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village (Rte. 27). 2d. is charged each
passenger for pier dues.

There is also a slow steamer, twice
or three times a week, to Inveraray
and Glasgow ; but as she is in the
season laden to the brim with herring-
boxes, it is not an advisable convey-
ance. A steamer also calls at West
Tarbert once a week from Islay, re-
turning thither the same day. It is
about 4 hours' sail.



ROUTE 26.

Glasgow to Islay and Jura.

A steamer leaves Glasgow every
Monday morning for the two Islay
harbours. Port Ellen and Port
Askaig ; but as she sails round the
Mull of Cantyre, passengers for Islay
would do well to go by the " lona "
on Tuesday morning to Tarbert, from
whence a conveyance can be got to



W. Scotland. Boute 2Q.—IsIay—Forf Ashiig ; Kildaltoii. 205



West Tarhcrt, 1| m. (Ete. 25), in
time to catch the Islay steamer on
her return journey to Port Ellen.
IsloAj is seldom visited by tourists,
who usually follow the route through
the Crinan Canal, ignoring every-
thing to the south ; but although it
does not possess scenery of the highest
order, and is inferior in this respect
to Jura, there is much to interest the
traveller. It is the most westerly
as well as the largest island of the
Southern Hebrides, being 30 m. long
by 24 broad, and containing in its
3 parishes of Kilchoman, Kilmeny,
and Kildalton, a pop. of about
16,000. It closely adjoins the island
of Jura, separated only by the Sound
of Islay, a narrow strait, lined by
precipitous cliffs. They correspond
so nearly with those of the opposite
coast that the imagination is perforce
carried back to the time when not
only Islay and Jura were contiguons
with each other, but also with the
mainland, and even with Rathlin
Island and the N. coast of Ireland.
A very strong and unpleasant current
runs through the sound, rendering
the navigation rather intricate. The
outline of the coast is irregular on
the S. and N., the largest portion of
the island being on the E., which is
separated by a naiTow isthmus from
the western prolongation of the
Ehynns. The deep indentations
thus formed are Loch-in-Daal on the
S. and Loch Gruinaird on the N.,
which penetrate inland like Nor-
wegian fiords. The interior is by no
means lofty ; the highest point,
Sgor-na-Faoileann, being only 1444
ft., while the hills on the W. are
considerably lower. The finest coast
scenery is to be found at the Point
of the Ehynns, and from Laggan Bay
round the Mull of Oe (the most
southernly promontory) to I^oudans
Bay on the E. side. "The eastern
coast, as far as Ardtala, consists of a
rugged line of low rocks, much in-
dented and beset with islands — ^the
([uartz rock here forming the higher



and more precipitous shore, of which
Macarthur's Head is the most con-
spicuous point. " — Macculloch.

+ Port Askaig is a snug little har-
bour with a decent Inn, tolerably
well sheltered by woods and planta-
tions on the slopes of the hills, in
the narrowest part of the Strait,
separating it from Jura, here only ^
m. wide, and ti'aversed by a Ferry.
To the K.W. of the town lead was
formerly worked, and the proprietor
of the estate used silver plate from
his own mines. Two roads branch
off from this point, one to Bridgend
(8 m.), thence to Bowmore (11 m.),
and another to Port Ellen (20 m.),
making the circuit of the Mull. The
latter keeps close to the coast, and,
except for sea-\dews, which include
the coast of Gigha and the opposite
Cantyi-e shore, is comparatively un-
interesting. At Macarthur's Head, a
prominent point at the S. end of
Islay Islancl, there is a lighthouse.
Near Ardmore, 14 m., is the burying-
place of Kildalton (one of the island
parishes), containing a couple of
Sculjitured Crosses, and a little far-
ther S., overlooking Laggavoulin
Bay, are the remains of a strongly-
built round tower called Dun Kaom-
haig, supposed to be one of the for-
tresses of the powerful ]\Iacdonalds,
lords of Islay. The road now winds
under the hill of Cnoc, where two
upright stones mark the supposed
resting-place of a Danish princess
named Yula, whence Islay may have
derived its name.

20 m. Port Ellen or Ellinor, a
modern village, named in honour of
Lady Eleanor (L'ampbell of Islay, has
some large distilleries, which," with
horses and black cattle, are the
source of the principal riches of the
island. From here a road cuts across
the peninsula of the Oe to the W.
coast, while another goes as far as the
cliffs of the Mull, where there is a
cave called Sloe Mhaol Doradh ; it
is, however, only accessible from the



206



Route 26. — Iday ; Boimnore.



Sect. III.



sea, and the visitor will require a
boat. The extreme point of the Mull
is occupied by the remains of an old
entrenchment called Dun Aird. The
road now coasts along the smooth
bay of Laggan, and at the base of the
range of Sgur Voucharan, 1157 ft.

Crossing the Laggan river, and
reaching the upper portion of Loch-
in-Daal at Ardlarach Point, the
traveller reaches

Boivmore (11 m. from Port As-
kaig), the chief town of Islay, with
a pop. of about 1000, and good Inn.
Loch-in-Daal was the scene of the
exploits of an American privateer in
1813, which fired and rifled several
merchant vessels lying at anchor. 3
m. to the N. is Bridgend (a good
inn), adjoining the pretty grounds
and woods of Islay or the White
House, formerly the residence of
Campbell of Islay, for centuries
owners of the island, now the pro-
perty of Chas. Morrison, Esq.

At Bridgend the road from Port
Askaig comes in, for the first part of
its course exceedingly pretty, until
it reaches the moorland.

Distances of Bridgend from — Port
Ellen, 11 m. ; Port Askaig, 8.

The steamer calls at Port Ellen 3
times a week, and once at Port
Askaig. Omnibuses from Bridgend
meet the steamer at both j^laces.

About halfway is Kilmeny kirk
and manse, and a little nearer Port
Askaig, Kilmeny Loch, the source of
the river Sorn, which accompanies
the road to Bridgend. About 1^ m.
to the N. of Kilmeny Loch and 2^
to W. of Port Askaig, is FinJagan
Loch. On its Island are the re-
mains of the principal Castle of the
Macdonalds, Lords of the Isles, who
here held their court. From Bridg-
end the excursion can be continued to
the Ehynns, the road keeping close
to the head of Loch-in-Daal, and
skirting the opposite coast to Port
Charlotte, and the little village of
Portnahaven, near the end of the
point. On Oversay Island, just ofi'



the point of the PJiynns, is a Light-
house, showing a flashing light every
5 seconds. " The promontory of the
Rhynns is noted for the extreme
violence and rapidity of the tides
that run past it — scarcely less violent
and fearful than the stream of Corry-
vi'echan, and attended with currents
even more difficult to explain. In
the most remarkable case that occurs
here, a narrow channel is found be-
tween the body of the island and the
2 small islets Chenzie and Oversay,
and in this strait the time of the ebb
is IO4 hours, that of the flood being
but 1^, while on the outside of these
islands, the twelve hours are, as in
the open sea, equally divided between
the ebb and the flood. " — Macculloch.

Keeping the W. coast, the traveller
will reach Kilchoman ch., from
whence a road runs direct to Bridg-
end, i^assing the estate of Sunderland
(A. Maclaren, Esq., who has done
very much for this portion of the
island in developing agriculture, and
encouraging deep-sea fishing at Port-
nahaven, where large numbers of cod
are caught). Instead of proceeding
direct to Bridgend, however, the
tourist may visit several interesting
spots in the northern portion of the
Khynns, particularly at Loch Guirm
or Gorm, where are the ruins of a
square fort, another stronghold of
the ]\Iacdonalds.

The coast in this portion of the
island is extremely fine, and contains
numerous caverns. The principal
one is at Sannigmore, visited by
Pennant, who thus describes it : —
' ' The entrance was difficult, but
after some trouble we found the
inside of an immense extent and
height, the roof solid rock, which
returned with the noise of thunder
the discharge of our muskets. With-
in this cave was another, straight
before us, with a fine arched entrance.
We found one gi-otto divided into
numbers of far -winding passages,
sometimes opening into fine ex-
panses, again closing for a long space



W. Scotland. Route 26. — Jura ; Pa^js of Jura.



207



into galleries, passable, but with diffi-
culty — a perfect subterranean laby-
rinth."

This spot was noted for a terrible
shipwreck in 1847, when the "Ex-
mouth," with her freight of 240
emigrants, was lost with all hands.
Cutting across the promontory, the
traveller will descend to the shores
of Loch Gruinaird, which indents
the jS". coast for a considerable
distance, though not nearly to the
same extent as Loeh-in-Daal does the
S. A fierce battle was fought here
in 1588, between the Macdonalds of
Islay and the jNI 'Leeds of JMull, with
whom they had a feud, and who had
invaded the island. The latter were
driven back with the loss of their
leader. The history of Islay is al-
together identified with the Mac-
donalds, who held sway as Lords of
the Isles after the Norwegian occu-
pation, which may still be traced in
many of the names of places. The
power of the Macdonalds was how-
ever broken in the reign of James
III., who, angry at the number and
extent of these private feuds, made
a grant of the island to the familj^ of
Campbell. The geological formation
of Islay is that of the Lower Silurian
slates, varied with occasional bands
of thin limestone, and on the E.
coast, near Port Ellen, with inter-
bedded gi'eenstones.

Jura.

To the N.W. of Islay, separated
only by the nari'ow sound, is the
long tapering island of Jura, about
30 m. in length, containing some
veiy fine scenery, but seldom visited
on account of the want of accommo-
dation, excepting small Inns at Craig-
house and Lagg. Considering its size.
Jura has a small population, the culti-
vation being extremely limited, since
the whole area is filled with moun-
tains of a sterile character. There
are a few scattered villages along the
S. and E. coasts, which are provided
with a road ; the W. coast is utterly



uninhabited, and the centre of the
island is deeply indented by Loch
Tarbet, which nearly cuts it in two.
There is o. ferry from Port Askaig to
Feolin, the road on the Jura side
running round the S. coast to Ardfin,
the residence of Richard Campbell,
Esq., in whose family the lordship
of Jura has been retained since 1666.
From thence the road skirts the E.
to the northern exti^emity of the
island, the usual landing-place from
Ciinan and the mainland. About
half-way up is the little fishing-
village of Lagg (Inii), whence there
is a ferry to Knapdale (8^ m.) ; higher
up again is Ardlussa, the residence of
Col. M'Xeill, V. C.

The most romantic scenery is
found in the S. division, and consists
principally of the Pajys of Jura, three
mammillary eminences which are con-
spicuous landmarks in the Hebridean
Sea. The most lofty is Bein-an-oir
(Mountain of Gold), 2675 ft., Ben-a-
chaolois (Mountain of the Sound),
2412 ft., and Bein-sheunta (or the
Hallowed Mountain). There is no
difficulty whatever in the ascent,
which is worth making for the sake
of the magnificent views over the
Atlantic and the coast of jMull.
From the W. side of the Paps runs a
narrow strip of rock, terminating in
the sea, and called " the slide of the
old hag." To the S. of the Paps
are Dubh Beinn (1735 ft.), and
Brut Beinn (1123 ft.), while the
northern portion of the island has
Ben Breac (1482 ft.), and Ben Garris-
dde (1210 ft.). The Antiquities of
Jura are few, and consist of a singu-
lar line of stones running down sea-
wards fi'om Bein-an-oir, and traces of
a triple entrenchment on the N. side
of the bay overlooking the Small
Isles.

To the N. of Jura is the small
island of Sccirha, separated by the
terrible gulf —
" Wliere Corryvreckan's surges driven.

Meet, moiint, and lash the breast of
heaven." $



208 Boiite 26. — Jura: Corryvreclian ; Oronsay. Sect. III.



Corryvreclmn or Corieblireacain,
" the cauldron of the spectred sea," is
the terror of light craft sailing these
seas, although, as in all cases of so-
called whirlpool, the effects of it are
immensely exaggerated. " Through
the channel, about | m. in breadth,
the sea rushes with a velocity (as
ascertained by the Admiralty sur-
veyors) of 9^ miles an hour. By the
pilots of the district the speed is re-
puted to be 17 or 18 miles an hour.
There are two circumstances which
greatly increase the effect. One is,
that in the northern side of the
channel, or near the coast of Scarba,
and towards the western mouth of
the channel, there is a large rock or
shoal on which the depth is about \
of that in the neighbouring parts of
the bay, and on this the sea some-
times breaks with great fury. The
other is, that when the current is
opposed to the wind, and especially
when the outward current is opposed
to the prevalent westerly wind, the
whole channel is covered Avith high
rolling breakers." — G. B. A.

In rough weather, at the flood-
tide, which curiously sets to the W.
out to sea, it is a very awful-looking
place, which no mariner in his senses
would care to attempt ; but in
smooth weather vessels of certain
tonnage can sail over it without
danger. The poet Campbell de-
clares that the sound of Corry-
vrechan can be heard for many
leagues on the mainland, and that it
is like the sound of innumerable
chariots.

The passage between Scarba and
Lunga is easier of access, and more
striking. ' ' Supposing the visitor to
be on the inside of the islands, he
can venture to approach most nearly
when the sea is rushing inwards
through the passage. And here he
will see a commotion of waters such
as perhaps he can nowhere else wit-
ness. He will be borne along on a
white foaming sea at a gallop speed.
We have seen, at^jthe distance of 30



ft. from our boat, a rapid conical
whirl, of perhaps 40 or 50 ft. in
diameter, force itself, like a huge
corkscrew, towards the bottom of the
sea. This passage is called in
Gaelic * Bheallaich a Choin Ghlais, '
Pass of the Grey Dog, but the sailors
call it the Little Gulf."— 6-'. B. A.

About 9 m. to the W. of Jura are
the isles of Oronsay and Colonsay,
almost touching each other — indeed
connected for three hom"s at low
water.

Oronsay, small as it is, contains
some of the most interesting ecclesi-
astical ruins, next to lona, in the
W. of Scotland, consisting of a mo-
nastery founded in the 14th centy. by
the Lords of the Isles. The Church,
which is roofless, is about 60 ft. in
length, and almost entirely without
decoration, and adjoining it is the
cloister, the arches of which, when
in preservation, were very peculiar.
On two of the sides there were 7
triangular-headed low arches, with
plain square columns, but on the
other tliey Avere round-headed.

In Pennant's time there were a great
many tombstones, some of which
represented warriors 7 ft. high — "a
flattery perhaps of the sculptor, to
give to future ages exalted notions
of their prowess." There is also the
tomb of an abbot named ]\Iacdufie,
who, it is said, Avas executed by the
Lord of the Isles for his tyranny. In
the churchyard is a fine sculptured
Cross, the head of which is adorned
Avith a relief of the Crucifixion. The
inscription at the base is to the
memory of Colin, Chief of Oronsay,
who died in 1510. Both these islands
are associated with and took their
respectiA^e names from St. Columba,
and St. Oran his companion. An
abbey existed also in Colonsay, but
all traces of it are gone, save the
foundations. This island is much
larger than Oronsay, and is remark-
able for the richness of its pasture, in
I which it forms a marked contrast to



W. Scotland. Pde. 27. — Glasgotv to Crimm Canal and Oban. 209



Jura. The late Rt. Hon. Duncan
M'Neill, after being L. President of the
Court of Sesn. , was raised to the jjeer-
age by the title of Lord Colonsay.



ROUTE 27.
Glasgow to Oban, by Ibe Clyde,

Dunoon, Rothesay, Loch Fyne,

Ardrishaig, and Crinan Canal.

Oban may be reached by several
routes overland, but the one by the
Crinan Canal is generally preferred
by the visitors to Scotland, a regular
and uninterrupted stream of whom
pass backwards and forwards daily
during the season. It is deservedly
a favourite route, for the whole voy-
age is landlocked, or otherwise so
sheltered as seldom to cause disquiet
to the traveller unaccustomed to the
sea. Moreover the accommodation
between GlasgoAV and Oban is of the
finest description, and very great cre-
dit is due to Messrs. Hutcheson and
Co., who have organised a fleet of
steamers for the service of the west-
ern seas. The '^lona," which conveys
the toiu-ist as far as Ardrishaig, is a
superb boat both in speed and fittings.
The saloons are splendidly furnished,
and there is a hurricane deck for fine
weather. Newspapers, books, and
a post-office are provided, together
with lavatories and every conve-
nience for passengers ; the cuisine
too is admirable, and it really is
one of the sights of Scotch travel
to see the tourist cargo sit down
to breakfast and dinner.

The "lona" leaves her moorings
at the Broomielaw every morning at
7 o'clock, arriving at Ardrishaig
about 1. At the farther (N.) end of
the Crinan Canal another boat is
waiting, which lands its passengers
at Oban about .6 '30.

The river portion of the route, and
the S. shore of the Clyde estuary,
Greenock, Wemyss Bay, and Largs,
are described in Rte. 23. By using the
rail from Glasgow, you can overtake
[Scotland.]



the "lona" at Greenock, starting
half-an-hour later. By leaving Edin-
burgh (W. Princes-st. stat.) at 6.30
A.M., you can also catch the " loua"
at Greenock.

liounding the point of the Cloch
Lighthouse, the steamer crosses the
Firth to

rt. * t Dunoon (Rte. 29) (Eotd :
Argyle), one of the most favourite
of Glasgow watering-places, and then
touches at i IncJlan {Hotel : Royal,
very good), which, like Dunoon, has a
fine frontage to the water, and a good
shelter of wooded hills at the back.

Instead of keeping south, the ves-
sel now turns sharj) round ToAvard
Point, upon which there is a light-
house, the S. extremity of the pro-
montory of Cowal. On rt. are the
ruins of Toward Castle, a stronghold
of the old family of Lament. There
is but one ivy-covered tower left, but
close by is the more showy modern
mansion of A. S. Finlay, Esq. Across
the island of Bute may be seen Goat-
fell, in Arran. Immediately opposite
Toward is the busy town of

t Rothesay {Inns: Queen's H.,
West Bay, out of the town, quiet,
comfortable ; Bute Arms, close to the
Pier ; Royal. The Hydropathic
Establishment, on the E. side of
the Bay, one of the most conspicuous
buildings, is also frequented as an
Hotel). Rothesay, capital of Bute,
is a Pari. Burgh (Pop. 7760), on the
Clyde. It has long been the resort
of invalids on account of its mild
climate, but of late it has been over-
run by the holiday-making folk and
workpeople of Glasgow, and has be-
come the Margate of the Clyde. It
has also turned, into a manufacturing
town, many hundreds of its popula-
tion finding employment in three
cotton mills. It has a convenient
and bustling Pier, at which a steamer
touches nearly every \ hour. The
modern town has spread neaily round

* The sign t indicates a steamboat land-
ing, Fler.

K 2



210



Pvoute 27. — Glasgoio to Oban: Rothesay. Sect. III.



the Bay, the houses commanding the
lovely view over the entrance to the
Kyles of Bute. The older town
mounts the hillside. In the centre
of it stands the Castle, a ruin since
1685, said to have been founded in
the 11th cent, by Magnus, King of
N^orvvay, afterwards the property of
the Stewarts, and a royal residence.

The existing Castle, not older than
the 14tli centy., is circular in plan,
with round towers at the corners,
2 of which have fallen, and a square
projecting Gatehouse, in which were
the chief apartments. Eobert III.,
who died here, created his eldest
son Duke of Rothesay, a title still
borne by the Prince of Wales. Crom-
well began the work of destruction
here, a work completed by a brother
of the Earl of Argyle, 1685. The
Marquis of Bute, the hereditary
keeper, has of late years cleared out
the moat, and put the buildings in a
thorough state of repair. A pleasant
terrace walk is carried round the pre-
cincts. Adjoining the castle is an im-
posing-looking jail and court-house.

Traversing High St., | m. walk
S., you reach the Old Kirk, adjoin-
ing which is a fragment of the Gothic
Ch. of St. Mary, containing 2 cano-
pied tombs, with eftigies of Stewarts,
ancestors of the Bute family, de



scended from the Nt
(Dapifer).



Fitz-Alau



The Island of Bute, of which Rothe-
say is the capital, is 18 ra. long, 5 m.
broad, and has a Pop. of between
16,000 and 17,000. Great part of
the island belongs to the Alarquis
of Bute, whose seat, Mount Stuart,
5 m. to the S., is surrounded by very
fine plantations, and contains a good
collection of pictures. From the
hills behind Rothesay charming
views may be obtained of the Island
of Arran, which is also well seen
from Ettrick Bay, a pleasant drive
of 5 m., passing througii Kames.
Near the Bay, at St. Colmacks, are
remains of a Circle of Old Stones, 4



only upright. A longer excursion is to
the S. W. to Scalpsie Bay, half-way
between which and Rothesay is Loch
Fad, a pretty lake, 1^ m. in length,
but spoiled by the embankments
made by a cotton-spinning company.
Near it Kean the actor had a cottage.
The view looking down the loch and
across to the peaks of Arran is very
tine. Loch Quicn is a smaller loch,
between Loch Fad and Scalpsie Bay.
On the road hitlier from Rothesay
are the remains of a Cliapel contain-
ing some stone effigies said to be
"the stout Stewarts of Bute," bro-
thers in arms of Wallace.
] At Laiigalchorid, in the S.W., are
, some old stone remains. The road
is continued to the very S. of the
island. There are a vitrified fort at
Dung oil, "the ruins of an early Ro-
manesque ch. of St. Blane, with an
: elegant pointed chancel, standing on
a large mound and surrounded by a
wall of unhewn stones, and another
I curious circular ruin in an adjoining
i wood, called The Devil's Caldron.
1 Ascog Hall (J. B. Stewart, Esq.),
has extensive gardens and beautiful
conifers in its grounds.

After leaving the pier at Rothesay
the steamer enters the Kyles of Bute,
a narrow, tortuous, and almost land-
locked Strait between the N. half of
Bute and the mainland, forming an
acute bend between it and the Isle
of Bute. The sail tlirough it is
agreeable, the scenery, without be-
ing fine, is exceedingly good, the
hills covered with copsewood, and
descending pretty steeply to the
Avaterside, which is fringed with
many a little seaside villa or cottage
ornee. At the head of the Bay of
Kames is the pier and village of
t Port Bannatyne or Kamesburgh,
near which is the modern mansion
of Kames Castle (Marq. of Bute —
let). On rt. pass Achavullin, Port
Lament, and the entrance to Loch
Striven, a long arm of the sea, at the
head of which may be seen the



W. Scotland. Route 27. — Loch Fijne ; Tarhert.



211



rounded tops of the Cowal mount-
ains. Upon the peninsula that
separates Lochs Striven and Ridden
is South Hall, a charming place, be-
longing to J. Campbell, Esq.

Stoppages are made at t Colin-
traive Pier, at the mouth of rt. Loch
Ridden, and Eilan Gerig, upon Avhich
a fort was built in 1685, by the
Earl of Argyle, in his unsuccessful
invasion of Scotland. It was sub-
sequently dismantled by an English
fleet. This invasion was under-
taken in conjunction with that of
Monmouth in the W. of England,
and had an equally disastrous termi-
nation, both leaders being beheaded,
the one at Edinburgh and the other
on Tower Hill. There are a pier
and Inn at i Ormidalc, some 2 m.
up Loch Ridden, from Avhence a road
runs N. to Loch Fyne, by the valley
of Glendaruel. Rounding the point
and turning southward, the steamer
passes on the 1. 2 pieces of rock in
a green hollow, rudely painted,
known as the "Maids of Bute."

At+ TigJmabruichjWheYe the Kyles
begin to Aviden, are an hotel and
a small colony of marine villas,
which enjoy a distant view of
the Arran mountains. The vessel
now rounds Ardlamont Point, the
most southerly promontory of the
Cowal district, keeping on 1. the
island of Inchmarnock, with its
ruined chapel of St. Marnock, and



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