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to Kingussie in 7 hrs. and back
daily, to meet the mail train on the
Highland Railway (Pae. 48).

The road passes on 1. Inverlochj'-
Castle, the Suspension Bridge, and
Torlandie, the modern seat of Lord
Abinger, who is a large proprietor in
this district. On rt. are seen the
massive range of Ben Nevis, and



its round shoulders. The scenery
is very picturesque at

94 m. Spean Bridge (a good Inn),
where the Spean is crossed, a fine
brawling Highland stream, full of
deep eddies and swift currents. It
is a noble salmon river, but strictly
preserved, principally by Lord Abin-
ger. The gorge of the S2:)ean above
this is very romantic, varied by
woods and rocks. At Highhridge it
is again spanned by an old pictur-
esque bridge of 3 arches, built by
Gen. Wade, the spot where the cam-
paign of the '45 was opened, by Cap-
tain Scott and a detachment sent
from Fort- Augustus being surprised
and made prisoners by the Mac-
donalds of Keppoch.

Some of the famous geological
"roads " begin to appear on the sides
of the mountains in Glen Spean, as the
tourist approaches Glen PlOij, and the
(13 m.) Bridge of Eoy Inn, situated
at its mouth. Most of the celebrated
geologists of the day have visited
this Inn on a pilgrimage to Glen
Roy and its Parallel Roads. [From
Bridge of Roy to the Lodge (A. Prior,
Esq.), at the head of the glen, it is
about 9 m., but an excellent view of
" the Roads" is obtained about 4 m.
up the valley. — "Each of these
roads is a shelf or terrace, formed
by the shorewaters of a lake that
once filled Glen Roy. The highest
is of course the oldest, and those
beneath it were formed in succes-
sion, as the waters of the lake were
lowered. This lake not only filled
up Glen Roy, but also some of the
other valleys to the west. Until
Agassiz suggested the idea of a dam
of glacier ice, the great difficulty in
the way of understanding how a lake
could ever have filled these valleys
was the entire absence of anj'- relic of
the barrier that must have kept back
the water. Mr. Jamieson has shown,
however, that Agassiz's suggestion is
fully borne out by the evidence of
great glacial erosion both in Glen



24G



Route 3S.—GIen Roy ; Loch Treig. Sect. III.



Spean and in tlie valley of the Cale-
donian Canal. The latter valley-
seems to have been filled to the biini
with ice, which, choking up the
mouths of Glens Roy and Spean,
served to pond back the waters of
these glens. The Glen Treig glacier
in like manner stretched right across
Glen Spean, and mounted its north
bank. When the lake that must
have thus filled Glen Eoy and the
neighbouring valleys was at its
deepest, its surplus waters would
escape from the head of Glen Eo}^
down into Strathspey, and at that
time the uppermost beach or parallel
road (1140 ft. above the present sea-
level) was formed. The Glen Treig
glacier then shrank back a little, and
the lalce was thus lowered about SO
ft., so as to form the middle terrace,
wdiich is 1059 ft. above the sea, the
outflow being now by the head of
Glen Glaster and through Loch Lag-
gan into the Spey. i\.fter the lake
had remained for a time at that
height, the Glen Treig glacier con-
tinued on the decline, and at last
crept back out of Glen Spean. By
this means the level of the lake was
reduced to 847 ft. above the sea, and
the waters of Glen Roy joined those
of Loch Laggan, forming one long
winding lake, having its outflow, by
what is now the head of Glen Spean,
into Strathspey. While this level
was maintained, the lowest of the
parallel roads of Glen Roy was
formed. As the climate of the
glacial period grew milder, however,
the mass of ice which choked up the
mouth of Glen Spean and ponded
back the waters, gradual!}'- melted
away : the drainage of Glen Roy,
Glen Spean, and their tributar)^
valleys was no longer arrested, and
as the lake crept step by step down
the glen towards the sea, the streams
one by one took their places in the
channels, which they have been busy
widening and deepening ever since."
— Geikie.

By ascending two-thirds of Glen



Roy, and turning to the 1. up the
trilDutar}^ glen of Glen Furraied, a
good pedestrian may cross the ridge
intervening between it and Loch
Lochy, and catch the Inverness
steamer at Laggan (Rte. 39), or
he may cross the watershed to Loch
Spey, and so descend the strath,
joining the old military road at
Corryarrick, about 5 m. from Loch
Spey, a small tarn, which is the
cradle of the Spey.]

For several miles above the junc-
tion of the Eoy and Spean, the latter
runs through a very grand, rocky
channel, well sheltered by foliage,
and very picturesque.

174 m. the Treig falls into the
Spean from Loch Treig on S. [at the
mouth of the glen Agassiz points to
the remarkable terraced mounds of
blocks left by the glaciers, which, he
says, reminded him of those moraines
in the valley of Chamounix. Amongst
these masses, which are composed
of syenite, Mr. Jameson found one
measuring 26 ft. in length, and he
compares the moraine to a ruined
breakwater. A road runs on the E.
side of Loch Treig, and round its
head, or the tourist can return to
Glen Spean by another road doAvn
the glen known as Larig Leach-
dach. A well -seasoned pedestrian
can ascend Glen Treig, climb over
the ridge into Glen Nevis, and so
descend to Fort- William, as fine a
mountain-walk as can be got in
Scotland. From the head of Loch
Treig another road runs S. E. to the
head of Loch Leven and the Devil's
Staircase (Rte. 34).]

The country, which has hitherto
been fully or partially cultivated,
becomes wild and bleak, on approach-
ing Loch Laggan. On an eminence
near its W. end is the Highland seat
of Mr. Ansdell, R.A., the animal
painter.

Loch Laggan, 7 m. long, and 1
broad, contains 2 small islands, upon
one of which are the ruins of a



Inverness.



Boute 39. — Caledonian Canal.



247



castle, said to have been built by
Fergus II. On the S. side of the
loch is Ardverikie, a shooting-lodge
of Sir John Ramsden, Bart., to whom
the adjoining domain belongs. The
Queen and Prince Consort occu-
pied this house for some weeks in
1848, when it belonged to Lord
Abercorn. On the walls were some
admirable sketches of Deer Stalking,
by Sir Edw. Landseer.

32 m. at the E. end of Loch Lag-
gan is a fair Inn, and close by is the
old Kirk of Laggan, a rough, rootless
shell, full of nettles and modern
tombstones, and near it is Mr. Armi-
stead's Lodge. The rushing river
Pattach feeds Loch Laggan. Soon
after leaving the inn the watershed
between the Atlantic and the Ger-
man Ocean rivers is passed, and the
road enters and descends the valley
of the Spey.

[At the junction of the 2 rivers
Mashie and Spey the Corrxjarrick
road falls in, at one time an im-
portant communication between the
E. and W. Highlands, but now little
used. It passes Glenshirra shooting-
lodge (Evan Baillie, Esq.) and the
Garvamore, once an inn, then fol-
lows the valley of the Spey until the
road from Inverness joins it. The
scenery is excessively wild at the
Corryarrick Pass, where the road is
carried over Corryarrick Mountain,
and winds down the Tarff valley, by
a series of 16 extraordinary zigzags,
to Fort- Augustus (Rte. 39) ; the dis-
tance to which from Bridge of Laggan
is about 20 m.]

At the angle formed by the Spey
and the ]\Iashie in Glenshirra is the
interesting British fort of Dunda-
lair, the walls of which, of slabs of
slates in dry masonry, are 12 ft.
thick and 14 ft. high. "It is the
most perfect British stronghold in
Scotland." — D. JV. It is 12 m. from
Kingussie.

At the Bridge of Laggan the Spey



is crossed by a timber bridge. At
one end of it stands the Old Kirk
and manse, where Mrs. Grant of
Laggan lived, and wrote "Letters
from the Mountains," and at the
other the Free church.

A little farther on the 1. is Chiny
Castle, the seat of Ewen Macpherson,
Esq., chief of the clan Macpherson
and the clan Chattan, whose pipes,
preserved here, are said to be the
identical pipes which stirred up the
passions at the battle between clan
Chattan and clan Quhele on the
North Inch at Perth, so well de-
scribed by Sir Walter Scott in " The
Fair Maid of Perth." The road
runs under the grand precipices of
Craig Dhu. At

47 m. , Newton More Stat. , the road
joins the Perth and Inverness road,
and runs parallel with the Highland
Railway to

50 m. Kingussie Stat. {Hotel: Duke
of Gordon, fair ; coach to Fort-Wil-
liam starts from this house), Rte. 48.



ROUTE 39.

Bannavie to Inverness, by the
Caledonian Caaal, Fort-Augus-
tus, Loch Oich, Loch Ness, and
Falls of Foyers.

A steamer starts every morning in
summer from Bannavie at 8, and
from Inverness at 7. They cross
midway near Fort- Augustus about
12, making the voyage in 9 hrs. ,
including the passage of 8 or 10
locks, which occupy 2 hrs. (9 min.
each). Passengers can breakfast and
dine on board comfortably. A halt
of \ hr. at the Falls of Foyers per-
mits a hasty visit to them.

The Caledonian Canal is the con-
necting link between Lochs Eil,
Lochy, Oich, and Ness, and opens a
line of communication through the



248



Boute 39. — Bannavie to Inverness. Sect. III.



"Glen More nan Albin," or the
Great Glen of Scotland, between
the Atlantic and German Oceans.
Public attention was first directed
to the scheme in 1773, when Watt
the engineer was intrusted to make
a survey and report upon its feasi-
bility. Nothing, however, teas clone
until 1803, A\hen this magnificent
undertaking was commenced, and,
after costing a million sterling, was
opened for traffic in 1822. But it
had not been properly finished ac-
cording to the original plan, and
after some years Avas found to be little
better than useless. The Govern-
ment again took it up in 1838, and
consulted Mr. AValker, civil en-
gineer, and Sir Edward Parry, R.N.,
as to the feasibility of its comple-
tion. By their recommendation
certain improvements were made,
and the canal finally re-opened in
1847, at the cost of a further sum of
£250,000.

The entire length of the navigation
from Corpach to Clach-na-harry, the
Inverness terminus, is 60 ^ m., of
which 23 m. only are canal, the rest
being the natural waterway of the
Lochs which the canal connects. It
is 20 ft. deep, 50 ft. broad at the
bottom, and 110 ft. at the top. The
summit-level at Loch Oich is 100 ft.
above the level of the sea at Cor-
pach and Inverness. This canal pre-
sented great advantages to sailing
vessels, for, whereas a ship might be
for weeks or even months windbound
before it could come round the Pent-
land Firth, it can now reckon on
crossing from sea to sea in 48 hours.
The introduction of steam has de-
prived the Canal of this gi'eat utility.
The rates are Is. per register ton,
with additional charge if steam-power
is required. Both Caledonian and
Crinan Canals are under the super-
vision of commissioners appointed by
Government.

The Great Glen, through which
this singular waterway exists, is
the largest of those longitudinal |



valleys common in the "W. of Scot-
land, Avhich appear to coincide with
the line of a great fault. This fault
is considered by Mr. Geikie to be of
a date prior to the deposition of the
old red sandstone, as the conglome-
rate of that age is seen running up
the glen from the ]\Ioray Firth, and
he believes it to mark the locality of
successive disturbances (from its be-
ing a weak line in the crust of the
earth). This seems to be corrborated
by the fact that Loch Kess has fre-
quently been agitated violently dur-
ing several historical earthquakes.

Telford's greatest difiiculty lay at
the commencement, to connect liOch
Lochy with the sea at Corpach, 80
ft. below it, the distance being onlj''
8 miles. He managed to surmount
the slope of the hill by a series of 8
lochs in succession, which at once lift
the water to a height of 64 ft., and
which he named NeiJtune!s Staircase.
At the top of this the steamer starts
for Inverness.

* i Bannavie (Inn : Lochiel Arms,
good, but dear, 1874), close to the
locks, where the canal steamer stops
in order to avoid delay of passing
through. An omnibus conveys pas-
sengers to the sea steamers I5 m.
off, at Corpach. This is a good point
from which to make the ascent of
Ben Nevis {see Rte. 36).

The Canal runs thro^^gh the
district known as Lochaher, "The
Lakes' Mouth. " The scenery on the
rt. is very bold and magnificent, and
the retrospective view of Ben Nevis
one of the best that can be obtained.
In the distance also is seen the resi-
dence of Lord Abinger.

Farther on, the river Lochy is
parallel with the canal, but at some
distance below, the intervening space
being frequently flooded by the dis-
charge of superfluous water from the
canal. The embankment by which
the canal bed is raised 30 or 40 ft.

* This mark t denotes a lauding-pier or
place where steamers touch.



W. Scotland. Boute 39. — Loch Lochj ; Loch Oich.



249



above the natural surface on both
sides is remarkable.

8 m. at Gairlochy, is a large
regulating lock leading into Loch
Locliy. [From here a road runs
E. to Spean Bridge, 4 m. {see Rte.
38). The opening of Glen Spean
offers a charming prospect from the
canal.]

Loch Lochy is 10 m. long and 1.
m. in breadth, the hills descending
close to the water's edge. On 1. is
the entrance of the Arkaig, a long,
narrow sheet of water, on the northern
side of which a road runs to Glen
Dessary and Loch iSevis (Rte. 37).

[Near the foot of Loch Arkaig is
Achnacarry, the modern residence of
Cameron of Lochiel. Only a frag-
ment remains of the old Castle,
which was bui-nt by the Duke of
Cumberland in 1746. It was also
the residence of the redoubtable
Sir Ewen Cameron, noted for his
desperate courage, in the field.

On the rt. of the lake is Glenfin-
taig, well situated.

18 m. Kinloch Lochy, at the foot
of Ben Tigh, 2942 ft., was the scene
of a ferocious battle in 1544, between
the M 'Donalds of Clanranald and the
Erasers. The chief of the M 'Donalds
had died, and a natural son had
seized the property. The Erasers
adopted the cause of the right heir,
and, having wasted the lands of
M 'Donald, were met on their return
at this place. The chief of the
Erasers and 80 men fell, and the heir
of Clanranald was wounded, taken
prisoner, and afterwards murdered
by the surgeon who was employed to
dress his wounds thrusting a needle
into his brain !

The section of the Canal (2 m.
long) which connects Loch Lochy
with Loch Oich terminates E. at the
hamlet of Laggan of Glengarry, where
are 2 locks. Travellers bound for
Glenshiel and Skye may disembark



here or at CalJantry, 5 m. farther,
near the E. end of Loch Oich, but
conveyances are not to be got nearer
than Invergany, 4 m. otF. At Laggan
Macdonald of Glengarry is buried.
He was the latest example of a
thorough Highlander, admiring every-
thing Celtic with dogged enthusiasm,
and despising everything from the
South. [By crossing the hills on rt.
a pedestrian can reach Glen Roy and
its Parallel Roads in about 6 m. of
difficult walking. {See Rte. 38.)]

20 m. is the entrance to Loch Oich,
a truly beautiful Highland lake, 3i
m. long, which empties into Loch
Ness, hemmed in by well-wooded
banks, and dotted here and there
with pretty islands. On the rt. the
range of hills is high and steep,
though grassy and wooded. On the
1. the principal object is "Glen-
garry's Bow^ling Green."

1. There is a singular monument
by the loch side, erected by the late
M'Donell of Glengarry, over the
" Well of Heads.'" It consists of a
group of 7 human heads carved in
stone, with an inscription in English,
Gaelic, Erench and Latin. Keppoch,
head of a branch of the M'Donells,
died, having sent his 2 sons for edu-
cation to Erance, and leaving his
affairs to the management of his
7 brothers, by whom his sons on
their return were murdered. But
the old bard of the family never
rested till he got assistance and put
the murderers to death. Their
heads were presented here to Glen-
garry, having been previously washed
in this stream, which has ever since
been called "Tobar-nan-Ceann," or
the "Well of the Heads."

22 m. 1. the ruined castle of Inver-
garry, burnt- by the Duke of Cum-
berland in 1746, and Invergarry
House, the handsome modei-n man-
sion, built 1869, of E. Ellice, Esq.,
M.P., who bought the Glengarry
estate from the Earl of Dudley for



250



Route 39. — Liver garr ij ; Loch Ness. Sect. III.



£120,000. The house is very well
lilaced, overlooking the lake, where
the scenery is most charming. It
stands at the opening of Gleyi Garry,
which stretches from this point to
the W. coast, 20 m. It was of old
tenanted by the Kennedys, the most
savage and untamable' of all the
Highland clans. They were eventu-
ally expelled or exterminated by a
combination of their enemies. The
old Castle is an interesting 5-storeyed
square tower, with a turret at one
side. On a rock above the lake,
called " Craig-na-Phithick," or the
"Rock of the Raven," which, once
the old war-cry of the M'Donells,
is now the motto of its chief.

Gallantry, close to the Locks, at
the N. end of L. Oich, is, 3 m. from
Invergarry Inn (tolerable). Post
horses and cars may be hired here,
but must be ordered beforehand, as
the supply is short. This is the start-
ing point of the very favourite road
to Skye by Glen Shiel Inn, on Loch
Duich, 34 m. ; also to Glenelg and
Loch Hourn Head, 24 m. (Rte. 60).

23J m. near the end of Loch
Oich is Aberchalder, the rendezvous
of Prince Charles's forces before
proceeding southwards.

Here the summit level of the
Canal is reached, and the descent com-
mences, the steamer passing within
2 m. through 8 locks in succession,
an operation which takes about an
hour and a half, or even longer, if a
vessel should happen to be coming
in the opposite direction. Passengers
may walk along the bank and regain
the steamer at the last lock. Close
to these locks at E. is Fort- Aug ivstus,
a moated and bastioned fort, at the
S. end of Loch Ness, commanding
the Pass of Corryarrick into Strath-
spey, and Laggan (Rte. 38).

+ Fort- Augustus, constructed to
hold 300 men, but now fast decaying,
and no longer Government property,
was sold 1867 to Lord Lovat. It
was built shortly after the Rebellion



of 1715, and named in honour of the
then Prince of Wales. {Inns : King's
Inn and Glen Tarif, both small and
second rate).

29 m. Loch Ness, the last in the
chain of lakes, is nearly 24 in. long,
and has an average breadth of 1 m.
The hills on each side rise directly
from the water's edge, and the banks
of the lake below the surface of the
water are as steep as those of the hills
above it ; consequentlj^ the depth in
the centre is as much as 130 fathoms,
and the surface never freezes. The
surrounding ranges rise to a height
of 1200 ft., and are densely clothed
with trees of all kinds.

Mr. Geikie considers that, not-
withstanding the existence of a vast
fault running down the Great Glen,
Loch Ness is a true rock basin, and
has been formed by the scooping out
of the hollow by glacier ice !

t 34 m. 1. Invermoriston (Inn,
good) is the outlet of Glenmoriston,
and of an important road to the W.
coast and to Skye (Rte. 61), uniting
at Clunie Inn with the road from
Invergariy to Shiel House Inn. 16
m. below Clunie is Torgoyl hamlet
and small Inn, where a path strikes
over the mountain in 6 or 7 m. to
Fort-Augustus.

The Falh of Moiisfon are I m.
from the pier. The mouth of the
glen is surrounded by a semicircle of
well-wooded hills, in front of which
is Glenmoriston House (Trustees of
the late J. Murray Grant, Esq.), an
old mansion modernised.

A little higher up, above Ruisky,
is another torrent, called Aultguithas,
which has an almost vertical fall
down the hillside.

+ 38 m. rt. the steamer touches at
the Pier near the mouth of the
Foyers river, and the pretty wood
and meadows round the house of J.
C. Cunningham, Esq. , so as to allow



W. Scotland. Route 39. — Falls of Foyers,



251



the tourist an opportunity to visit
the Falls of Foyers. Pier ^4d. toll).

There is a good Hotel at Foyers,
occupying the site of an inn called
the "(General's Hut" (from its
having been General Wade's head-
quarters while superintending the
roads in the Highlands).

The river Foyers takes its source
in a mountain lake to the E. of Fort-
Augustus, on the skirts of the Mo-
nagh Leagh mountains, and con-
tinues its course at a considerable
elevation, till it reaches the edge of
the hills which hem in the valley of
the Ness on the S.E. Here it de-
scends in two gi-and falls through a
deep and tortuous gash or glen in the
mountain side, rocky, but shrouded
within thick woods, so that the Fall
is in\'isible from the lake. The
steamers going N. and S. stop here
4 an hour to let the passengers visit
the Falls, but it is a steep though
pretty walk of at least 10 min. from
the landing-place to the lower Fall,
with the sight of which the visitor is
obliged usually to be content. It is
far the finest.

The river rushing down from this
through a rough and rocky channel,
finally throws itself over the preci-
pice into a pool 90 ft. below. Both
river and falls are closely bordered
with birch, which on a sunny day
add much to the beauty.

" It cannot be disputed that F03'-
ers is the first in order of all our
cascades ; but it is as vain to at-
tempt to compare it, in respect of
beauty, with that of the Tummel
or those of the Clyde, as it would be
to compare a landscape of Cuyp with
one of Rubens, or the Bay of Naples
with Glencoe. " — Maccidloch.

The post of vantage to see the lower
Fall is on a projecting rock, very
happily placed, overlooking the pool.

" Among the heathy hills and ruggeil woods
The roaring Foyers pours his massy floods,
Till full he dashes on the rocky mounds,
Where thro' a shapeless breach his stream
resounds.



As high in air the bursting torrents flow.
As deep recoiling surges foam below.
Prone down the ro(^k the whitening sheet

descends,
And viewless Echo's ear, astonished

rends."— IJio- us.

The upper Fall is 30 ft. high, and
is crossed by a light bridge, beside
which there is a pathway leading
to the best point for viewing it.

Distances — to Inverness, 18 m. ;
Fort- Augustus, 14 m.

There is a pleasant drive up Glen
Farigaig, and above the hotel and
Falls. Ferry from Foyers to Ruisky
Inn on N. shore.

Beyond Foyers on rt. is Inxcrfari-
gairj, under a precipitous hill, sur-
mounted by the vitrified fort of
Duniardd. The visitor who has
time to stay at Foyers should Avalk
inland from the Falls until he strikes
upon the road to Glen Farigaig, re-
turning by the shore-road.

N"., on the opposite side of the
loch, is Mealfourvounic, a fine moun-
tain of old red conglomerate, 3060
ft. high, the last of the range that
separates Glenmorjston from Glens
Afirick and Urquhart. Its ascent
can be made in about 2\ hours from
'"+ Drumnadrochit Inn {see next
page), visiting on the way the Falls
of Dhivach).

45 m. 1., on a rocky promontory,
are the ruins of Casth Urquhart,
originally built in the 12th centy.
The remains, forming a considerable
enceinte, nearly oval in plan, include
a strong square keep of 3 storeys,
and a dungeon or pit, surmounted
by turrets, and on the land side are
defended by a deep and broad moat.
The whole area is enclosed by a wall,
and the entrance defended by massive
towers. The old castle was besieged
by the army of Edward I. in 1803,
and this was built in its place by his
engineers. It next belonged to the
Chisholms, and in ] 509 passed into

* t Signifies a landing-pier.



252



Pioute 39. — Glen Urquhart.



Sect. III.



the hands of the clan Grant, whose
property it still is.

+ 1. TcmplcJwuse Pier, at the
mouth of Glen Urquhart, is about a
mile from the excellent

Inn of Drumnadrochit, 14 m. from
Inverness.

[A little waj' up the Glen is the
beautiful residence oi Balmacaan,ihe
abode of the Earl of Seafield, chief of
the clan Grant. The gi'ounds offer
charming walks. An excursion may
be made from Drumnadrochit up
Glen Urquhart to Strath Affrick by
the Chisholm Pass, and the Druim
and Inver Cannich, which will intro-
duce the stranger to some of the
wildest scenery in Scotland (Rte.
65a). ] A coach runs in summer to
Inver Cannich.]

The upper part of Loch Ness is
not particularly interesting, it ter-
minates iu Loch Lochfour, On the



ground which separates the two lochs
may be traced the vestiges of a
Roman encampment, called by Ptole-
my Banatia — and the foundations of
an old keep named Castle Spiritual.



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