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House, the steamer crosses over to
Salen, where there is a comfortable
Inn, a good place from whence to
make excursions either to Loch-na-
Keal or to the summit of Ben More.
The latter is easily reached by the
road from Salen to Loch Screidan,
which passes close to the base of Ben
More. In the vicinity of Salen (1.)
is Aros House (Captain F. Camp-
bell), and

Aros Castle, at one time a strong-
hold of the Lords of the Isles, on a
high rocky peninsula at the mouth
of a stream. It was probably more
a fortress than a habitation, being
90 ft. long, with walls 40 ft. high.

On rt. are vestiges of Killundin
Castle, on the coast of Morven, a
wild, desolate region, the picturesque
beauties of which are principally con-
fined to the coast. As the vessel
proceeds through the sound the



232



Route 35. — Tohermory ; Mingary.



Sect. III.



rugged and broken outlines of Ben
Hiant, near Ardnamurchan, form a
magnificent feature.

1. t Tohermory {Inns : Mull H. ;
Mish-nish). The name of this place
implies, " St. Mary's Well ; " it was
built in 1788 by the Society for the
Encouragement of British Fisheries.
It is the largest village or the only
town in Mull (1500 Inhab.), and
is built on the shore of a well-shel-
tered bay, having in front the small
island Calve. On the N. horn or
promontory of the bay stands a
lighthouse. The chapel, dedicated
to the Virgin, has entirely dis-
appeared.

The town faces the S.E., and,
with high hills at its back, has
a somewhat gloomy appearance, al-
though on a fine summer day the
thick Avoods are deliciously shady.
There is a pretty waterfall in the
stream at the back of the town,
and also several cascades in the
woods around, Avhich after rainy
weather fall directly over the cliffs
into the bay with a peculiarly beau-
tiful appearance. To the S. of the
town is Drumfin, the seat of Alex.
Allan, Esq. of Aros, on the banks
of a picturesque lake.

Good fishing in the Lakes Mish-
nish, with leave from the proprietor.

Passing on rt. the mansion and
Eom. Cath. chapel of Drimnin (Lady
Gordon), the steamer crosses the
mouth of Loch Sunart rt., a long and
beautiful fiord running into the Alor-
ven district for some 20 m., nearly
"VV. and E., separating it from Ard-
namurchan (Rte. 36). The entrance
on the N. is guarded by Ben Hiant
(1721 ft.). On rt., not far from Ard-
namurchan Point, Mingary Castle,

"Sternly placed,
O'erawes the -n-oodland and the waste."

The ruins, which are considerable,
stand upon a headland nearly sur-
rounded by water, and are further
protected by a high wall built on the
extreme edge of the cliff's. The



length of the principal building is 50
ft. ; it is 3 storeys high, but, with
the exception of a few small loop-
holes, there is no external opening.
The castle belonged to the M'lans,
a younger branch of the Macdonalds,
Lords of the Isles ; and in 1493
James IV. held his court here to re-
ceive the submission of the insular
chieftains. Mingary and Loch Aline
castles were taken in 1644 by Alaster
Macdonald (better known as Col-
kitto), who commanded the Irish
auxiliaries sent over by the Earl of
Antrim to assist Montrose. It was
besieged by the Marquis of Argyle,
but relieved.

The steamer now gains the At-
lantic, the eff"ects of whose rolling
SAvell, except on a calm day, are sure
to be experienced here. To the N.
are the lighthouse and point of Ard-
namurchan, beyond which the preci-
pitous Scuir of Eigg is seen, to-
gether Avith the lofty peaks of Rum ;
and if the day is clear the mag-
nificent outline of the Coolin Hills
in Skye (Rte. 58). In the distance,
straight in front, are the islands of
Tiree and Coll, both composed of
Laurentian gneiss. Tiree (Pop. 6000)
yields a beautiful pink marble spotted
with gi'een. In very clear weather
may also be seen the S'kerryvore light-
house, a tower of granite 150 ft. high,
built on a rock barely rising out of
the sea at low water, designed by
Alan Stevenson.

To the S. on 1. in ]\Iull is Cailiach
Point, near which the poet Campbell
lived as a private tutor, and where
he composed "The Exile of Erin"
and much of " The Pleasures of Hope. "
The S. extremity of the bay, which
is indented by the inlet of Calgary,
is called Treshnish Point. The
vessel passes on rt. the Treshnish
Islands — a picturesque group of bas-
altic trap rocks rising into terraces
about 300 ft. in height, one of which,
from its shape, is known as "The
Dutchman's Cap ;" another is pierced



^y. Scotland. Bonte 35. — Ulva ; Staffa; FingaVs Cave. 233



through by a hole or arch. The 2
largest are called Fladda and LuBga,
and are used for pasturing the cattle
belonging to the farm of Treshnish
in Coll. Fortifications exist on the
island Cairnlnirg, which was a strong-
hold of the Noi-^^egian kings, on the
border of the Sudreys (or S. Islands,
Sodor), steeply rocky and accessible
only at one point. It is mentioned
in the Sagas under the name Bjorn-
arborg. Some ascribe the existing
parts to the Macleans, who defended
Cairnburg against Cromwell.

In a bay which deeply indents the
W. coast of Mull, lies the large
Island of " Ulva dark," whose shores
are lofty cliffs of black basaltic
columns, and contrast with the small
gi'een islet of Inch Kenneth, where
Dr. Johnson and Boswell were so
hospitably received by Sir Alan Mac-
lean, A modern mansion has been
built by Col. Macdonald, but the
ruins of the huts in which these
travellers were lodged remain. John-
son commemorated Inch Kenneth in
a Latin Ode. There are ruins of a
very old church 60 ft. long, on the
Island, and belonged to the monks of
lona.

Ulva lies at the mouth of Loch
Gyle or Keal ; the scene of T.
Campbell's Poem of " Lord Ullin's
Daughter."

" Now who be ye would cross Locli Gyle,^
This dark and stormy water ?
Oh, I'm the chief of Ulva's Isle,
Aud this Lord Ullin's daughter."

Leaving behind

" Ulva dark and Colonsay,"

which adjoin the mainland pretty
closely, the steamer soon approaches
Staffa (Stafs-ey, the island of staves
or columns) (J. IST. Forman, Esq.),
a small uncultivated island, little
more than 1^ mile round, with a
perpendicular face towards the W.,
and a more gradual slope to the
sea on the E. It consists of 3
distinct strata of trap — the lower of
{Scotland.']



conglomerate, or trap-tuff; the middle
of columnar basalt, in which the
caves have been formed by the action
of the sea and the weather working
out portions of the pillars ; and an
upper bed of confused basalt and
fragments of pillars. The island is
penetrated by several caverns, but the
most famous of these, and usually
the only one visited, is Fixgal's
Cave.

When the weather permits, visitors
are landed from the steamers in boats,
and walking over the pavement,
formed by the tops of broken pillars,
can penetrate the cave and climb
the slippery platforms by means of
stairs, ladders, and ropes, which have
been erected. Still better, when
the sea is calm the tourist can pro-
ceed to the end of the cave in a
row-boat, peer down into the deep
clear water below, alive with medu-
soe, and polyps, and watch the
shimmer of the sunshine reflected
from the waves upon the high roof.
In storms there is risk of boats being
dashed by the surf against the sharp
edges of the rocks.

The length of FingaVs Cave is 227
ft., and the height from the water at
mean tide, 66 ft., the depth of the
sea within being about the same.
The sides of the aperture are vertical,
and nearly parallel. The whole of
the sides, ground, and roof, is com-
posed of black pentangular or hexa-
gon pillars, not consisting of one
solid mass from top to bottom, but
divided transversely by joints at
nearly unifonn distances of 2 ft. Sir
Walter Scott thus describes it : —

" There all unknown its columns rose,
Where dark and undisturbed repose

The cormorant had found,
And the shy seal had quiet home,
And weltered in that wondrous dome ;
Where, as to shame the temples decked
By skill of earthly architect.
Nature herself, it seemed, would raise
A Minster to her Maker's praise !
Not for a meaner use ascend
Her columns, or her arches bend ;
Nor of a theme less solemn tells
That mighty surge that ebbs and swells,

l2



234



Route 35. — Staffa : Fingal's Cave. Sect. III.



And still, between each awful pause,
From the high vault an answer draws.
In varied tone, prolonged and high,
That mocks the organ's melody.
Nor doth its entrance point in vain
To old lona's holy fane,
That Nature's voice might seem to say,
' Well hast thou done, frail child of clay !
Thy humble powers that stately shrine
Task'd hard and high, but witness mine !
Which, when the ruins of thy pile
Cumber the desolated isle.
Firm and immutable shall stand,
'Gainst Mind and waves, and spoiler's
hand.' "

Sir Eobert Peel made it his boast
that he "had seen the temple not
made with hands, had felt the ma-
jestic swell of the ocean — the pulsa-
tion of the great Atlantic — beating
in its inmost sanctuary, and swelling
a note of praise nobler far than any
that ever peeled from human organ."

In order to comprehend the/orma-
tion of this island, it must be remem-
bered that the N.W. coast of Scotland
was once the scene of violent volcanic
action, and that the subterranean
disturbances found vent along a line
from Skye to Ireland, the eliects of
which may be traced through Staffa,
]\Iull, I slay, Eathlin, and the Giant's
Causeway. By this means a great
quantity of liquid basalt was ejected
to the surface, which, when begin
ning to cool, formed a number of
nuclei, equidistant from each other,
which gradually absorbed the inter-
vening mass into as many equal
spheres. The pressure of the spheres
one upon the other caused them to
assume a prismatic shape, and if we
could take oti' the top of the island,
we should find that the pillars in
the centre are regular hexagons, while
those on the outside are more inclined
to form irregularly-sided pentagons.

StafFa was unknown to the world
before an accidental visit paid to it
in 1772 by Sir Joseph Eankes, who,
on his way to Iceland, had been
driven into the Sound of Mull, and
heard by chance from some inhabit-
ants of the district of this real won-
der of the world. The earliest ac-



count of it is to be found in Pennant's
tour in Scotland, 1774.

From the landing-place a staircase
has been formed to the top of the
island, by which glimpses of the
cliffs and caves on the other side can
be obtained, although the short time
granted by the steamboat directors
does not allow of their being visited.
They consist of — 1. The Boat Cave,
accessible only by sea, in depth about
150 ft. 2. M'Kinnon's, or the Cor-
morants Cave, is about 220 ft. in
length, and 50 ft. in height at the
entrance. 3. The Scollop Shell Cave
is of no great dimensions, but is
interesting from the form of the
columns, which are bent like a series
of ship's timbers.

The remaining curiosity is the
Giant's Colonnade, with the rock of
' ' Buachaille " (the shepherd), a sort
of small causeway or cluster of
columns forming an islet about 30
ft. high, not far from Fingal's Cave.
Its pillars are placed on a series
of curved ones, visible only at low
water. Indeed, this causeway is as
interesting as anything on the island,
but tourists scramble over it in their
hurry to get to the cave, without
paying it the attention it deserves.

After visiting Staffa in the mixed
society of a crowded steamboat, most
persons wiU agree with Words-
worth, —
%

" We saw, but surely in the motley crowd
Not one of us had/e?i the far-famed sight.
How could we feel it ? each the other's

blight.
Hurried and hurrying, volatile and loud.
.... One votary at will might stand
Gazing, and take into his mind and heart.
With undisturbed reverence, the effect
Of those proportions, where the Almighty

hand
That made the world, the Sovereign

Architect,
Had deigned to work as if with human

art. "

The island is rented by the Steam-
boat Company from the proprietor.
The boatmen are chiefly natives of
Ulva.



W. Scotland.



Fioute 35. — lona.



235



8 m. from StafFa to the S. is the
Island of Ioxa, where the steamer
usually stops one hour. In calm
weathei' it is anchored inside a reef
op2)osite the village, whence passen-
gers are conveyed in boats to a low
rude pier, leading to the scattered
street of heather-thatched cottages,
including an Established church, and
a Free, with a manse. There are 2
humble Inns, the Argyll and the
Columba.

lona is a bare and rather barren
treeless island, 3 m. long, studded
with niins, among which the square
cathedral tower is conspicuous. The
name would seem to have been ori-
ginally I or Hy (Island), changed
subsecjuently to I-Columb-Kill =
Island of Columba of the Church.
It has about 400 inhab. It belongs
to the Duke of Argyll,* and yields
about £400 a year rental. The deep
interest attached to lona, and its
attraction for strangers, are due almost
entirely to association.

" We Avere now treading that
illustrious island which was once the
luminary of the Caledonian regions,
whence savage clans and roving bar-
barians derived the beneiits of know-
ledge and the blessings of religion.

" Far from me and from my
friends be such frigid philosophy as
may conduct us inclilferent and un-
moved over any ground which has
been dignified by wisdom, bravery,
or virtue. That man is little to be
envied whose patriotism would not
gain force upon the plain of Mara-
thon, or w-hose piety would not grow
warmer among the ruins of lona." —
Dr. Johnson.

In the darkest of the dark ages
(a.d. 563) St. Columba, an Irish
monk, of noble descent, disgusted
with the sanguinary feuds of his
counti-ymen, left Ireland, and sought
refuge in lona, out of sight of his
native land. He landed with 12

* The Duke has published an interesting
account of lona.



companions, converted Connall, king
of the Dalriads, and Bored or Bradi,
king of the Picts, and founded here
a monastery, which was the means
of extending religion and civilisa-
tion not only in Scotland and the
Islands, but even to the Orkneys
and Iceland. The founder of this
seat of learning and nursery of the
clergy died circa 597, at the very
time when Augustine landed in Kent
to convert the English.

Ko buildiug now remains of the
age of St. Columba. The Northern
pirates from time to time pillaged
these defenceless recluses, and espe-
cially, in 807, burned and destroyed
the monastery and all belonging to
it.

On landing from the steamer the
stranger is beset by children offering
plates full of pebbles, yellow, green,
and blue, of serpentine and felspar,
rolled by the sm-f, and picked up
in the Bay of Currach, where St.
Columba first landed from Ireland,
on the W. side of the Island.

Leaving the cottages of the village,
the first ruin we arrive at is the
Church of the Priory of Austin Nuns
(date, circa 1180), measuring 58 ft.
by 20 ft., now roofless, except at one
end, where a portion of stone vault
remains. The tomb in the wall is
that of the last prioress (d. 1543).
Her efiig}-, in hood and cloak, occu-
pies one-half of the slab, the rest is
broken away.

Following an ancient, paved cause-
way, we pass Maclean's Cross, a
single shaft carved with great force
and excellence of design, 11 ft. high,
one of 350 existing here before the
Reformation, when they were de-
stroyed (except 2) by the anti-Popish
synod of Arg}'ll.

A little farther on is the Cemetery
(Reilig Oran), the oldest Christian
burial-place in Scotland, dedicated
to St. Oran, whose Chapel within
the enclosure, a small roofless cham-
ber of Eomanescpie architecture, is
probably the oldest building in lona.



236



Route 35. — lona Cathedral.



Sect. III.



and dates from tlie lltli centy. It
is entered by a low doorway, deeply
recessed with chevron mouldings.
Within is the tomb of MacFingal,
Lord of the Isles, and a friend of
King Robert Brace, and hero of
Scott's " Lord of the Isles," where for
euphony he is styled Ronald, his
real name being Angus Og. Here
also is an effigy of an armed knight,
Macquarrie of Ulva.

"lona has long enjoyed, without
any very credible attestation, the
honour of being reputed the Cemetery
of the Scottish kings. It is not un-
likely that when the opinion of local
sanctity was prevalent, the chieftains
of the Isles, and perhaps some of the
Irish or Norwegian princes, were
deposited in this venerable enclo-
sure." — Johnson.

Shakspeare alludes to the fact
when telling that "the gracious
Duncan " was carried to Colmskill —

" The sacred storehouse of his predecessors,
And guardian of their bones."

And Collins describes lona as the
place where,

" Beneath the showery West,
Tlie mighty kings of three fair realms are
laid."

The cause of this may be found in an
ancient Gaelic prophecy, thus ren-
dered —

" Seven years before that awful day,

When time shall be no more,
A watery deluge shall o'ersweep

Hibernia's mossy shore.
The Green-clad Isle, too, shall sink ;

While with the great and good,
Coloinba's happier isle shall raise

Her towers above the flood."

According to tradition the tombs
in the cemetery were arranged in
9 rows, or "ridges," scarcely now to
be distinguished, and the last Scottish
king interred here was Macbeth.
In the 3d, called "Ridge of the
Kings," it was said that the royal
remains were enclosed in 3 vaults.



but excavations made in 1833 have
proved that these have no existence.
Here are 2 slabs bearing bishops'
croziers. In the 14th row, 2 monu-
ments bear Gaelic inscriptions to
Irish ecclesiastics. These are the
oldest remaining, but do not date
farther back than the 12th centy.

The 5th row includes the most
perfect tombstone to 4 priors of lona,
Scotchmen of the same clan.

All the royal tombs and all the
ancient arrangements have long since
been swept away. Solicitude for
antiquity, awakened somewhat tar-
dily, has collected from among the
nettles and rubbish some two score
monumental slabs, rudely cai'ved
with crosses and swords, loelonging
to priest and warriors not now to be
identified, none of merit as works
of art or of interest for their great
antiquity. There are several be-
longing to the names of Maclean of
Col, Dnart, and Loch Buy, Mac-
kinnon and Macquarrie of Ulva.

The figure of a galley, the crozier
of a bishop or abbot, and the shield
and helmet of a king are not of un-
frequent occurrence.

Leaving " this awful gi'ound," to
.use Johnson's words, we proceed N.
of the cemetery to the ruins of the
Cathcdrcd (St. Mary's), the principal
building in lona, having in front a
picturesque and curious granite Cross,
boldly carved with Runic ornaments
and figures, called * St. Martinis
Cross, 14 ft. high.

The church, dating from beginning
of 13th centy., is cruciform ; its
length, 115 ft. The nave is nearly
demolished and the transepts are
aisleless. At the N.W. angle, out-
side the nave, are foundations of a
cell or chamber, in which it is said
the shrine and bones of St. Columba
were placed. The Tower at the
crossing, 75 ft. high, rests on jiointed
arches. Remark the 4 square
windows, openings to emit the sound
of the bells, each filled with different
tracery of elegant^ design and late



W. Scotland.



lloute 35. — luna Cathedral.



237



date. In the choir aud transepts are
2 engaged pointed arches and 3
circular arches, with elegant tooth
mouldings and lattice-patterns alike
in both, showing them to be of the
same date. On the N. side of the
altar is the monument of Abbot
Mackinnon (d. 1500), on the S. of
Abbot K. Mackenzie, and in the
centre that of Macleod of Macleod,
with effig}^ in armour. On the S.
side are 3 elegant sedilia, which,
together with the fine E. window,
are in the Decorated Gothic of the
14th centy.

\ ra. N. of the cathedral rises the
rocky knoll of Dun I, some 300 ft.
above the sea. The ascent of it
will be well rewarded by the Pano-
ranm from the top, extending over
the mountains and inlets of Mnll,
the Paps of Jnra, the Isles of Eigg,
Rum, Statfa, Treshnish, and the
far-off rock and lighthouse of Skerry-
vore.

There is no corn-mill in lona :
grain is carried over to Bunessan, in
Mnll, to be ground. Failing this
"^/le Que/m," or hand-mill, men-
tioned in the Bible, is still resorted
to. There are two specimens fit for
use in the island at present.

The scenery of the island of lona
does not offer anything in parti-
cular. On the "W. side there is a
natural curiosity called the " Spout-
ing Cave" where the water, rush-
ing in and compressing the air, is
forced back through a small orifice
to a great height.

From the village there is a ferry
across the Sound of lona to the Ross
of Mull, where the granite quarries
are worth notice. A road leads
from Port Dearg on that coast to
Bunessan, 5 m., a small town
situated at the extremity of Loch
Lathaich, and not far from Ardtun,
where the geologist will find the
tertiary leaf-beds before alluded to.
A steamer from Glasgow calls at



Bunessan once or twice a month.
There is a small Inn at Bunessan.

" The Rev. Thomas M'Lachlan has
traced for a distance of 7 miles a
series of granite monoliths in Mull,
each about 6 ft. in height, at intervals
of about half-a-mile, the oue within
sight of the next, extending east-
wards and along the shore of Loch
Screidan from the first nearest the
shore, which stands in a conspicuous
place within sight of the cathedral.
He ascertained that there is a vague
tradition among the people that
these were Avaymarks to lona, and
that there had been a continuous line,
though most of the stones have now
disappeared." — Anderson.

Macdonald, the postmaster of lona,
keeps a safe boat, in which parties
may be conveyed for 12s. to 20s.,
according to their number, to Staffa
from lona.

15 m. S. W. of lona is the solitary
rock of Dhu Reartach (St. John's
Rock), a solitary trap rock, 220. ft.
long, rising 30 ft. out of deep water,
in the midst of dangerous reefs occu-
pying some square miles — long a
source of danger to mariners — but
since 1867-72 surmounted by a Light-
Jiouse 100 ft. high, erected by the
Messrs. Stevenson, engineers to the
Commissioners of the Northern Light-
houses. The difficulties in approach-
ing the rock were very great. On an
average this was possible on only 50
days in a year. The stones and other
material were prepared at Erraid
granite quarries in the Ross of Mull.
On one occasion 14 stones, each of
2 tons, fixed by jaggles and cement
into the masonry, 37 ft. above high
water, were torn out by the waves
and swept off the rock.

The S.W. angle of Mull is beset
with reefs extending nearly all the
way to the lighthouse, whose use is
to warn mariners off from them.

In steering to or from lona, the
steamer, by aid of careful surveys



238



Route 36. — Ohan to Bannavie.



Sect. III.



and experienced pilots, is able to
thread its way safely througli a little
archipelago of granite islets, by a
narrow and intricate channel.

Soon after rounding Ardalanish
Point, the granite ceases, and gives
place to igneous rocks, which gra-
dually rise into precipitous cliffs. At
Carsaig (A. ]\[aclean, Esq.), at the
entrance to Loch Buy, the scenery
is extraordinarily fine— consisting of
a series of basaltic rocks, which
in one instance have been pierced
through by the action of the sea so
as to obtain for them the name of
the Carsaig arches. These cliffs rise
to the height of 1000 ft., surmounted
by columnar basalt, exceeding all
others in Scotland, save those of
Hoy. The inland cliffs between
Loch Buy and Loch Spelve are
basaltic. At the head of Loch Buy,
a considerable salt-water inlet, the
mountains of Ben Buy (2.352 ft. ) and
Creachbeinn (2.344 ft.) are seen, while
seaward the traveller obtains good
views of Colonsay, Oronsay, Gar-
velloch or the Isles of the Sea, and
the distant ranges of Scarba and
Jura, in which the Paps are parti-
cularl}^ conspicuous. Moy is the
modern seat of M 'Lean of Loch Buy.
Here Johnson and Boswell stayed on
their return from the Hebrides, and
it was here Johnson was so offended
by Miss M'Lean's offer of cold
sheep's-head for supper.

1. Loch Spelve is another narrow
fiord, ramifying for a considerable
distance inland. The cliffs between
Lochs Buy and Spelve are lofty and
picturesque. The steamer now
enters the Sound of Kerrera. There
is a ferry from the Point of Crushna-
craig (4 m. from Duart Castle, 9 m.
from Salen) to Kerrera. Passing on
rt. Gallenach (P. M'Dougall, Esq.),



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