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Channel." — Geilde.

Glasgow itself is built upon just such a terrace, and from the silt
and sand of which it consists there have been taken out at different
times as many as 18 canoes, the details of which prove that even
those early inhabitants understood the use of iron.

B. Glacial. — The effects of the great glacial epoch are found
both amidst the rugged mountains of the north and the Lowlands
of the south, though with different results.

In the Highlands we find in every lofty chain of hills the
striations and groovings w^hich mark the passage of the glacier into
more open regions, w^hile many a tarn and mountain lake shows the
artificial-looking embankment or massive heap which the glacier has
left in its downward course. Mr. Geikie proves that the great
glaciers of the north descended into Strath more with such irresist-
ible pressure as to have mounted over the Ochils and Sidlaws and
to settle in the basin of the Forth, while the southern uplands also

Scotland. III. Geology. [23]

contributed their quota to the general glaciation. The result has
been the covering of the Lowlands with a thick layer of " till " or
boulder clay, which is divided into two portions, indicating different
periods of the glacial era.

Among deposits of this epoch we may place tlie brick-earth beds
w^hich are found on the shores of the Clyde, and which contain shells
of an arctic type.

C. Tertiary. — The Volcanic Islands of the Inner Hebrides (Mull,
Skye, Eigg), etc., consist chiefly of sheets of basalt with intercalated
seams of coal and leaf-beds. These rocks, as well as the correspond-
ing plateau of Antrim, have been ascertained to belong to the
Miocene period. "Among the leaf-beds of Mull occur well-preserved
leaves of various dicotyledonous plants, similar to those found among
the Miocene rocks of Switzerland." — A. G.

D. The next highest formation in Scotland is that of the Oolitic
series, which presents unusual interest from its proximity to older re-
mains, and from its being itself so much traversed by volcanic rocks
of the Tertiary age. It is found in very few and detached spots, in-
variably on the coast, where, from the comparative richness of the
soil, it presents a marked contrast w^ith the rugged barriers of con-
glomerate and Cambrian mountains that bound it inland. The
oolitic localities are on the E. coast of Sutherlandshire, from Dun-
robin to Helmsdale. At Brora, about midway between these two
places, these measures are peculiarly interesting from including a
bed of coal of the age of the inferior oolite, and considered to be the
equivalent of the Yorkshire oolitic coal. The principal seam is 3 ft.
8 in. thick, and of very large productive powers.

On the W. coast we find the Isle of Skye almost entirely com-
posed of rocks of the oolitic age, although nine-tenths of it is oolitic
greenstone, with occasional thin beds of oolitic and Oxford clay, run-
ning the length of the island from N. to S, In the narrowest portion
of Skye, between Broadford and Loch Eishart, the oolite and lias are
well developed and rich in fossils. The rocks and precipices on the
W. coast of Loch Slapin consist of oolitic sandstone, w^orn into caves
and capped by greenstone. To the N. of Broadford, part of the
island of Eaasay and the whole of Pabbay are oolitic, and are extra-
ordinarily rich in fossils.

To the S. of Skye is the island of Eigg, the most striking
example of denudation in the British Isles, whose oolite strata are
overlaid by volcanic rocks of the Tertiary age. The coasts of Mull
and Morven, too, exhibit patches of measures of the same date.
At Loch Aline, just above the sea-level, are lias rocks containing

24] III. Geology. Introd.

Gry^yhcEa incurva, and covered by thick masses of tabular basalt, as
is also the case on the E. coast of Mull, and on the W. coast, near

E. Triassic, or Nm Red Sandstone. — A band of rocks some 6
miles in width extends over the Moray coast from Buckie to Burg-
head. Sir Chas. Lyell and Kev. W. Symond believe them to be of
Triassic date, while others class them as upper Old Bed beds.
There is, however, no doubt but that they are reptiliferous, and at
Elgin and Lossiemouth have yielded the remains of that singular
reptile the Hyperodapedon (Telerpeton) Elginense.

F. The Permian Rocks also are very scanty, and are confined to
a few patches in the south, which are found occupying the valleys
of the Annan as far as Moffat, and the Nith above Thornhill. They
are again seen to the W., lining the W. coast of Loch Byan, and
forming the central part of the Ayrshire coal-field. In all cases
they are found mottling the surface of the Silurian deposits, show-
ing that the Old Bed and Carboniferous beds must have been
denuded before the Bermian era. In Nithsdale and Ayrshire Mr.
Geikie has found that the Bermian rocks contain contemporaneous
volcanic masses, and thus that active volcanoes were scattered over
the S.W. of Scotland during the Bermian period.

The geologist may study them best above Dumfries, and in the
valley of the Annan at Corncockle Quarry, where the late Dr.
Duncan of Buthwell and Sir W. Jardine found footmarks of gigantic
crustaceans ; also overlying the Carboniferous beds in the neighbour-
hood of the Liddel, near Biddings Junction and Canonbie, although
Mr. Binney believes that these Bed rocks, as they are called, belong
to the upper carboniferous series rather than to the Bermian.

G. Carboniferous. — We come now to what we may call the
principal formations of which Scotland is composed, and which the
student of a geological map will observe follow each other in a
certain parallel sequence.

The Carboniferous system of Scotland is very extensive, and
has this singular difference from those of England and Wales, viz ,
that most of the coal-beds are referable to the age of carboniferous
limestone, and not (although there are a few) to the true coal-bear-
ing strata. Instead of the solid beds of limestone, characteristic of
the centre of England, we find in Scotland a thick series of sand-
stone, shales, blackband ironstones, and coal seams, with occasional
beds of marine limestone containing fossils of the Carboniferous
Limestone period.

Scotland. III. Geology. [25]

The true coal-bearing beds lie in 4 or 5 basins, and consist of —

1. Basin of the Clyde, which extends from Renfrewshire to
Linlithgow, and is prolonged northwards into Clackmannan, the
beds of which are separated by an uprising of lower Carlioniferous
rocks. It is about 4000 feet in depth, and contains 12 seams of
workable coal and 9 of ironstone, which sufficiently accounts for the
fiery atmosphere of Lanarkshire. Amongst these beds of coal is the
celebrated Boghead or Torbane Hill mine, which gave rise to so much
litigation, and which has proved such a fortune to the lessee (Rte. 14).

2. The Midlothian basin lies in a double triangle, part of which
is in the county of Edinburgh and part in Haddington. It is about
64 square miles in area, and contains upwards of 60 beds of coal
of more or less thickness.

3. The Ayrshire field stretches from Ardrossan to Ayr, and is
only divided from the Lanarkshire field by a ridge of trap rocks of
Lower Carboniferous age.

4. The Fifeshire basin is excessively disturbed by faults and
igneous rocks, although at the same time it is very productive, and
contains 29 beds of workable coal of 120 ft. in thickness. Indeed
the Avhole of the Carboniferous measures are intimately associated
with igneous rocks, both contemporaneous and intrusive, but we
will say more of these at the end of this section.

Taken as a whole, this group may be divided in the following
manner : —

" Upper or flat coal = English coal measures.

Moor rock or Roslyn ] = Millstone grit and upper lime-

sandstone j stone shale.

Lower or edge coal |^

Carboniferous limestone J
Calciferous sandstone. = Lower limestone shale.

The latter occur in their greatest development in the eastern part
of the great central basin of the country, and thin out rapidly to the
S.W., so that in Lanarkshire and Ayrshire they are in many places
wholly wanting, and the carboniferous limestones rest directly on the
felstones and sandstones of the Old Red group." — Sir R. Murchison.'
The fossil collector will find much to interest him in the ferns,
shells, and fish remains of the Lanarkshire basin, and in the Burdie-
house freshwater limestone fishes of the Lothian field (Rte. 1 6).

H. The Old Red Sandstone forms one of the most important and
interesting geological divisions in the country, principally from the
extraordinary number of typical fossils, such as fishes and crustaceans.

[Scotia, id. ^ b 2

Carboniferous limestone.

[2G] III. Geology. - Introd.

The genius of Hugli Miller has made the Old Red of Scotland
classic ground, and it is impossible to read his works without feeling
a strong interest, almost amounting to fascination.

This group is divided into 3 great series —

1. The Upper Old Red (yellow and red sandstones),

2. Middle, or Caithness flags.

3. Lower, or Forfarshire flagstones.

Of these the middle are found only in the north of Scotland, there
heing " in the south a great hiatus below the upper member of the
formation, which shades up into the Carboniferous, and rests quite
nnconformably npon the Lower Old Red Sandstone, the middle
portion not having been satisfactorily established to the south of
the Grampians."

1. The UiiiJer Old Bed deposits are found in a narrow strip on
the southern flanks of the Ochils, running from Loch Leven to
Cupar and St. Andrews. To the south they disappear under the
lower Carboniferous rocks, but reappear again in Haddingtonshire
and Berwickshire, graduating by imperceptible stages into the lower
Carboniferous sandstones, and "lying in bays along the northern
edge of the Lammermuirs, capping their summit south of Fala, and
ascending from the low grounds of the Tweed up the valley of the
Leader." It is evident from their fragmentary condition that
denudation has been very active here, and that the Upper Old Red
formerly covered the whole of the district. The geologist will find
it to liis account to visit the neighbourhood of Cupar and Dura Den.

In the north we find the interval between Lossiemouth, Elgin,
and Burghead occupied by reptiliferous rocks {Telerpeton Elginense),
which most geologists have ascribed to Upper Old Red date,
though others consider them as Triassic (p. 24.) A small patch,
also containing impressions of tracks, is found on the opposite coast,
at Tarbet Ness.

2. The middle division, or Caithness flags, is absent in the S.,
and in fact, as far as we know, is limited to two-thirds of the county
of Caithness, and a long narrow strip on the S. coast of the Moray
Firth from Inverness to Burghead. The Caithness flags are
particularly full of bitumen, and are moreover highly charged with
fossil fish, principally of the genus Coccosteus, and in some places
with land plants.

3. The Loive?' Old Red is the most extensive in the series, and
is found principally in an area forming a broad line of demarcation
between the gneiss of the Highlands and the trap and igneous

Scotland. III. Geology. [27]

district of tlie Lowland valley. If we draw a line from the coast
of Kincardine to Cantyre on tlie N., and from Dumbarton to a
little above Cupar on the S., we find that it will mark out tins
Lower Old Red area. The following general section is of the Old
Red in the Forfarshire district, where it is upwards of 3000 feet

a. Dark red grits = English tilestones.

h. Thick conglomerates and Arbroath paving flags, containing
Pterignotus, etc.

c. Thick bedded red sandstone.

d. Soft deep red sandstone.

e. Spotted marles and shales.

In the N. we find the Lower Old Red skirting in a broken and
interrupted manner the E. coast of Ross and Sutherland, and
occupying one-third of the western portion of Caithness. Thence a
narrow strip occupies the northern shores of the Moray Firth, and
runs down to accompany the Caledonian Canal, where it terminates
in the bold dome of Mealfourvournie. "Again, along the northern
shores patches of the same kind are found from the borders of
Caithness to Roan Island, sometimes in little outliers standing
high among the inland hills. Hence it must be inferred that a
large part, if not the whole of the county of Sutherland, was once
covered with a sheet of Old Red conglomerate." — GeiJcie.

In the S. there is a patch of Lower Old Red between Kilmarnock
and Lanark. Here, and particularly at Lesmahagow, it is intimately
associated with.

I. The Upper Silurian, both series being traversed by numbers
of felstone dykes. They are disposed in long rolling folds, the
Silurian strata forming the axis of each anticlinal. The upper
Silurian rocks are absent in the North Highlands, and are found in
the S. only at Lesmahagow, in the Pentland Hills, and occupying a
small area in Kirkcudbright, extending from "Wigtown Bay across
the Dee to the mouth of the IJrr.

J. The Loiver Silurian of south Scotland, with its slates and
limestones, occupies the greater portion of the Southern Highlands,
being bounded on the N. by a tolerably regular line from Dunbar
to Girvan. Sir R. Murchison remarks that it may be regarded as
bent into a great arch, the centre of which runs from S.W. to N.E.,
passing to the S. of the town of Moffat. South of this line the
strata dip to the S.E., while on the N.E. they are flanked uncon-
formably by the Old Red and carboniferous rocks. Although the

[28] III. Geology. Introd.

lower Silurian strata of the S. have not suffered metamorphosis in
the same manner as they have in the N., they have yet undergone
much folding and squeezing. The geologist will see in AVigtowTi, or
the cliffs of Berwick, "the hard greywacke and shales bent into
great arclies and troughs, or squeezed into little puckerings, and will
be able to trace these plications following each other from top to
bottom mile after mile along the coast.'' — Geilde.

In the North Highlands eight-tenths of the rocks consist of lower
Silurian strata, metamorphosed into clay, chlorite and mica slate, and
gneissose rocks, based on qnartzose, flagstones, and associated lime-
stones. From the Cambrians of the W. coast to the great Glen is a
great series of anticlinal and synclinal curves, whereby the same
system of altered rocks which occur on the N.W. is repeated on itself.

" The chain of lakes that stretches from Inverness to Oban is
therefore an anticlinal axis, broken through by a coincident line of
fault." From here the limestones and cjuartz rocks are thrown off
to the E., and are surmounted by a conformable mass of quartzose and
gneissose strata. An anticlinal of quartzose rocks rises from under
Loch Leven to the S.E., and runs through the Breadalbane Forest
into Glen Lyon, where it sinks below the upper gneissose strata with
their associated limestones. Ben Lawers occupies the synclinal
formed by these upper strata. Professor Jameson shows that the
Silurians of the S.W. Highlands have also been thrown into great
undulations with an anticlinal axis extending from the N. of Cantyre
through Cowal, and] by the bend of Loch Riden to Loch Eck and
Loch Lomond. The E. coast from Stonehaven to Aberdeen affords
an interesting illustration of the structure of the Grampians. The
Old Red of Stonehaven is succeeded by the clay slates of Carron
Point, and then by mica slate and gneiss, aU of them frequently
traversed by dykes of trap, porphyry, quartz, and granite.

The limestones of Sutherlandshire, which lie at the base of the
lower Silurian, prove from the nature of their fossils the identity of
these rocks with the calciferous sand rocks of N. America.

These limestones, with their associated quartz rocks, rest uncon-
formably on

K. The Cambrian strata, which consist of brownish red sand-
stones and conglomerates, resting on the convoluted edges of the
older gneiss. The W. coast of Ross, extending from the Applecross
district to Torridon, Poolewe, Loch Maree, and thence into Suther-
land as far as Loch Enard, are the localities where the Cambrian
rocks are principally developed, in addition to a patch on the island
of Rum. Underneath these strata lies

Scotland. III. Geology. [29]

L, Thid fundamental gneiss, also called Laurentian gneiss, as being
tlie equivalent of that system in Nortli America and the oldest
known rocks. It has a strike from S.E. to N.W., beiug at right
angles to all the other superjacent deposits. These rocks are found
occupying a small space on either side Loch ]\Iaree, on the N, shores
of which they contain a band of limestone, and farther N. occupying
the W. coast of Sutherland, occasionally capped by the Cambrian, as
at Queenaig near Inchnadamff. * Lewis, the Outer Hebrides, Coll, and
Tiree are also composed of the Laurentian gneiss.

M. In closing this brief notice of the Geology of Scotland, a few
words must be said of the igneous and intrusive rocks which go so
far in making up the accessories of Scotch scenery. Granite (unless
indeed Mr. Geikie is right in believing that it is not an igneous
rock at all, but only a farther development of metamorphosis) is found
rising up amongst the highest mountain groups, such as Ben Nevis,
where it is pierced by porphyry, the Cairngorms, Ben Alder, Ben
Dearig, Ben Laoghal, the Hill of Ord, Ben Cruachan, Goatfell, etc.
But it is not only in the very lofty hills that granite is observed,
but sometimes in comparatively low grounds, such as are seen in the
N. of Aberdeenshire, and in the lonely moor of Rannoch, The Old
Eed igneous rocks consist of Felspathic rocks, porphyries, and inter-
stratified ashes, such as form the Sidlaw, Ochil, and Pentland Hills.

The Carboniferous igneous rocks of contemporaneous date are
principally found in the Lothians, such as Arthur's Seat and the
Bathgate Hills ; while for intrusive rocks we may specify Stirling
Rock, Castle Rock of Edinburgh, etc.

Permian Rochs occur, as already stated, in Xithsdale and Ayr-
sliire. The Tertiary volcanic Rocks of Scotland are seen along the
line of the Inner Hebrides, and from Antrim northwards. They
reappear in the Faroe Islands and even in Iceland.

Appended is a list of some of the most interesting spots to the
geologist and fossil collector : —

Post- Tertiary. — Bute, Paisley, Dalniuir, Tignabruaich. — Arctic shells.

Tertiary. — Ardtun, Mull : Leaf -heels.

Oolitic. — Skye, Pabba : Liassic fossils. Helmsdale and Brora : Plants.

Trias 1 — Elgin : Hyperodapedon {Telerp)eton), Elginense.

Permian. — Valley of Nith, Corncockle Muir Quarry, Annandale : Foot-
marks of Reptiles.

Carboniferous. — Boghead, Torbane Hill mineral. Lanarkshire basin ;
Coal-plants, shells, brachiopoda of the limestone. Lothian basin : Fishes
of Burdiehouse limestone.

CarhoniferoiLs.—Axvax\. : Trees preserved in trap.

Upper Old Pi.ed. — Dura Den : Fishes. — Phaneropleuron Andersoni,
Glyptoloenius Kinnairdii, Holoptychius Andersoni. Cromarty : Diplacan-


Route 3. — St. Bosicells to Beston — Dunse. Sect. I.

4| m. Earlston Stat., celebrated as
the residence of Thomas of Ercil-
doun, otherwise known as Thomas
the Rhymer, in whose prophecies the
whole country side once put implicit
faith. He was born in the reign of
Alexander II., and was contemporary
with Wallace. It was the general
belief that he was carried away by
the Queen of the Elfins, into the
interior of the Eiltlon Hills (Rte. 1.).

The Rhymer's Tower is to be seen
at the W. end of the village, close
to the river.

In the neighbourhood of Earlston
are Coicdenknovjcs (R. Cotesworth,
Esq.), the scene of Robert Craw-
ford's ballad, "The Bonnie Broom,"
and Carolside (A. Mitchell, Esq.).

lOg m. Gordon Stat, 5 m. to the
N. of which, near the village of
Westruther, is Spottiswood, the seat
of Lady John Scott. The parish
contains the old border tower of
Evelaw and some earthworks.

14| m. Greenlaiv Stat., though
the county town of Berwick, does
not possess the slightest interest for
the tourist. It is situated on the
banks of the Blackadder. The geo-
logist will find at JBedshicI, 2 m. to
the N. of Greenlaw, an example of
"kaim," which Mr Milne-Home
believes to have been formed of
marine shingle when the land was
at a lower level than at present. It
consists of elongated ridges of sand
and gravel, distinctly stratified, from
30 to 60 ft, high, and extending for
about 3 m., and appears more like
defensive works than natural results.

The ruins of Hume Castle, the
former stronghold of the Earls of
Home, are 3 m. to the S., and are
worth visiting for the magnificent
view over the Merse district (see

18, m. Marclimont Stat., near which
is Marchmont House, the seat of Sir
Hugh Hume-Campbell, Bart., con-

taining a fine collection of paintings.
Those best worth attention are —
Philip baptizing the Eunuch, Cuyp :
Forest Scene, Euysdael, "fine and
very uncommon in composition ; "
Corps de Garde, Tenters ; portrait
of Don Livio Odescalchi, Vondyck ;
Forest Scene, Wynants ; Ships in
distress, Vandervelde. In the family
burial vault under Polwarth Ch.,
within the Park, Sir Patrick Hume,
an adherent of Argyle in 1685, was
concealed for a month in the dark,
sleeping on a mattress stealthily
conveyed from the house, and fed by
his daughter Grisel, who repaired to
him at midnight with supplies,
unknown to any one but her mother.
The house meanwhile was frequently
searched by the soldiers of James II.
Sir Pati'ick eventually escaped to

21 1 m. DiTNSE Stat, after Berwick
the largest town in Berwickshire
{Inn : White Swan), claims the
honour of being the birthplace of
Duns Scotus, the schoolman. It
is certain that Dr Thos. M'Crie, bio-
grapher of John Knox, and Thos.
Boston ("Fourfold State"), were
natives. It is of some importance as
a cattle, horse, and sheep market,
standing at the foot of the Lammer-
muir Hills, and at the base of Dunse
Law, on the summit of which there
is a camp : from this hill or Dun no
doubt it gets its name. There is a
neat E'piscojyal Cliapel at Dunse.

1 m. from Dunse is Rodes Castle,
said by some to be the scene of the
ballad "Adam o' Gordon."

Dunse Castle (Col. Hay) is a
spacious and handsome building,
overlooking the town on the AV. , and
includes the old tower built by Ran-
dolph Earl of Mora3\ On the S. is
Wedderhurn Castle (D. Milne-Home,
Esq.), a stately mansion of Grecian
architecture. Also Nishet House
(Lord Sinclair), Rimmerghame House
(A. Campbell Swinton, Esq.), a
handsome modern mansion (Bryce,


S. Scotland. Route 4. — Berwick to Edinburgh.


archt.), and Langton House (Lady
Elizabeth Pringle) (also by Bryce),
begun by the late Marquis of Breadal-
bane, contains a collection of family
pictures, some of them portraits by

' ' On the N". side of Cockburn Law,
about 3 m. X. fromDunse, and about
a mile E. from Abbey St. Bathans,
are the interesting remains of an
ancient building of unhewn and un-
cemented stones called Ediiishall.
It is circular in shape, and about
90 ft. in diameter : the wall varies
in thickness from 15 to 20 ft. It is
surrounded by ditches and ramparts
of earth and stone, and there are
trenches round the top of the hill
on Avhich it stands." — Oliver.

On the other side of Cockburn Law
is Priestlaiv, where a convent once
stood. The Fassiiey Water here
flows over some rock sections of great
interest to the geologist, as they
show the manner in which the gra-
nite and greywacke shale of the
Lammermuirs are related to each

Distances. — To Greenlaw, 7\ m. ;
Coldstream, I04 ; Berwick, I84.

Dunse is a good fishing station for
the upper waters of the Whitadder,
whicli flows about 3 m. to the N.
The angler should go up to Abbey
St, Bathans and the Cottage, where
he will get sport. Trout run from
4 lb. to 14. Passing left, Mander-
ston House ("W. Miller, Esq.), the
train reaches

25 m. Edrom Stat., which is pro-
bably a corruption of Adderham,
from adder or didi&x = awedur (Cam.
Brit.) = running water, and ham
(Ang.-Sax. ) = a home or village, ^ot
far from Edrom is Broom House (G.
Logan Home, Esq.), a modern cas-
tellated building, erected on the site
of the old fortress, burnt by the Eng-
lish under Lord Evers. The river is
crossed at

26^ m. Chirnside' Stat. The
village is 1 m. to the right, and con-
tains a tine old ch. of the 15th centy.
in good repair. Nincioells House, was
the family residence of Hume the

29 m. Eestox Junction (Rta 4.).


Berwick to Edinburgh, by Cold-

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