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purposes for driving Wheels of mills
and manufactories, instead of steam.
One of these, in Upper Greenock,
has the enormous diameter of 220 ft.,
and weighs 117 tons. "The pro-
sperity of Greenock dates from the
year 1707, shortly after the union
with England, when the British
Parliament granted what the Scottish
Parliament had refused, viz. the
privilege of constructing a harbour."
— Smiles.

Greenock is directly opposite the
watering-place, Helensburgh (see Rte.
19) — a pleasant retreat from smoke
and dirt, to which steamers are con-



W.Scotland. Boute 23. — The Clyde : Largs.



191



stantly plying in | hour, conveying
passengers to the railway to Dum-
barton and Loch Lomond.

Eaihoay Termini. — {a) At the Old
Steam Quay at the Harbour, for
Glasgow Low Line (Caledonian) ;
also at Cathcart-st.

(&) At Princes Pier, 1 m. farther
down the Clyde, Terminus of the
High Level Rly. to Glasgow (Ayr-
shire Ely. Kte. 23 a). It has
another Stat, in Lynedoch-st. (Rte,
12).

(c) Upper Greenock Station for
Wemyss Bay, not far from Lynedoch-
st. Stat.

Distances. — Glasgow, by rail, 22r,
m. ; by water, 21 ; Helensburgh,
4 ; Gourock, 2 ; Wemyss Bay, 8 ;
Inverkip, 6.

Starting from Greenock Quay, the
vessel skirts the well-filled Docks
and a puny battery of 7 giins, be-
yond which appears the Wood Insti-
tution for aged and infinu seamen.

1. About 3 m. from Greenock, and
opposite the watering-place of Kil-
creggan, is f Gourock, a favourite
resort of the Glasgow folk, on the
shore of a bay dotted with houses,
furnished with a Pier, at which
many Clyde steamers stop. The
Darroch family have property here,
and a mansion in the place of the Old
Castle. 2 m. W. of the town stands
the ruined tower of Levan Castle.
Near it, off Kempoch, the steamer
"Comet" was run down by the
"Ayi"" (1825), and 50 passengers
drowned.

As the coast trends southward, the
tourist has on his rt. the entrance
to Loch Long, and Holy Loch, with
the marine villages of Kilmun, Kirn,
and Dunoon (E,te. 29). On 1. is the
Cloch Lighthouse. Turning sharp to
the S. the steamer passes Ardgowan,
the seat of Sir Michael Shaw-
Stewart, perhaps the most beautiful
place on the Clyde, and soon stops
at

t InverTcip {Inns : Murdoch's ;
Smith's), a pleasant secluded little



watering-place at the mouth of the
Kip, facing Inellan and the slopes of
Cowal, with its background of moun-
tains. Gait, the novelist, is buried
here.

2 m, farther on 1. is t Wemyss Bay
(a tolerable Hotel), a more modern
watering-place and the terminus of
the Wemyss Bay Rly., with a long
Pier, where passengers arriving by
rail join the boat to I3ute and Arran.
Steamers for Largs, Eothesay, and
Millport, touch here. The most con-
spicuous building is Castle Wcrayss,
designed by Billings, the seat of John
Burns, Esq., shipowner, a worthy and
benevolent citizen of Glasgow ; also
Kelly House (J. Young, Esq., the
faithful friend of David Living-
stone).

The N. shore of the Clyde Estuary
— Dunoon, Rothesay and Isle of Bute
are described (Rte. 27).

Still coasting S., we have on rt.
the promontory of Toward Point,
round which the Oban steamer goes
through the Kyles of Bute, and on 1.
Skelmorlie Castle, a seat of the Earl
of Eglinton (occupied by J. Graham,
Esq.) ; the ruined castle of Knock,
under the conical hill of Knock ; and
inland Brisbane, the residence of the
late Sir T. Brisbane. There is a
pier at + Skelmorlie, which has risen
in repute as a residence. As the
channel narrows between the main-
land and the Great Cumbrae, we
have on the 1. the watering-place of

t Largs (Brisbane Arms), cele-
brated for the battle fought here in
1263, the date being fixed by the
calculation of the eclipse that occur-
red just before.

" Here floated Haco's banner trim.
Above Norweyan warriors grim,
Savage of heart and large of limb."

Haco, King of Norway, having
entered the Eirth of Clyde with a
numerous fleet, met with a storm dur-
ing the disembarkation of his troops.
His ships were dispersed, and, a part
only of his army being landed, he
was attacked and routed with great



192



Route 23. — The Clyde: Cumhraes.



Sect. III.



slaughter by Alexander III. Haeo
fled to Skye and thence to the
Orkneys, where he died of hardship
and mortification, and was buried
in the cathedral of Kirkwall ; the
result of the victory was the cession
of the Hebrides and Man to Scot-
land, after they had been for 400
years attached to the Norwegian
crown. The Norwegians buried
their slain in a Mound, still existing
on the shore opposite Cumbrae,
opened 1873, and found to contain
burnt human bones.

In the aisle of the Old Church, near
the Mound, is a monument to Sir
Robert Montgomery.

The conchologist may find on the
shore here the llissoa Calcuthisca, an
exceedingly rare shell.

[In the summer an omnibus runs
to Ardrossan from Largs, passing li
m. on 1. Kelhurn Castle (Earl of
Glasgow), prettily situated by the
side of a stream, on which there is a
waterfall. The house was built in
the 16th centy., and has a very in-
genious and curiously - ornamented
sun-dial in front of it. 3 m. Fairlie
village and castle, and thence through
the village of West Kilbride to (12
m.) Ardrossan {Inn: Eglinton Arms).
(Rte. 12.)]

From Largs the steamer crosses to
the watering-place of Milljjort, situ-
ated in a bay on the S. side of the
island of Great Cumbrae, which, to-
gether with the Lesser Cumbrae,
stands in mid-channel between the
mainland and the island of Arran.
' ' Both islands consist of portions of
the same great sheet of carboniferous
igneous rock which runs from Ar-
drossan N. to Greenock, and in both
portions of the red sandstone on
which these rest rise from under
them," The geologist will find on
the E. shore a couple of interesting
whinstone dykes.

t Millport {Inns : Millport ; Cum-
brae ; Kelburn Arms) is an exceed-
ingly pleasant little place for a short
stay, with a good Pier built by Lord



Bute, and contains an Episcopalian
Collegr, built from designs by Butter-
field, and a beautiful chapel, in which
full choral service is held twice ever}'-
Sunday.

The Garrison is a seat of Lord
Glasgow, built on the site of an old
fort.

An amusing anecdote is told of a
fonner minister of the parish of Cum-
brae, who, with exalted notions of the
little world in which he lived, used
to pray for the island of Cumbrae,
together with the adjacent islands of
Great Britain and Ireland.

The Lesser Ciimhrae is a very small
island of about 1 m. in length. There
was once a fort on it, until it was
burnt by Cromwell's troops. The
stump of a tower on the E. side of
Olderdale is supposed to have been
a defence against Norwegian pirates.
At the S.AX''. angle is a lighthouse.
An older one stood on the hill-top.
To the N. are the remains of the
chapel of St. Vey, with the tomb
of the saint considerably mutilated.
The views from both the islands over
the shores of Bute and Arran are
very fine.

Emerging from the protection of
the Cumbraes the steamer crosses
the main channel and makes for
Arran, whose magnificent cliffs and
mountains, topped by the rugged
heights of Goatfell, form a grand
feature in the landscape. The first
point at which the boat stops is
Corrie, where is a quiet, neat little
inn.

t Brodick, however, is the most
central locale for exploring the island,
and the place where most of the
tourists disembark, at an iron Pier of
peculiar construction, with buffer-
sides to protect the steamers in rough
weather.

It must be borne in mind that it is
rarely of any use going to An-an
without having secured accommoda-
tion beforehand ; as in the summer
it is crammed \dth visitors from
Glasgow, many of whom reside for



W. Scotland. Route 23. — The Clyde: Arran — Brodick 193



the season there, going backwards
and forwards to their places of busi-
ness. At Brodick there is only one
Inn (Douglas Arms), the Duke of
Hamilton not permitting any other
to be built. There are, however,
lodgings to be had in many of the
small cottages along the shore. At
Corrie there is a good Inn. At
Lamlash accommodation is more
plentiful ; but in consequence of its
situation it is not such a good start-
ing-point to explore the beauties of
the island, which mainly lie in the
north.

The island of Arran is about 20 m.
long by 12 broad, the interior con-
sisting of wild, uncultivated moun-
tains, which in the N. rise to a very
considerable height.

For many centuries the island was
a royal domain, well stocked with
red deer and other beasts of the
chase, and used principally as a
hunting-ground. It will be remem-
bered that Bruce landed here, and
mustered his forces before making
that last and successful descent on
his own country.

" "Where does my brother bend his way?
As I have heard for Brodifk Baj'.
Across the isle — of barks a score
Lie there, 'tis said, to waft them o'er,
On sudden news, to Carrick shore."

Lord of the Isles.

It was in St. Bride's convent, on
the N. of the island, that his sister
Isabel was placed. The earldom of
Arran was conferred for the first time
upon Sir James Boyd, who married
the sister of James I., but the pro-
perty and the lady were after Boyd's
death given to Sir James Hamilton.
Hogg's ballad makes Walter Hamilton
win the princess and the island of
Arran in a tournament — a poetical
ver.sion of the circumstance. With
the exception of one or two farms,
the whole island belongs to the
Duke of Hamilton, who occasionally,
though very seldom, visits Brodick
Castle.

The Geology of Arran is a subject
[Scotland.]



which has attracted much attention, •
and has been frequently described by
th(- able pens of many eminent geo-
logists, as Jameson, Sedgwick, Ram-
say, etc. To those fond of this
science the island is a complete field
for study, embracing within its area
an extraordinary variety of different
phenomena. The general line of the
coast is low, although it occasionally
rises into precipitous cliffs, especially
on the S. and S.W. Eed sandstone
is the predominant rock along the
coast, extending, with few interrup-
tions, from the Cock of Arran on the
extreme N. along the E. Brodick,
where it is very well seen, and thence
to the S. shore as far as Kildonan,
where it is displaced by an intrusion
of trap.

It lines the valleys of the Slidry
and Torralin'?, then disappearing for a
time resumes its position between the
Machry Burn and Glen lorsa. Near
the ]\Iachry there is a remarkably
precipitous wall of black porphyry,
extending for 2 m. along the shore.
On the N. and N.E. are sections of
the carboniferous series, interstratified
with trap beds. The interior of the
island is chiefly composed of granitic
mountains, viz., Goatfell (2863 ft.),
towards the E. Ceum-na-Caillich,
Caisteal Abheal, Cia Mh6r, and Ben
Huish in the centre, and Ben Varain
on the W.

"Those in the S. are generally
composed of trap rocks, partly
syenite, partly porphyry, partly
greenstone, with many dykes of
greenstone and pitchstone passing
through the red sandstone strata
around the coasts. The small size
of the island, combined with the
elevation of the mountains, gives to
the short glens a very sudden depth,
and permits the cliffs to show great
curvatures of strata. Dykes and
overlying masses of greenstone, fel-
spathic and trap porphyry, various
sorts of claystones and pitchstone
are seen abundantly both on the E.,
W., and S. coasts ; and so perfectly



194



Route 23. — Arran : Goatfell.



Sect. III.



are all the phenomena exhibited,
that it is ditticnlt to imagine any
space of the same limited extent
more worthy of being studied for the
purpose of understanding the mutual
relations of pyrogeneous rocks." —
Phillips.

'\ Brodick. {Inn: Douglas Arms,
very good, but generally lull to over-
floAving in the summer months. ) The
village of Brodick, properly speak-
ing, no longer exists, except in the
castle, most of the houses near it
having been removed. But the
whole bay, including the hamlet of
Invercloy, now passes by the name
of Brodick.

The Castle (Duke of Hamilton)
was seized by Edw. I. and held by
Sir John Hastings, from whom it was
taken at the general liberation of
Scotland from the Englisli yoke. It
was garrisoned by Oliver Cromwell ;
but his soldiers, having provoked the
indignation of the islanders, were
mas.sacred. It has been rebuilt in
the Scotch baronial style from de-
signs by ]\lr. Gillespie Graliam, and,
though not a very large building,
it has from its commanding position
a very good effect.

Steamers daily to Greenock and
the ports of the Clyde ; once to
Rothesay ; daily to Ardrossan.

Distances from Brodick. — To Glen
Eosa, 3 m. ; Loch Ranza, 12 ; Goat-
fell, 6 ; Glen Sannox, 6 ; Lamlash,
4 ; Glen Ashdale, 10 ; Tormoi-e, 10.

' a. Goatfell (2863 ft.), or Ben-na-
Gaoith, the " IMountain of the Wind "
of the "Lord of the Isles" —

" The sun, ere j'et he sunk behind
Benghoit, the mountain of the wind "—

rises from behind the castle of
Brodick, and is the excursion most
often undertaken by visitors. No
guide is required for the ascent,
except by persons unaccustomed to
mountaineering, which, with the de-
scent, v,dll occupy from 4 to 5 hours,



starting from and returning to the
hotel. The first 2 m. may be done
on horsebai^k, or even in a carriage,
following the road along the coast,
passing the mouths of Glen Shiraig,
where schools and a ch. have been
built, and Glen Rosa. Upon thert.,
near the schoolhouse, is an old stone
monument, ormenhir, placed upright,
probably the entrance to an avenue ;
cross the burn and enter the duke's
grounds. Farther on are 2 more
upright stones in a field. Thence
ascend the hill at the stables and
make for the kennels, which are
above, keeping a little to the rt. of
the latter and entering the planta-
tions. Emerging from there on to
the heather a track runs straight up,
whence the summit is seen rising
right in front. The path appears to
wind a long way round, but any at-
tempt at a short cut to the mountain
from this point Avill only result in
increased latigue to the pedestrian,
without any saving in time. He
should therefore keep well to the
right. From the top may be seen
the mass of mountains which, one
beyond another, occupy the whole
of the northern part of the island,
together with the shores of Scot-
land indented with its numerous
lochs and bays, the islands of the
W., the coasts of Galloway and Ire-
land, and the mountains of Cumber-
land. Near the spectator are the
granite peaks of the sister mountains
— that of Caisteal Abhael on the N.
being the most conspicuous, topped
with loose blocks of great size, that
give its simimit the appearance of a
recently dismantled fortification.
"Near the summit of Goatfell, and
also on the S. shoulder, the granite
suddenly ari.^es in perjiendicular
cliffs, assuming the artificial appear-
ance of huge Cj'clopeau walls. Large
blocks are arranged one above an-
other with the utmost nicety, thus
frequently presenting a vertical face
of rock of considerable height" —
Ramsay.



^Y. Scotland. Boufe 23. — Arran: Goatfell



195



A tolerable mountaineer may pro-
ceed from the top of Goatfell along
the Saddle, and thus effect his de-
scent upon Glen Sannox to Corrie,
instead of returning the way he
came.

h. The veiiis of trap and jntchstonc
traversing the sandstone rock in all
directions exposed along the shore S.
of Brodick, deserve the attention of
the geologist, and may interest or-
dinary travellers.

c. One of the easiest and most
"beautiful excursions from Brodick is
that to Glen Rosa, as romantic a
glen as any in the Highlands, which
runs immediately beneath Goatfell,
and is separated only by a ridge or
neck from Glen Sannox, The lower
part of the glen is easily accessible,
there being a good path ; but after
the wooden bridge over the tributary
river is passed, the path becomes ex-
cessively wet and boggy. But for
those who do not mind this, it is as
fine a walk as can be imagined up to
the head of Glen Rosa, crossing the
ridge and down Glen Sannox to
Corrie, and returning to Brodick by
the road.

d. Lamlash, the first place in size
in Arran, opposite Holy Islaiul, is
4 m. from Brodick {see below, e).

e. An Excursion round the Island
by the coast-road will be about 53 m.
Going N. from Brodick the mouth of
Gen Rosa is passed on the 1. ; then
the Castle, a fiue red sandstone
building. A good road runs close
along the sea, while the view on the
opposite side is bounded by a bank
of rock, the lowest step of the moun-
tain ranges, which slope from the
interior to the sea on both sides.
This bank is thickly covered in some
parts with trees and brushwood, and
the ground below is strewn Avith
masses of shivered rock.



At 5^ m. there is a fine cascade,
about 250 ft. high.



6 m., at t Corrie is a good quiet
Inn, at which steamers call daily.
Excavations of great extent and age
were discovered during the working
of some quarries here.

At 8 m. the mouth of Glen Sannox
is reached, which runs down to the
sea from the base of Goatfell. There
is no road up it, except as far as the
baryta works ; and the ground, un-
less in dry seasons, is wet and
boggy. Stillness reigns around, and
the almost perpetual mists in which
the depths of the glen are shrouded
lend gloom to the neighbourhood.
The descent of Goatfell is frequently
made across the ridge that divides
Glen Sannox from Glen Rosa, or the
pedestrian can proceed down the lat-
ter to Brodick. " On the northern
range of Glen Sannox there is a re-
markable fissure called Ceum-na-
Caillich, forming a deep indentation
on the summit of the mountain, from
whence a narrow gully descends into
the glen. This seems to have once
been entirely filled with a trap dyke,
now decomposed. There are several
trap dykes in and around Cia Mhor, a
high conical hill, forming alike the
upper extremity of Glen Sannox and
Glen Rosa. One of these, of a very
singular construction, crosses the
ridge that divides the glens on the S.
side of Cia Mhor. This remarkable
dyke includes 5 distinct bands." —
PMiiisay.

The volcanic or trappean ash that
reposes upon the carboniferous strata
on this portion of the coast is ex-
tremely interesting. About 2 m.
from Glen Sannox are the Fallen
Rocks, in which an immense cliff of
old red sandstone conglomerate seems
to have given way, and to have
strewed the slope with masses of rock
in the wildest confusion. There is a



196



Pioute 23, — Arran : Loch Ranza.



Sect. III.



tradition that this fall was heard in
Bute.

The scene at the Seriden, at the
N. extremity of which stands the
" Cock of Arran," a point well known
at sea, is somewhat similar, though
even wilder. It is a large piece of
clilf which once bore resemblance to
a cock, but the wind and waves have
knocked its head ofl', and the likeness
is no longer striking. The whole of
this portion of the route is very im-
pressive from the wild confusion of
roclvs on every side, whicli appear as
if an avalanche had deposited them
where they now lie. A long glen is
now traversed, in which the road sur-
mounts a steep ascent and then de-
scends as suddenly to the level of the



12 m. + Loch Piccnza (a small and
poor Inn, furnishing fresh herrings
and potatoes) is an inlet of the sea,
about 1 m. long at high water and
•| m. broad ; at its apex rises the
graceful form of Torindan-eoin, to
the S. of which is the rugged top
of Caisteal Abheal. It is a pity that
no accommodation exists at Loch
Eanza, for it is one of the most
beautiful landscapes in Arran. Tlie
Bay is di\'ided by a promontory run-
ning out into it from the W. shore ;
and upon this stands a Castle, con-
sisting of 2 square towers, the roofs
of which are still tolerably perfect.
It was erected as a royal hunting
seat prior to the j'ear 1380. A nun-
nery dedicated to St. Bride formerly
existed here, but there are no traces
of it left.

Loch Eanza is a celebrated herring
station, the fish here being remark-
ably good, as indeed they are through-
out the whole of the western coasts.
The Campbeltown steamer calls off
the loch several times a-week (Rte.
24). Rounding the point and turn-
ing southward, the traveller arrives
at (14 m.) the little village of Catacol.
The geologist will notice here curious
examples of contorted schist.



17 m. is a lonely little kirk, be-
longing to the village of North
Tundergay, 2 m. from which, inland,
is the secluded and solitary lake of
Corrie-oM-lachan, which looks as
if it had been scooped out of the
recesses of Ben Varen. Its sides are
almost wholly destitute of vegeta-
tion, and the lake has the appear-
ance of having been the centre of an
extinct volcano. " Ben Varen itself
is in form like a long house, with
rounded roof, and on its summit are
two of the Cyclopean walls meeting
at right angles. " — Anderson. As the
road progresses S. very fine views are
obtained of the mountainous coast of
Cant}Te, from which Ben Tore stands
out pre-eminently.

19 m. South Tundergay village ;
and 20 m. that of White Farland.

2H m., at Imachar there is a
small public-house, but clean and
respectable.

24^ m., at Glen lorsa, the river of
the same name enters the sea. On
the rt. bank is Dugary, a shooting-
box belonging to the Duke of Hamil-
ton, and behind it is the keeper's
house, picturesquely situated. At
26^ m. is a road across the island to
Brodick, about 8 m.

28 m., near the Machry river,
which the road now crosses, is Tor-
more, famous for its anticpiarian
remains in the shape of upright
stones and circles. Here are 2 up-
right stones upon 2 hills, command-
ing the entrance to Avhat was evi-
dently an avenue leading up to the
great circles. At the beginning of
this avenue there is a dolmen, formed
of large slabs put together like a
house of cards, so as to enclose a
space. The interior when opened
was found to contain some ashes.

The first monument consists of 2
concenti'ic circles, the ground in the
interior being somewhat raised.

The diameter of the largest of
these two circles is aboiit 55 ft., and



W. Scotland. Route 23. — Tormore — Old Stones.



197



the stones are granite boulders ; the
2 largest in the interior circle point-
ing E. and W., in which direction
all the circles lie, thongli not all in
the same line. On the S. side of
this one is a stone with a hole bored
in it. The centre of this circle has
been opened, and human bones or
ashes were found in it.

2. A circle, composed of 5
boulder-stones, one removed.

3. To the N. of the last is a single
upright slab, about 12 ft. above the
ground, evidently one of a circle of
similar stones.

4. Three upright slabs, 15 ft. from
the ground, belonging to a circle 60
ft. in diameter. There are, here and
there, groups of stones, which may
be the remnants of circles scattered
about between this and the hills ;
but the surface has been removed
constantly in the search for peat, so
that, doubtless, many more have
disappeared.

A little beyond Tormore the
tourist must turn to the rt., on the
coast, for the King's Cavrs. The
whole line of rock has been hollowed
here into caves, some of which are
fitted wdth doors and \Adndows. The
last and largest is called the King's
Cave, and is said to have been in-
habited by Fingal, Bruce, and several
other Scotch heroes, fabulous and
historical. The roof is partly sup-
ported by a natural pillar that rises
from the floor and divides the upper
part of the cave into 2 chambers.
Upon its side is rudely carved a
sword, and on the walls are rough
sketches of the chase, ascribed to the
leisure hours of Bruce and his com-
panions when condemned to inac-
tivit}^ and concealment in Arran.
But the softness of the stone and the
continual damp of the walls would
long ago have obliterated any carv-
ings of such ancient date ; although
it is by no means improbable that
the cave itself was at one time in-
habited by Eobert Bruce and his



brother Edward. From the caves,
if it is dry, climb the cliffs and strike
E. across the moor to the high road ;
but if it be Avet, return to the road
whence you diverged, and proceed to
Torbeg, the next village. [At the
kirk a road on I. leads to Shedog,
where there is a small Inn. 1 m.
from this point is the bridge over
the Machry Water and the village of
Clachan, with an old cemetery over-
grown with nettles. Here it was
said that St. Molus or Molaise was
buried, although his resting-place is
claimed by the Irish as being in the



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