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Peasants before a House — Teniers.
Landscape with Rocks, called Wou-
vermans, more probably Lingelhach.
Virgin, Child, and St. George — Paris
Bordone. Landscape — Claude Lor-
raine. Landscape with Fishermen
— J. Ruysdael. The sky is very
beautiful, and the execution more
than usually careful ; but the pic-
ture, like many here, is much injured
by cleaning. Landscape with Cattle
— Teniers. Landscape — Hohhema.
St. George and a man, portraits,
part of an altar-piece — Mabusc. A
Woman seated by a Cradle, with 2
Children — Nic. Maar. The Woman
taken in Adultery — Bonifazes (Waa-
gen says Giorgione). The Virgin
Enthroned, with St. Sebastian and
other Saints ; fine landscape back-
ground. There are also a statue of
Pitt by Flaxman, and a series of

C. Scotland. Route 16. — Glasgoiv University.


portraits of English kings, which
were formerly in the Town-hall.

Hutcliesori's Hospital, in Ingram
Street, was founded in 1641 by two
brothers of that name. Its income
has been increased by various bene-
factors, and now amounts to £3000
per annum, which is spent in pen-
sions to decayed burgesses, and in
educating about 100 boys, sons of
freemen of the city. The buildings
of the hospital form a handsome
range, ornamented with Corinthian
columns. From the rear rises a
tower, 150 ft. high, with a pyramidal
spire on the top.

The Xeio University, on Gilmore
Hill, is best approached through the
West-end Park, above whose noble
trees its towers and long facade rise
Avith great effect. A considerable
circuit is avoided by taking the foot-
path from the Bridge over the Kel-
vin, and walking up to it ; carriages
must go round. The platform on
which it stands commands a fine
view in clear weather. It is a
handsome Gothic edifice, extending
600 ft. in front, to be surmounted
tiy a well-proportioned central tower
310 ft. high, and was opened 1S70,
though incomplete. It is to form
2 quadrangles, but as yet only 3
sides of a square are built, wliicli
will be divided into two courts,
whenever funds can be found for
the central building, which is to
contain the hall and chapel. Doubt-
less the millionaire merchants and
manufacturers of Glasgow will not
allow an edifice so grand and so
useful to remain incomplete. The
design of the college is by Sir G.
G. Scott, R.A. It will cost upwards
of £400,000, of which £100,000 were
raised by sale of the old college,
situated in the lowest and worst part of
the toAvn, and most unfit for the ren-
dezvous of young students ; £120,000
were granted by Parliament, and
£140,000 were raised by private sub-

scription. £80,000 are needed to
finish it properly. So long as it re-
mains incomplete, the Hunterian
Museum, containing, apart from its
anatomical preparations, a fine-art
collection — paintings by old masters,
coins, libraryof valuable MSS., books,
including many Caxtons — lies closed
up in boxes. The E. side is devoted
to medical and chemical classes,
laboratories, etc. On the N. side
are the library, 100,000 vols., and
reading-room and mirseum ; on the
ground-floor and above, the Hun-
terian Museum and library Avill
eventually be placed. It contains a
good collection of paintings (includ-
ing works of Rembrandt, Rubens,
and S. Rosa), portraits by Kneller
of Dr. Arbuthnot, and of Sir Isaac
Newton. Murillo, The Good Shep-
herd. Reinhrandt (or Koningk),
Dutch Landscapes. Sir Josh. Rey-
nolds, portraits of Ladies Maynard
and Hertford. Very select and
valuable is the collection of Greek
and other coins. There are nume-
rous anatomical curiosities, together
with a statue of James "Watt, and a
model of Newcomen's steam-engine,
repaired by Watt himself, and thus
associated with his discoveries.

Glasgow University was founded by
the exertions of Bishop Turnbull, its
first principal, confirmed by a bull of
Pope Nicholas V. in 1 450. For a long
time it seems to have been almost
destitute of endowments, though a
building was erected on a site in the
High-street as early as 1460 ; and at
the time of the Reformation its con-
dition was far from flourishing. In
1560 Queen Mary endowed it wdth
a moiety of the confiscated church
property in the city. This was in-
creased by the coqDoration, and added
to by succeeding monarchs.

An impulse was given to its fame
and efiiciency by the advent, 1574,
of Andrew Melville, the friend of
Knox, as a teacher, but the build-
ings remained mean and incomplete


Route 1 6. — Chjde — Broomielaw.

Sect. II.

until about 1632, from which time
dates the chief part of the okl college.
As a seat of learning it reached the
height of its fame during the last
cent., when it numbered among its
teachers Cullen and Black in medi-
cine and chemistry, Dr. W. Hunter
in anatomy, Eeid in mental philo-
sophy. " Here Adam Smith taught
doctrines which have changed the
policy of nations, and Watt perfected
discoveries that have subdued the
elements to be the ministers of man-
kind." Thos. Campbell, Fr. Jeifrey,
Sir Wm. Hamilton, and John Gibson
Lockhart were students here. Not
far from the University, in the AV.
road, is the Botanic Garden, first
organised by Dr. Hooker, on the
banks of the Kelvin.

The University is governed by a
Chancellor, elected for life, a Rector
elected triennially, and subordinate
officers. The Eector is almost in-
variably a man of mark in the politi-
cal or literary world, and is elected
by Glottianm, comprehending those
born in Lanarkshire ; Transforthance,
those north of the Forth ; Rothsiance,
counties of Renfrew, Bute, and Ayr ;
and Loudoniance, those not already

The other principal educational
establishments of Glasgow are — the
Glasgow Academy, the High School,
and the Andersonian University,
founded by John Anderson in 1797,
and principally devoted to the study
of medicine and physics.

The Clyde, which from the noisy
cataract of Corra Linn (Rte. 8) has
become a sedate and sober stream,
is crossed by 5 or 6 Bridges. The
lowest one, of 7 arches, called Glas-
gow Biidge, overlooks the quay of
the Broomielaw or river bank, once
overgrown with Broom, running
alongside the broad and deep channel
of the Clyde, crowded with vessels,
bristling with steam funnels, one of
the most remarkable sights in Glas-
gow. It is almost entirely an arti-

ficial canal, the river having been
originally a broad shallow stream,
which only continual dredging (a
work still carried on) has made
capable of holding the largest vessels,
thus affording a strong contrast to its
shallowness in 1651 , "when no vessel
of any burden could come up nearer
the town than 14 miles, where they
must unlade and send up their timber
on rafts." The depth at high-water
is now about 20 ft. Besides all
these, Dry Docks, Graving Docks,
and Bashis on the largest scale have
been constructed, opening into the
river by lock-gates at Stobcross, etc.
The engineer was John F. Bateman,
Esq. The registered shipping in
Glasgow, 1873, amounted to 892
vessels of 460,592 tons, 215,602
being steam tonnage. One result
of modern improvement has been
to convert the Clyde into a foul,
offen.sive, and muddy sewer, thus
confirming the forebodings of Tom
Campbell, who thus wi-ites : —

" And call they this Improvement ? to have

Sly native Clyde, thy once romantic

Where Nature's face is banish'd and

And Heaven reflected in thy wave no

more ;
Whose banks, that sweeten'd May -day's

breath before,
Lie sere and leafless now in summer's

With sooty exhalations cover'd o'er ;
And for the daisied greensward, down.

thy stream.
Unsightly brick lanes smoke and clank-
ing engines gleam."

The tourist will have an opportunity
of noticing, during a trip down the
river to Greenock, the number and
extent of the ShiiJhuilding Yards on
the Clyde, which have increased to
such an extent as to make this trade
one of the specialities of Glasgow.
In 1871 200 vessels, chiefly iron,
with a tonnage of 196,000, and a
value of more than £4,000,000, were
built on the Clyde between Ruther-
glen and Greenock.

Next to the ship-yards in promi-

0. Scotland. Route 16. — Glasgoiv Manufactures.


nence are the Chemical Works of the
Tennauts, at St. Rollox (a little to the
N. of the cathedral), which cover an
area of 16 acres, and are conspicuous
for the lofty Chwmey, 435 ft. in height,
that carries off the deleterious fumes
from more than 100 retorts and fur-
naces. They supply sulphuric acid,
chloride of lime, soda, and other
chemicals used in manufactures. Still
higher is the chimney in Crawford-st,
Chemical artificial - manure works,
which is 454 ft. high, and 50 ft. dia-
meter at base, i.e., the loftiest build-
ing in the world, save the spire of
Strasburg and the great Pyramid.

The West Indian trade, which was
formerly the staj)le of Glasgow, has
given place to that of cotton and
calico-printing, which is carried to
a great extent in the suburbs and
neighbouring towns. From its prox-
imity to the coalfields, the iron
manufacture has become an import-
ant feature in Glasgow commerce.
The machinery and engine-works
of Messrs. Napier are among the
most extensive here.

"The rapidity of the progi'ess of
the city may be inferred from the
following facts. In 1735, though
the Glasgow merchants owned half
the entire tonnage of Scotland, it
amounted to only 5650 tons. In
that year the whole shipping of
Scotland was only one-fortieth jjart
of that of England ; it is now
about one-fifth. In point of value of
exports, Glasgow ranks fourth among
the ports of the United Kingdom, and
Greenock now' takes precedence of
Bristol. " — Smiles.

Turkey red dyeing was commenced
in Glasgow 1816, and is one of the
most successful branches of the calico-
printing trade. To these may be add-
ed, calico-printing and bleach- works,
carpets, glass, and pottery.

One of the most interesting manu-
fiictories here is that of Artificial Ice
— Rose-street, Garnethill — where by

a very ingenious process of chemistry
the water of Loch Katrine is con-
verted into the purest ice, 14° to 18°
below the freezing point of water.

Mention should be made of the
laudable (and successful) efi'orts to
establish cheap cooking and dining
establishments for the working-classes,
where a plain and good meal may be
obtained at a fabulously low cost.
The traveller who is '; interested in
social experiments should by all
means visit one of these institutions.

^History. — The origin of the name
of Glasgow is uncertain; but the
most probable derivations (either
" Claishdhu," the dark glen, or
"Glas-coed," dark wood) evidently
point to the secluded position of a
monastery. Tradition, too, agrees
in attributing the origin of Glasgow
to an ecclesiastical source ; for St.
Kentigern, or, as he is called, St.
Mungo, is said to have founded a
bishopric here a.d. 560, and to have
worked miracles during his stay in
these parts. One of these was the dis-
covery of a ring, lost by the wife of
the local chieftain, in the mouth of a
fish caught in the Clyde. A salmon
with a ring in its mouth is still part
of the arms of Glasgow. In 1450
William Turnbull, the bishop of the
see, obtained a charter from James
II., by which all the property of the
neighbourhood was held by the
bishops. In 1556, when the royal
burghs were taxed by Queen Mary,
Glasgow had a Pop. of 4500, and
apj)ears to have been only the 11th
city in the kingdom in w^ealth and
population. Indeed it was not raised
to the dignity of a Royal Burgh until
the reign of Charles I. In 1651
Oliver Cromwell took up his abode
in the house of Silvercraigs,in Bridge-
gate-street, and went to hear divine
service in the cathedral, when the
minister, Dr. Zachary Boyd, in-

158 Route 17. — Glasgow to Edinburgh — Airdrie. Sect. II.

veiglied against him so strongly,
that Mr. Secretary Thnrloe proposed
to pull him forth by the ears and
have him shot. Cromwell's only
answer was, "He's a fool, and j^ou're
another. I'll pay him out in his own
fashion." So he asked Mr. Boyd to
dinner, and concluded the entertain-
ment with a prayer that lasted 3

On the S. side of the Clyde, about
a mile from the river, on the
outskirts of the suburb of Stratli-
bungo, and Cross - my - Loof, the
avenue of Eglinton-street conducts
to the Queen's Park, a pleasant area
for recreation of 160 acres, well
planted and laid out. Contiguous
to it is the hattJefield of Langside,
fatal to Queen JMary, where, 11 days
after her escape from Lochleven,
her adherents, 6000 strong, desirous
of conveying her from Hamilton to
Dumbarton as to a place of security,
ventured to attack the forces of
Regent JVloray, numbering only
4000, but by his superior tactics
were utterly defeated. May 13, 1568,
leaving 300 dead and 400 prisoners.
The houses of the village through
which the road ran were occupied by
Kirkaldy of Grange for the Regent ;
the efforts to take it were ineffectual :
the skirmish lasted f hour, but it
settled the fate of Scotland.

Railways and Distances. — North
British : to Edinburgh, 47^ m. ;
Linlithgow, 29i; Falkirk, 22^ Len-
noxtown, 11^ f Balloch, 20^ ; Cale-
donian : to London, 406 m. ; Car-
lisle, 105 ; Carstairs, 31 ; Lanark,
36 ; Hamilton, 10 ; Greenock, 22^ ;
Wemj^ss Bay, 30i; Coatbridge, 10;
Gartsherrie, 9. Glasgow and South-
western : Paisley, 7 m. ; Ardrossan,
32 ; Ayi^ 40^ ; Dumfries, 92 ; Car-
lisle, 125.

Steamers daily (in summer) to
Greenock, Dunoon, Inellan, Rothe-
say, 40 m., Kyles of Bute, and Ardri-

shaig ; to xirran by Largs and Mill-
port ; to Arrochar and Loch Long ;
to Oban ; to Inveraray, by Lochgoil-
head ; do. by Loch Fyne ; to Fort-
William and Inverness ; to Campbel-
town and the ]\Iull of Cantyre ; to
the Western Islands, viz., Gairloch,
Eigg, Tiree, Coll, Lochboisdale,
Barra, Staffa, lona, and Skye ; to
Islay ; Tobermory ; Portree in Skye,
and Stornoway in Lewis ; Lochinver ;
to Thurso and Scrabster ; to Ireland,
viz., Dublin, Belfast, Cork, Water-
ford ; to Liverpool ; to Bristol and

Excursions in the neighbourhood
of Glasgow : —

a. Cathkin Hill and Langside, 2 m.

h. Hamilton and Bothwell, Route

c. Down the Clyde to Greenock
(Pv,te. 23), and Wemyss Bay,

d. Dumbarton and Loch Lomond
(Rte. 19).

e. Campsie Glen (Rte. 20),

/. Milngavie and the Whangie
(Rte. 22),


Glasgow to Edinburgli, by
Airdrie and Bathgate.

Station at the Old College, High
Street, Glasgow,

This, though not a picturesque
route, and far from attractive to or-
dinary tourists, will ]30ssess an interest
for many because it carries them
through thevery centre of the Scottish
Black Country, and its industry in
coal and iron. Large parts of this
smoky district are so studded with
buildings, furnaces, factories, etc., as
to resemble town more than country.
Nearly the whole of the line as far as
Ratho Junction, where the traveller
joins the direct Edinburgh and Glas-
gow line, runs through a mineral
district, traversed by a number of
branch railways amalgamated under

C. Scotland. Route 17. — Amine; Bathgate.


the name of the Monkland system,
embracing a total of 71 m. The rly.
branches off from the Caledonian line
at Coatbridge (Rte. 8), stopping first
of all at

10| m. Airdric Junct. Stat., a busy
mining town of about 13,000 inhab.
dependent on the collieries in the
vicinity, and some cotton-works. It
is tolerably well built, and has a
handsome town -hall vnth. a spire.
Since 1850 the Airdrie coal district
has become covered with works for
refining imraffi^n oil, produced from
the shales of the coal-beds, which are
similar, though perhaps not so rich,
as those of Bathgate.

At Clarkston Stat., 12 m., the line
approaches the North Calder, and
runs parallel with it, through hilly
ground of some 800 ft. in height, to
15 m. Caldercrux Sta., where the
Calder takes its rise in a large sheet
of wat^r called Hill End Reservoir.
At the E. end of it is

17$ m., Forestf eld Stat. Near this
point the line enters the county of
Linlithgow, and sends off a short
branch to the Shotts Ironworks.

22^ m. Armadale Jimd. Stat., 2 m.
S. of which is Polkemmet (Sir- W.

24^ m. Bathgate Junct. Stat., is a
sort of metropolis for the coal disti'ict,
and is by no means unpicturesquely
situated at the foot of the Bathgate
hills. The modern portion of the
town is neat, and boasts an excellent
Academy, iovLudi^di by a Mr. Newlands,
a native of Bathgate, who made his
fortune in the West Indies. Near
this are paraffin distilleries of Messrs.
Young and Co.

Adjoining the town on the N. are
the policies of Balbardie (A. JSiarjori-
banks, Esq.)

Both antiquary and geologist will
find the neighbourhood more than
commonly interesting. The district
within a few miles to the N., between

Bathgate and Linlithgow, contains
several cromlechs, camps, and earth-
works, denoting that the early in-
habitants considered this county to
be of importance, perhaps on account
of its proximity to the Firth of Forth.
Of these the chief is the Kipjis, men-
tioned by Camden as "an ancient
altar of gi-eat stones unpolished, so
placed as each of them does support
another, and no one could stand with-
out leaning upon another. " There is
a camp at Torphickcn (2^ m.), as also
slight remains of the Hospital of the
Knights of Jerasalem, who had here
their principal resort ; and in some
sandhills, about 100 yards from one of
the boundary stones of the Hospital,
stone coffins containing skeletons
have been found. Toi-phichen gives
a title to the family of the Sandilands,
and is the birthplace of Henry Bell
(1767), who, originally a mason, was
the first to introduce steam naviga-
tion on the Clyde (Rte. 23). Adjoin-
ing the village is WallJiouse, the seat
of the Gillon family. At the mouth
of the Brunton Burn, which near this
joins the river Avon, is a cave tradi-
tionally said to have been occupied
by Wallace.

[From Bathgate Junct. a branch
rly. runs S. to Morningside 14 m.
accommodating the mineral district
of Wilsontown. The geologist can
proceed to Whitburn Stat. 2 J m.,
near the source of the river Almond,
and thence to Torhaneliill (Rte. 19),
rendered famous for the coal shale
discovered here, so valuable for naph-
tha or paraffin oil distilled from it.
The district has gradually been co-
vered by oil retorts and refineries.
During 1865 it is estimated that
100,000 tons of Scotch coal were
used for making oil ; the Boghead
coal producing about 128 gallons of
oil to the ton.]

From Bathgate the line to Edin-
burgh runs E., passing on right the
site of a castle given by Robert Bruce


Route \*Ja. — Edinburgh to Glasgoiv. Sect. II.

to his daughter Marjory :
the Academy.

and on left

20 m. Livingstone Stat. The vil-
lage, about 1 m. to right, contains
the remains of the old Livingstone
Peel, once the fortress of the Living-
stone family.

22 m. Uphall, near which is Hous-
ton House.

24 m. Broxburn, soon after which
the line crosses the Almond (Al-
mondale, seat of E. of Buchan), and
joins the Edinburgh line at

Eatho Junct. The line hence to
Edinburgh w^ill be found in Rte. 16.

[A branch of the Monkland system
leaves the main line near Coatbridge,
passing Airdrie to the N., and taking
a N.E. course through Slamannan
and Avonbridge to the little shipping
port of Borrowstouncss or Bo'ness on
the Firth of Forth.]

EOUTE 17 a.

Edinburgh to Glasgow, by Mid-
Calder, Holytowm, and Gart-
slierrie Ironworks.

47j m.

from "West Princes-st.

The Direct Line of Caledonian
Eailwat passes through the midst
of the great Ironworks, and the effect
at night is wonderful ; it also passes
close to numerous paraffin oilworks,
a branch of industry introduced about

2| m. Slateford Stat, (see Rte. 5).

3 m. Kingsknorve Stat, (see Rte. 5).

5^ m. Ourrie Stat, (see Rte. 5).

10 m. Mid-Caldcr Stat, (see Rte. 5).

14 m. Neivpark Stat. Oakbank
Paraffin Oilworks use up in 1 year
45,000 tons of shale, and 800 tons of
sulphuric acid.

15f West Caldcr Stat. Young's
Oil and Paraffin Works are near this,
at Addiswell. The river Almond,
the Briech, and other rivers, empty-
ing themselves into the Firth of
Forth, once clear streams fit for
drinking and cookery, have been of
late corrupted and befouled by the
oilworks established on their banks.
The nuisance is so great that when
the water is low it is not only not
drinkable by cattle, but is unfit for
clothes washing. Trout and other
fish have been poisoned, and can no
longer exist in these waters.

20| m. Briech Stat, (for Longrigg).
22^ m. FauldhousQ Stat, (for Croft-

252 m. Shotts Stat, (for Dykehead).
301 m. Bellside Stat.
32 1 m. Newarthill Stat. Left,
Neilson's Ironworks.

34| m. Holytown Junct. Stat. The
rly. now traverses the " black coun-
try " of Scotland — coal-heaps and
blazing furnaces all the way to Glas-

36| m. Wliifflet Stat. A suburb
of Coatbridge ; the rly. crosses the
Monkland Canal, then passes Merry
and Cuninghame's Iron Furnaces to
37^ m. Coatbridge Junct. Stat. The
centre of the mining district, and of
a group of blazing iron furnaces, sur-
rounded by a network of railway ;
near this are distilleries of paraffin-
oil from coal shale. Here is a fine
Gothic ch. with octagon spire, built
by J. Baird, Esq., 1874. Branch
Ely. to Greenock direct, avoiding
Glasgow. Langloan Ironworks.

38^ Gartshcrrie Stat. Here are the
Ironworks and Blast Furnaces of
Messrs. Baird, where one of the finest
brands of pig-iron is made.
4O5 m. Gartcosh Stat.
41^ m. Garnkirk Stat. Large tile
and pipe works ; here fire-clay

42| m. SteiJiJS Stat.
47? m. Glasgow Terminus, Bu-
chanan-st. {sec Rte. 16).

C. SCOTLAND. Route 18. — Edhiburgh to Stirling.



Edinburgh, or Carlisle [Carstairs
Junction] to Stirling, by Lar-
bert and Bannockburn,

Rail. (?s".B.R.) 36] m. to Stirling.
9 trains daily in 1\ to 14 hr.

From Edinburgh ( Waverley Stat. )
the line proceeds : —

Linlithgow Stat. (Rte. 16).

Polmont Junct. Stat.

Grahamston Stat.

Larbert Junct. Stat. {Sec below. )

From Carstairs the Glasgow line of
the Caledonian Ely. is followed to
Coatbridge, or to Gartsherrie
Junct. (Rte. 8), where a branch is
given off to

11 m. Greexhill Junct., the
point of union with the Edinburgh
and Glasgow line (Rte. 16). A little
before arri\4ng at Greenhill, on left,
are the village of Cumbernauld and
Cumbernauld House. Crossing the
Glasgow line, and running parallel
with the Forth and Clyde Canal, the
rly. turns round to the W. of Falkirk,
and anives at

14 m., Larbert Junct., whence a
short branch of 5 m. is given off to
Falkirk and Polmont, to convey the
traveller between Edinburgh and
Stirling. Another branch goes to S.
Alloa ferry across the Forth, lead-
ing to Alloa (Rte. 15). [Another
little branch of 3^ m. runs W. to
Denny, a small manufacturing town
on the Carron Water. On the way
thither the rly. passes, right, two
curious natural mounds called the
Hills of Dunipace {quasi Duni-pacis
— hills of peace, as Buchanan the
historian suggested) ; geologically,
remnants of alluvium, about 60 ft.

To the N.E. of Larbert lies Kin-
[Scotland. ]

naird, the residence of Bruce, the
Abyssinian traveller, who after going
through unheard-of dangers in dis-
tant lands, came to his death at the
door of his own house by falling when
in the act of handing a lady to her
carriage. He was buried in Larbert
churchyard, where an iron pillar was
put up to his memory.

Passing left Glenbervie and Car-
brook, the train arrives at

19^ m. BaimocJchurn Stat. The
scene of the battle fought on June
24, 1314, betvveen the English army
under Edward 11. , and the Scotch
under King Robert Bruce, lies about
1 m. on the left, in a plain watered
by the Bannock, and sheltered by the
Gillies' Hill on the N. The English
ai-my, amounting to 100,000 men,
were advancing to the relief of Stir-
ling, which Bruce was then besieg-
ing. His force amounted to no more
than 30,000, and was very deficient
in cavalry ; a weak point which
their commander counterbalanced by
a judicious selection of the field of
battle. The ^ Borcstone (now _ pro-
tected by an iron railing) is said to
have been the spot where Bruce's
standard was planted during the
battle, and to have marked the posi-
tion of his left wing, while his right
was protected by the Bannock
Burn. Brace had the choice of
gi'ound, and strengthened his posi-

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