136. It
was burnt down in 1192, and the
present building, begun soon after
by Bishop Jocelyn, was sufficiently
advanced to be consecrated in 1197.
lu James IV. 's reign the see of Glas-
gow was declared Metropolitan, and
tlie building of the cathedral went
regularly forward, although even up
to the time of the Reformation it was
still unfinished.

In 1579 the Presbyterian ministers
prevailed on the magistrates to have
it destroyed, and workmen were
assembled for the purpose, when
the corporations of the city rose in
arms and prevented its destruction.
" And sae the bits o' stane idols were
taken out of their neuks, broken in
pieces by Scripture warrant, and flung
into the Molen dinar biirn, and the
auld kirk stood as crouse as a cat
when the flaes are kaimed aff
her, and a'body was alike pleased."
— Scott. But after that time the
fortunes of the building were on the
wane, and it became more and more
neglected, until 1829, when public
attention was strongly drawn to its
dilapidated state. Since then, public
and private generosity, aided by
gi'ants from the crown, to which the
cathedral belongs, have contributed
to restore it. The cathedral, as it at
present stands, consists of a nave
with aisles, transepts, and choir, the
transepts being so short that the ex-
ternal symmetry is scarcely broken
at all by their projection. The roof
of the nave is high-pitched, and the
general character of the windows is
that of E. Eng. lancets, particularly
on the N. side ; while on the S. they
are more recent, of a greater width,
and have their heads formed of 3
trefoil circles. " The crypt and the
whole choir belong to the latter part
of the 13th centy., the nave to the
14th, The central aisle never having



152



Route 16. — Glasgoio Cathedral.



Sect. II.



been intended to be vaulted, the
architect has been enabled to dis-
pense with all pinnacles, flying but-
tresses, and such expedients, and
thus to give the whole outline a
degree of solidity and repose which
is extremely beautiful. " — Fergussons
Architecture. From the S. transept
projects a low basement storey, form-
ing a continuation of the crypt.

The cathedral is entered by a door
in the S. aisle : it is 155 ft. long by 62
broad, not including the aisles. Be-
fore the Reformation it was divided
into 2 parts, and service was held in
both. Here Cromwell sat, Oct. 1650,
to hear himself railed at and called
"Sectary and ]51asphemer," by the
celebrated Dr. Zachary Boyd, in a
discourse 2 hours long. The nave
is stately and well-proportioned,
90 ft. high, with a triforium of
2 arches to each bay, and a (deres-
tory. A carved screen separates the
nave from the choir, which is entered
by a low elliptic-arched doorway.
On both sides are steps with a carved
balustrade, leading down to the crypt.
The choir, 95 ft. long, still used as
the parochial High Ch., is an ex-
quisite example of E. pointed ; it is
attributed to Bishop Jocelyn, and to
the date 1175, although it more pro-
bably belongs to the latter part of
the 13th cent. It is separated from
the aisles by pointed arches springing
from clustered pillars with flowered
capitals, while those of the nave and
Lady Chapel are plain. What ought
to be the organ-loft is supported on
a row of pointed arches with double
shafts of wood (modern). The lover
of cathedral service can scarcely help
regretting the absence of the organ ;
but the ' ' kist of whistles " was re-
moved at the Reformation, and has
not yet been replaced, but it is ex-
pected that ere long an instrument
worthy of the building will be erected.
The choir is lighted by a clerestory
of beautiful narrow 4-light windows.
To the E. is the Lady Chapel, a double
cross aisle, supported on 3 piers, and



opening into the choir through 2
graceful arches behind the altar. Ad-
joining it on the N.E. is the Chapter-
house, a square, resting on one cen-
tral shaft.

The *Cryiit is the j)ride and boast
of the cathedral ; and certainly its
peculiarities are such as to make it
a unique example of the kind. It
is in the style of the 13th cent.;
and as the ground falls rapidly to-
wards the E., the architect could
give it all the height and light that
he required, while it served, at the
same time, as a basement storey to
the choir, beneath which it extends
for 125 ft. "The solidity of the
architecture, the intricacy of the
vaulting, and the correctness of its
proportions, make it one of the most
perfect pieces of architecture in the
kingdom." In the centre of the
crypt is the shrine of St. Mungo,
containing the headless and handless
efligy of the saint. At the S.E. cor-
ner is St. Mungo's Well, now covered
up, and next to it is the burial-place
of "Ane honourable Avoman, Dame
Colquhoun, who died" — the rest of
the inscription being illegible.

In this crypt is interred the pious
but eccentric Rev. Edw. Irving,
who d. at Glasgow, Dec. 1834. His
grave is marked by a brass plate, and
the window above it is occupied by
the figure of John the Baptist, of
austere character, by Bertini of Milan.
The crypt was used as a place of
worship for the parishioners of the
Barony down to 1820. "Conceive
an extensive range of low-browed,
dark, and torchlight vaults, such as
are used for sepulchres in other
countries, and had long been dedi-
cated to the same purj)Ose in this, a
portion of which was seated with
pews, and used as a ch. The part of
the vaults thus occupied, though
capable of containing a congregation
of many hundreds, bore a small pro-
portion to the darker and more ex-
tensive caverns which yawned around



Glasgow. Route 16. — Old College ; Saltmarket.



153



what may be termed the inhabited
space." — Rob Roy.

Besides the restorations which
Glasgow Cathedral has undergone,
the visitor will particularly notice the
Stained Glass, Avhich for profusion
excels any building in the British
Isles. The proposal thus to orna-
ment this ch. was warmly responded
to, both by private and public
generosity, the cost of the whole
amounting to about £100,000. The
greater portion of the glass has
been executed at Munich, although
the crypt and chapter-house contain
specimens of British work. As the
visitor can buy for 2d. a complete
guide to each window, it will be suf-
ficient to give here the general ar-
rangement.

Commencing at the N. angle of
the nave, are scenes from the earl)'^
portions of the Old Testament, the
magnificent west window (contributed
by the Bairds) being filled with four
subjects from the History of the Jews,
viz., the Law Giving, the Entrance
into the Promised Land, the Dedica-
tion of the Temple, and the Captivity
of Bab5don. North transept window,
given by the Duke of Hamilton :
subject, the Prophets. South trans. :
from the Lives of Noah, Isaac, and
Christ. The choir : a series of the
Parables. The great East window :
the 4 Evangelists. The Lady Chapel :
the Apostles. The Crypt : subjects
from the New Testament. The re-
sult shows that an indiscriminate
application of i:)ainted glass to all the
openings obscures and conceals the
beauty of the Gothic details of the
interior, which now cannot be pro-
perly seen for want of light !

The churchyard around the cathe-
dral is literally paved mth acres of
stone slabs, memorials of the fore-
fathers of the city.

On the opposite hill to the cathe-
dral, and separated from it by the
Molendinar Bui-n, now a foul stream,



is the Necropolis, crowded ^vith every
variety of monument and tomb, some
of them of the most costly material
and workmanship, but few in good
taste, rising tier over tier. The most
conspicuous, and one of the worst, is
a statue of John Knox, surmounting
a stumpy Doric column. Many are
of classic design and good proportions,
of granite and marble. Ohs. those to
Rev. Geo. Middleton, an obelisk to
Chas. Tennant of St. Eollox, Rev.
Dr. Dick, and Major Monteith. The
view from this point is very com-
manding, and extends over the city,
the cathedral, and the river crowded
with shipping.

Descending the hill from the
Cathedral to the High-street, you
come to the Old College, purchased
1868 for £100,000, and converted
into the North British Union Rail-
uay Station. It is a black smoke-
stained, heavy building, but not
without some interest as a specimen
of Scottish architecture of the reigns
of Charles I. and II., 1632-62, with
stone balconies, windows topped with
frontlets, tall chimneys set corner to
corner and extinguisher turrets. It
consists of 2 courts ; in the first one
a picturesqiie outer stair leads to the
hall, and between the courts rises a
tall tower. Over the inner archway
is a figure of Zachary Boyd, the same
who was paid oft" by Cromwell in his
own coin of dreary ranting. The
space behind, originally the College
garden, is the scene of the duel be-
tween Frank and Rashleigh Osbal-
distone in Rob Roy.

Following the dii'ty High-st., the
Trongate is reached, in which remark
the old Town-hall, which includes the
range of which the Tontine Hotel is
a part. In the open space in front
is an equestrian statue of "William
III. Near it, at the crossing of 4
streets, is the Cross Steeple, a tower
containing a chime of 28 bells,
occupying the site of the old Tol-
booth (the prison described in Rob
Roy) and the Tron Steeple^ which



154



Pioute 16. — Saltmarket — Picture Gallery. Sect. II.



projects across the pavement, and
dates from 1637. Dr. Chalmers
preached in the ch. behind for many
years. The Tron was a public weigh-
ing machine, to which the owners of
false weights were nailed by the ears.

The Saltmarket, now a low, crowded
street, Avith a large percentage of
whisky-shops, was at one time the
fashionable jjart of the city, though
now degraded to a sort of Rag-fair.
Here dwelt Bailie Nicol Jarvie, the
Lowland cousin of Rob Roy. James
Duke of York also lodged here, and
the great printers of the day, Robert
and Andrew Foulis, had their book
auctions ; and it was the very centre
of attraction for the Glasgow mer-
chants, whose dealings in tobacco far
surpassed those of any other city in
the kingdom. They perpetuated
their calling in many of the names of
the streets, such as Jamaica-street,
Virginia-street. In High-street,
Thomas Campbell the poet was born,
but the house has long since been
removed. Sir John Moore, the Gen-
eral, was born in the Trongate. The
Candleriggs, the Goose-dubs, and
the Gorbals (the last on the S. side
of the Clyde), are the classic names
of other streets, peculiar to Glasgow.

By turning to the right down the
Saltmarket, passing the Jail and
Justiciary Courts, the visitor will
reach the Green, an open space front-
ing the Clyde, with a column in the
centre to the memory of Nelson. It
will ever be memorable as the place
in which Watt was Avalking one
Sunday when the idea of the sepa-
rate condenser, involving the prin-
ciple of his steam-engine, occurred
to him.

The Roijal Exchange, in Queen
Street, is a very elegant piece of
architecture, though the situation
is rather confined. The portico
consists of 12 fluted Corinthian
columns, supported by a rich frieze
and pediment. The N. and S.



sides of the building are ornamented
with a handsome colonnade of similar
columns. It was erected from the
designs of Mr. Hamilton in 1829.
The reading-room is open to stran-
gers, whose names are put down by
subscribers, for 30 days, and after
that period on payment of 5s. a
month. The equestrian statue in
front is that of the Duke of Wel-
lington, by Marochetti ; the pedestal
has representations in bronze of the
Duke's principal victories. Several
of the banks, such as the National,
Union, British Linen Company, etc. ,
are fine specimens of street arclii-
tectm-e.

The Corporation Gallery of Art,
206 Sauchiehall-st., is a collection
of pictures formed by Archibald
M'Lellan, a coachmaker, in 1854,
and purchased for the town by the
magistrates of Glasgow from his
creditors. The best pictures are,
Christ's Entry into Jerusalem — Alb.
Guyi^. Saviour Asleep, watched by
the Virgin — Murillo. Town of
Katwyk — J. Ruysdacl, an admirable
work. Landscape with Figures —
Wynants. Sea-piece — Vandervclde.



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