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tion by digging pits across the tongue
of land between the lower end of
Milton bog and the burn, and
covering them over with boughs and
earth. The secret of his success,
however, was the discovery that
light-armed infantry were capable
not only of coping with, but of over-
throwing, men-at-arms on horseback,
clad in armour cap-a-pie, who had
been the bugbear of annies until
the Scotch and the Swiss and the
Flemings proved that peasants could
fight as well as knights. The battle


Route 18. — BannocTcburn.

Sect. IL

began by an attempt on the part
of the English to turn the Scottish
left and throw succour into Stirling,
an attempt which was defeated in a
plain near the village of Newhouse,
by Randolph, Earl of JSIoray, who,
at the head of an undaunted body of
spearmen, received the charge of the
English cavalry, and repelled it.
In this sharp skirmish Sir William
D'Eyncourt was killed. The Scottish
army Avas drawn up in 4 divisions, 3
of which were in line. The 4th com-
posed the reserve, and was com-
manded by the king in person. The
centre was led by Bruce' s intimate
friend, "the good Sir James Douglas, "
and Walter Stewart, the king's son-in-
law. Edward Bruce commanded the
right, and Thomas Randolph, Earl of
Moray, the left. The main attack
began with the English archers on
their own left, and had they been
protected, the issue of Bannockburn
might have been different ; but they
were charged by the small force of
cavalry attached to Bruce's division,
3,nd dispersed. Confusion then
spread into the English ranks,
though their superiority in num-
bers enabled them to stand their
ground for many hours, until the
sudden appearance of the camp
followers, in an im2)rovised battle
array, upon the " Gillies' Hill,"
rising on the W., and now planted
with fir-trees, created a panic that
soon became a rout. The loss of the
English was about 10,000, besides a
great many prisoners— that of the
Scots was 4000. The Earl of
Gloucester, nephew of Edward II.,
fell at the head of a small body of
cavalry, in endeavouring to stem the
tide of flight. This spot is still
called "The Bloody Folds." Im-
mense booty was left behind by the
utterly routed English, and fell into
the hands of the victors.

About 3 m. to the S. of Bannock-
burn is Saitchiehurn, the scene of
another battle in 1488, between

James III. and his insurgent nobles,
headed by his son, afterwards James
IV., whose forces were far superior
in point of numbers, and the king
was defeated. He fled from the field
wounded, and was murdered at the
village of Milton, the murderer being
supposed to be Stirling of Keir. The
lane down Avhich the king's horse
ran away mth him, the well, stream,
and mill (no longer used as such),
which gives its name to the village,
can still be traced. To the S. is
Bannockburn House, the temporary
headquarters of Charles Edward in
1746. The village of Bannockburn
has a brisk trade in tartans.

From the field of Bannockburn
the visitor can proceed to Stirling
through the village of *S'^. Ninians,
or St. Ringan's as it is popularly
called. The old ch. of this place
was used by the Highlanders in
1745 as a powder magazine ; but an
explosion took place, and the centre
of the building was blown away.
The steeple stands at one end, with
part of the chancel at the other,
and a new ch. has been built at the
edge of the churchyard. The vil-
lage, which is employed in making
nails, consists of one long street of
poor houses, through which the main
road passes.

On quitting Bannockburn Stat,
the rly. crosses the Bannock.

22 m. Stirling, Junct. Stat. [Inns :
Golden Lion ; Royal ; Station H. ;
Pop. 14,279), stands nobly on rising
ground, overlooking the river Forth,
" that bridles the wild Highlander."
The town is built on the slope of the
hill, whose top, a projectiug rock of
trap, descends on one side in a black
precipice, and is occupied by the
Castle, resembling in this respect the
situation of Edinburgh, and like it,
commanding, on a clear day, one of
the most lovely views in the king-

C.Scotland, Route IS. — Stirling: Greyfriars Church. 163

As the "grey bulwark of the
North," the key of the main passage
between the IST. and S. of Scotland,
at no period of Scottish history can
it be said that Stirling was not an
object of the highest interest, and in
no war was it not one of contention.
It was the last place in all Scotland
that held out against Edward I.,
who laid siege to it in person, 1304,
when 65 years old. He was repeatedly
hit by the engines from witliin, and
when the garrison, which under
Oliphant had resisted obstinately the
whole force of England, suiTendered,
they amounted to only 140 men. The
king, who was prouder of its capture
than of any other success in the war,
treated them Avith unusual leniency.
It was in order to raise the siege of
Stilling 10 years later that his suc-
cessor hazarded the fatal fight of
Bannockburn. In the time of the
Stuarts it became one of the king's
residences. But, as at HoljTood, it
was not till the reign of James V.
that any separate building was set
apart for the Royal family. Then
the "palace" w^as built, the fort
itself having served as the abode of
his predecessors. The last occasions
on which Stirling suffered the horrors
of war was when taken by Gen. Monk
in 1651, and again when threatened
by Prince Charles Edward in 1746,
though he failed to reduce the castle.

Ascending the steep streets from
the station, which is at the bottom of
the town, the first object of interest
is the *Greijfria7'S Church, a fine
Gothic building, founded by James
IV. in 1494, standing at one end of
the Castle Hill. It has a high-
pitched roof, and a plain square
battlemented tower at its W. end, a
prominent object in the view for
miles around. The nave is low, with
round piers, the centi'e and side aisles
vaulted, and has some good windows
of a Dec. character. The chancel
was built by Cardinal Beaton, at a
later date than the rest of the

ch. It is loftier than the nave,
and is far the finest part, of elegant
proportions and details. It con-
sists of 3 bays with aisles, the E.
end being semi-octagonal with an
elaborate stone roof. Notice the fine
E. window, in Avhich " the long
thin shafts, extending through the
whole length, instead of diverging
into wavy or geometrical figiu'es, and
the transoms crossing them at right
angles, are certainly types of the
latest age, called the Perpendicular ;
but the arch, undepressed, preserves
the old majestic form of the Pointed
and Decorated styles, and the clus-
terings and mouldings are of that
strong massive character that marks
the undegenerate Gothic. " — Billings.
In thisch., 1543, Mary was crowned
at the age of 8 months ; here, too, iu
the same year, the Earl of Arran, the
Regent of the kingdom, renounced
the Reformed religion. In 1567 James
VI. was crowned in this ch. when a
year old, the sermon on the occasion
being preached by John Knox. At
the Reformation it was divided into
the E. and W. churches.

There is an Episcopal Ch., a good
modern Gothic building, near the

The Valley between the Grey-
friars Ch. and the castle used to
be devoted to tournaments and other
sports. It is now occupied by a
Cemetery, laid out as a public gar-
den, and contains various statues,
by Ritchie, of Scottish people fa-
mous in the annals of religion, in-
cluding a MartjT's monument in a
glass case.

The Ladies' Rock, formerly the
chief place for vie"\ the games,
now occupied by seats, is one of the
best points for enjojung the egre-
giously noble vieio. It embraces the
folloAving peaks of the Grampian
Range : on the N. Ben Lomond, Ben
Venue, Ben Ledi, Ben Voiiiich on the
horizon, the windings of the Forth
just below, and the wide expanse of


Boute 18. —Stirling: Mar's JFork.

Sect. II.

fertile land known as the " Carse
of Stirling," making a rare combina-
tion of natural beauty. Below are
the Castle of Doune and the Bridge
of Allan. To the N. E. are the Ochil
Hills bounding the view on that side.
Over the King's Mote appears the
undulating Field of Bannockburn,
with the Gillies' Hill. Close below is
"the Heading Hill," the place of
public executions —

"the sad and fatal mound,
That oft has heard the death-axe sound,
As on the nobles of the land
Fell the stern headsman's bloody hand."
Lady of the Lake.

In mid-distance rises the Ahhey
Craig, a gi'eenstone rock some 560
ft. in height, surmounted by the
monument erected in honour of
Wallace, a most ugly, meaning-
less, and contemptible monument.
A subscription ought to be raised
to pull it down, for it destroys
the picturesque effect of the black
crag on which it has perched
itself. In front of it, on a tongue of
land nearly suiTounded by a curve of
the Forth, Wallace posted his army,
and here defeated the English under
the Earl Warenne in 1297. Allow-
ing half of their force to cross the
river by the narrow bridge, he seized
it and cut them off.

Then comes the Forth, whose Avinds
and turns, forming the ' ' Links of
Forth " (Etc. 15), can be followed
down to the Firth, with the solitary
tower of Cambuskenneth Abbey rising
grandly from its banks, together with.
the eminence of Craigforth.

At the bottom of the hill may still
be traced in the turf the old gardens
of the kings, the Round Table called
the King's Knot, the space for tilting,
alluded to by Lindsay of the Mount,
the friend of James Y . —

" Adieu, fair Snawdon, with thy towers
Thy Chapel Royal, Tark, and Table

Not far from the Grey friars Ch.,

at the end of Broad-st. , is a singular
fragment of Scottish domestic archi-
tecture, never finished, called "Mar's
Work," — the front of which is in
Castle-A^-ynd. Over the main en-
trance are the Royal arms, flanked
by those of Mar and his Countess, of
the date 1570. It is said that the
building was erected with the ma-
terials of Cambuskenneth Abbey.
The architect finds slight evidence
of this in the masonry or mouldings,
which are all of a later style. The
architecture is an uncouth sort of
Renaissance, with enriched pedi-
ments and scrolls over the windows
and doors, and statues or pilasters
projecting from the walls. A little
higher up Castle-wynd, and on the
right, is Argyll's Lodging, now the
]\lilitary Hospital. Its round turrets,
surmounted by pinnacles, as well as
its ornamented windows (date 1632),
give it a very picturesque appear-

Here it was that the Duke of York,
afterwards James YIL, stayed with
the Marquis of Argyll, not long
before his execution at Edinburgh in

On the N. side of the high ground
stands the Qastle, very grand in its
commanding position, but the inte-
rior is very disappointing. At the
entrance on left is Queen Anne's
flanking battery, just opposite the
breach made by Gen. Monk. Pass-
ing into the 1st quadrangle, on right,
much modernised, is the Parliavunt
House, now converted into a barrack.
A few of the old windows still remain
at the W. end.

The inner quadrangle is the palace
founded by James Y., and contains a
statue of the founder in the S.W.
angle. Passing through one side of
the quadrangle into a small garden,
the visitor is conducted up a flight of
steps to the Douglas room, or rather
to a good imitation of it, the original
haA-ing been burnt in 1856. It has
a carved wooden ceiling. It was in
this room that the foul murder of


Route 19. — Glasgow to Loch Lomond.


"William, Earl of Douglas, by James
II., took place. Douglas had refused
to abandon the associates with whom
he had conspired, or to break the
league with them. " Then, by God ! "
said the king, "if you will not break
the bond, this shall," and stabbed
him to the heart. The courtiers then
rushed in, and threw the Earl out of
the window, and it was supposed
that he was buiied where he fell.
In 1797, during some alterations, a
skeleton, believed to be his, was found
in the garden. From this room is
a subterranean passage leading into
Ballangeich (the "windy pass"), a
narrow path much used by James V. ,
and from which he gave himself the
name of "the Gudeman of Ballan-
geich," when he wanted an alias.
The path leads into the town, and the
adventures which he met with were
frequently dangerous, and seldom
very creditable. Several of them are
told in Scott's "Tales of a Grand-
father." The chapel royal, long an
armoury, is now a school. TJie rkw
from the battlements of the castle is
in its way perfect {see preceding

1 m. from Stirling, crossing the
bridge or ferry, are the tall tower and
rains of the Abbey of Cambuskenneth
(Kte. 15.)

The old Bridge of Stirling, long
the only access to the N. from the
S., is of very great antiquity. Over
its centre arch Archbp. Hamilton was
hanged in 1571, for participation in
the murder of the Regent Moray,
shot at Linlithgow. The river is
now crossed by a modern bridge of
5 arches, as well as by 2 railway

For a more comprehensive view
over the country, the pedestrian is
recommended to ascend Dunmyat,
the nearest point of the Ochils, pass-
ing through Logie village. For a
brief description of these hills, see
Ete. 42.


a. To CaUander and Trossachs and
L. Katrine (Rte. 33).

b. Alloa, Dollar, Ruins of Castle
Campbell and Gorge leading up to it,
and Rumbling Bridge. (Rte. 42.)
Glen of Alva.

c. Bridge of Allan and Dunblane.
(Rte. 33.)

d. Bannockburn. (Rte. 18.)

e. Lake of Menteith and Aberfoyle.
(Rte. 32.)

Railways. — By North British ■
Edinburgh, 36 m. ; Glasgow, 29^
Dunfei-mline, 21 ; Alloa, 7 ; Rum
bling Bridge, 17. By Caledonian
Callander, 16 m. ; Dunblane, 5
Bridge of Allan, 3 ; Perth, 33 ,
Bannockburn, 2^; Falkirk, 11. By
Forth and Clyde Rly. : Balloch,
20 m.

Distances. — Aberfoyle, 21^ m. ;
Castle Campbell, 13 ; Cambusken-
neth, 1 ; Lake of Menteith, 17^ ;
Logie Kirk, 3.


Glasgow to Loch. Lomond and
Tarbet, by Dnnabarton and Bal-
loch [Helensburgh, GarelochJ

5 trains daily — 4 to 4^ hrs. are re-
quired to the head of Loch Lomond,
taking steamboat at Balloch.

Quitting Glasgow by the Queen-
st. Stat., the railway at Cowlairs
Stat, turns west, and makes a wide
sweep through the country, returning
to the outskirts of Glasgow at

41 m. Maryhill Stat. The Kel-
vin valley is here crossed by the
Forth and Clyde Canal on an aque-
duct of 4 arches. Descending by
a series of locks, the Canal runs
side by side with the Rly. as far as
Bowling. Right is Garscube (Sir


Route 1 9. — Dumhirton.

Sect. II.

Geo. Campbell, Bt.) in picturesque
grounds, containing a good collection
of paintings, Italian and Nether-
landish. Gcmdenzio Ferrari — A Holy
Family. Giacomo Francia — Vii'gin
and Child, with St. Francis.

Palrtm Giovani. — The Entomb-
ment. Moretto — The Virgin; en-
throned, with Saints Augustin, Ste-
phen, and La^vrence. At

10 m. Dahiiuir Stat, the Clj'-de is
reached, and the Rly. nms beside it
to Dumbarton.

Et., at KiljyatricJc, St. Patrick is
stated by the best authorities to have
been born, his father being in the
Eoman service, and having the care
of part of the "Wall of Antoninus.
Thence it is evident that he was not
an Irishman. The S. bank of the
Clyde is flat when compared A^ith
the N., though it is well wooded and
adorned with fine seats, such as
Erskine House (Lord Blantyi'e).

On the toj) of a hill on left is an
obelisk to the late Lord Blantyre,
who, after passing safely through the
Peninsular War, was accidentally shot
in the eriuittc at Brussels in 1830.

Rt. + Bowling Stat. {Inn : Suth-
erland Arms), a cheerful and busy-
looking village, where the steam-
boat passenger can join the rly. to
Dumbarton and Balloch for Loch
Lomond. The Forth and Clyde
Canal, connecting two seas by these
two rivers, here joins the Clyde, and
there is a large enclosed dock, where
invalid steamers, and yachts which
are laid up for the winter, are usually^
kept. The canal follows nearly the
line of the Roman Wall, is 38 m. in
length, and includes 39 locks, with
a rise of 156 ft. from the sea to the
summit level. It was one of Smeaton's
works, and was, for those days, a
triumph of engineering skill, the
country through which it was carried
abounding in deep valleys and dells.
It still pays 6| per cent. Right, just

t Denotes Piers at which steamers touch.
Kt. and L. refer to the river bauks.

below Bowling, is Dunglass, Point,
with the ivy- covered ruins of Dun-
glass Castle ; in front of which stands
the insignificant obelisk raised to the
memory of Henry Bell, who first
introduced steam navigation into
Britain, having launched upon the
Clyde in 1812 the " Comet" steamer,
with an engine of 3 -horse power.
Here was the termination of Anto-
ninus's Wall, which extended from
the Forth to the Clyde, and which is
seen in the neighbourhood of Castle-
cary and Falkirk (Rte. 16). It was
originally built by Agricola, A.D. 81,
and repaired by Antoninus, a.d. 140.
Locally it is known as Graemes Dyke.
16 m. "^^ Dumbarton Junct. Stat.,
a thriving but dirty town {Iivii :
Elephant, in the High-street), on the
left bank of the Leven, which here
enters the Clyde at the base of the castle
rock, having once flowed on both sides
of it. Part of the disused N. channel,
now a pool, flanks the Stat. Dum-
barton is great in shipbuilding. Pop.
11,404. A steamboat Pier was thrown
out into the Clyde from the foot of
castle rock, 1874. 1 m. below the
town rises abruptly from the water's
edge the picturesque bifid rock of
basalt, crowned by the tower of the
Castle, one of the chief national fort-
resses of Scotland, and as such
ordered to be maintained by the Act
of Union. In old times it com-
manded an important pass into the
Highlands, and preserved an opening
by sea with France or other foreign
lands. From it the infant Queen
]Mary was smuggled on board the
French fleet, which, to elude the
English cruisers of Henry VIII., had
sailed round by the 'Pentland Firth
to receive her, and safely landed her
at Brest, 1548. Now the Castle is of
slight strength. It is occupied by a
few gunners and invalids to guard a
powder magazine. Its very name.
Dun Breton, marks its antiquity ; it
is probably the Balclutha of Ossian,
and Bede calls it Alcluyth. The
town was capital of the British kings

C. Scotland. Route 19. — Dumbarton; Helensburgh.


from 4th to 7th centy., and hence
the kingdom of Cumbria was often
called Strathclyde.

The Castle is nearly a mile from
the Stat. Turning 1. down Church-
st., passing 1. the Academy, sur-
mounted by a preposterously tall
tower, and rt. a detached Arch,
taken from the destroyed Ch. of St.
Michael, then skirting the high en-
closing wall of Denny's ShiphuilcUng
Yard, where 1000 workmen are em-
ployed, you reach

The Castle, consisting of a group of
modern baiTacks, which now occupy
the hollow of the hill. There are
scanty remains of antiquity. A flight
of steps, within the cleft which divides
the two peaks of rock, leads through
an ancient pointed Gothic Archway,
grooved for a portcullis, to the sum-
mit, 280 ft. above the Clyde, whence
is a beautiful view N. over the moun-
tains around Loch Lomond, and S.
and W. over the Clyde Estuary. On
the way up may be seen a room once
filled ^\dth arms, wherein is deposited
a two-handed sword, said to be Wal-
lace's (?), of which Campbell wrote —

" For his lance never shiver'd on helmet or

And the sword that was fit for archangel

to ^^^eld
Was light in his terrible hand ! "

Proof, however, is wanting that Wal-
lace ever was here, though his captor.
Sir John Menteith, was governor of
Dumbarton ; AVallace was taken at
Glasgow, and sent off at once to

Steep and inaccessible as Dumbar-
ton rock may appear, it was yet
scaled, 1571, by 100 men, under
Crawford of Jordanhill, who, led by
a guide who had been sentry in the
castle, ap]3roached the foot of the
rock at dead of night, furnished with
scaling ladders, ropes, and iron cram-
pons, at the spot where at present
stands a small cottage. Hauling one
another up, and gaining a precarious
footing in ledges and cracks, they
succeeded in surprising the garrison,

turned their guns against them, and
with a slaughter of 4 won the castle
for James VI. In it was taken John
Hamilton, Archbp. of St. Andrews,
a partisan of Queen Mary. He was
hung at Stirling 4 days after for his
complicity in the murders of Darnley
and Eegent Moray.

[Dumbarton to Helensburgh and

From Dumbarton a charming diver-
sion can be made by branch rail to
Helensburgh, and thence to Gareloch-
head. The Ely. passes
- 3^ m., Cardross Stat. The grand-
father of Macaulay the historian was
nwnister here, 1774-89. On the hill-
side, 1 m, above the stat., is the
keep-tower of the Castle of Kilma-
hew, and near it, on the E. side of
the glen, the handsome modern house
of Kilmalieio (Jas. Burns, Esq.), in
a fine situation, in the old Scottish
style of domestic architecture. It
commands a lovely view, and its
grounds reach to the waterside. Kil-
viaheio CJiapel is a small Gothic
building, which is known to have
been consecrated. May 10, 1467, to St.
Mahew, a comjianion of St. Patrick.
Nearly above the tnnnel is the site,
mai-ked by a tuft of trees, of Cardross
Castle, where King Robert the Bruce
died, 1329.

The line of coast is ornamented
with pretty residences, and a fine
view of the Argyleshire mountains
opens out (rt, ) as the line approaches

8 m. t Helensburgh Terminus
{Inn : Queen's Hotel, 10 min. walk
from Stat. ), a pleasant watering-place,
very popular with the good people of
Glasgow. It acquired its name from
the wife of Sir James Colquhoun of
Luss, on whose property it is built.

It is a row of villas, shops, and
small lodging-houses, stretching a
mile along the shore, with a pier in
the centre, near which is an Obelisk
in memory of Henry Bell, Avho first
navigated the Clyde by steam.

168 Route 19. — Roseneatk ; Garelocli : Dumbarton. Sect. II.

The town straggles up the hill in
streets at right angles, some of the
square plots being occupied by hand-
some detached villas.

There is an EjjiscojmI Church, and
several other churches.

Steamers to Greenock, on the oppo-
site side of the Clyde, 6 times a day
— to the head of the Garelocli ; to
Arrochar, at the head of Loch Long ;
to Glasgow and down the Clyde fre-

Helensburgh is situated close to
the mouth of the Gareloch, an arm
of the sea running N. inland for
about 8 m., amidst very charming
scenery, although not so grand as
that of the neighbouring Lochs Long
and Goil. \ m. from Helensburgii,
at the angle where Gareloch opens, on
the E. shore, are Ardincaple Castle
(Sir James Colquhoun) ' and the sub-
sidiary %^llage of Ptow (in the ch. -j^-ard
of which Henry Bell, the steamboat
projector, is buried, with a monu-

3 m. Eow {PiUe, a promontory), (a
small inn at the Ferry) is by far the
most select and genteel of the Clyde
watering-places. Here are some ele-
gant villas and permanent residences,
not let as lodgings, the gardens of
which are beautifully kept, the cli-
mate being mild and favourable for
horticulture. Rowmore (Mrs. Young)
and Armadale (Mrs. John Hamilton)
are the most noticeable. In fact, it
is a series of villas all the way to
Ga.relochhead — such as Blairvadoch,
Shandon (J, Jamieson, Esq.), West
Shandon (Robt. Napier, Esq.), a
fantastic castle containing a very fine
Museum of works of art, which has
terraces down to the loch-side.

Roseneath, a beautiful seat of the
Duke of Argyll, an Italian mansion,
begun by an extravagant Duke of
A. 1803, but never finished, occupies
the best part of the peninsula between
Gareloch and Loch Long on the W.
bank, and is worth a visit. It may
be reached by Feny from Rue, or by
one of the many steamers, in 20

min. from Helensburgh, crossing the
deep and sheltered roadstead at the
mouth of Gareloch, where many
large steamers and the " Cumber-
land " training-ship lie. About \
m. from the Ferry Inn lies the small
hamlet of Roseneath with its modern
Gothic church. Close to the old ch.
is a shady grove of yews, called the
Bishop'' s JValk, and following the road
to Roseneath House and Kilcreggan
(Rte. 30), a gate flanked by 2 stone
pillars leads to a group of Silver firs,
prodigies of growth, hardly to be
matched elsewhere.

From iGarclocJihead, a consider-
able village with many villas and

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