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sion (Earl of Glasgow) and Eden wood
(SirG. Campbell, M.P.) On the hill
to the S. is the old ruined tower of
Scotstarvit, once the residence of Sir
John Scott, the quaint author of
"The Staggering State of Scots
Statesmen," 1652.

[Cults Church contains a medallion
by Chantrey of the father and mother
of Sir David Wilkie, who was born
in the vianse, which is backed by
what he called "my own blue
Lomonds." His first picture was
Pitlessie Fair, a subject of 140
figures.]

32 m. Civpar (pronounced Coopar)
Stat., the county town of Fife, a
pari, burgh and one of the royal
burghs of David II. {Hotels : Royal ;
Tontine ; both good). Pop. 5105.
Notwithstanding its antiquity it has
a modern appearance, the castle
having been long superseded by the
Madras Academy, which is built on
its site. There is, however, a slight
fragment of the old Dominican mon-
astery, and the parish church is of
the ]5th centy., although modern-
ised. The immediate neighbourhood
is pretty, and adorned with pleasant
villas and seats, as Eden Park, Kin-
gask, Tarvit, etc.

Lord -Chancellor Campbell was
born here, his father having been
minister of Cupar.

A few miles to the N".W., on an
eminence which commands a large
extent of country, formerly known
as The Mount, the property and
patrimonial seat of Sir David Lind-
say, the poet and king-at-arms, is an
obelisk erected to the memory of the
4th Earl of Hopetoun.

35 i m. Dairsie Stat. The ruins
of Dairsie Castle stand on an emi-
nence overhanging the river Eden,
which is here crossed by a bridge of
3 arches. David 11. lived here, as
in a place of retreat and security
during a great part of his minority ;



and here, in the early part of the
17th centy.. Archbishop Spottiswoode
wrote his "History of the Church in
Scotland."

The little Cliurch of Dairsie was
built in 1621 by the same dignitary,
as part of his plan for covering Scot-
land with such ch. edifices and ser-
vices as England has retained, and is
alluded to by him "as one of the
beautifulest little pieces of church
work left in this unhappy country."
Its style is Gothic, but of a date
when all architecture was obsolete.
Consequently the plan is awkwardly
carried out. The windows are most
primitive looking, on account of
their not being divided by raised
muUions, but cut out of the flat stone.
The ch. had at one time a handsome
rood-screen, or, as it was called, "a
glorious partition-wall of timber,"
which the Provincial Assembly of
Fife ordered to be cut down to the
level of the pews.

The geologist will find an inter-
esting locality 2 m. from Dairsie, at
Dura Den, where the old red sand-
stone contains a remarkable number
of fossils in a fiiir state of preserva-
tion, principally consisting of fishes.
The most abundant are the Holopty-
chius Andersoni, an armour-plated
fish, together with the Pamphractus,
a fossil resembling the Ptericthys,
which is also found there (P. hy-
drophilus).

In the neighbourhood are Kil-
maron (Lady Baxter) and Balruddery
(J. Edward, Esq.)

39 m. Leuchars Junct. Stal.,
whence the rly. to St. Andrews is
given off. This little village is cele-
brated amongst ecclesiologists for the
most beautiful fragment of a Roman-
esque church to be found in Scotland ;
not so large as that at Dalmeny, but
from the richness of what remains
it is evident that it must have been
a much handsomer building. The
nave is modern. The exterior of
the apse is ornamented with two



262



Route 40. — Leuchars ; Magus Moor. Sect. IV.



rows of arches, separated by a
string-course of tooth-moulding, the
upper arches having square piers
between the pillars. Above is a
corbel with grotesque heads, some
human and some of rams, together
with the muzzled bear. The church
is supposed to belong to the early
part of the 12th ceuty. To the W.
of the apse the decorations consist of
an under arcade of interlaced arches
and an upper one of arches with
cable moulding. Internally the
visitor should particularly notice
the very rich mouldings of the arch
at the entrance of the apse.

1 m. to the E. is EarVs Hall, a
seat of the Bruce family, begun
in 1546, and finished in 1607. It
stands in a small park, surrounded
by a belt of trees, and consists
mainly of a square tower, with a
single room on each floor. In the
drawing-room is a mantel-piece, with
a coat-of-arms, on which are the
initials A. B. (Alexander Bruce) and
E. L. (Elizabeth Lindsay), his wife.
On the next floor is the hall, with
ceiling painted to represent various
coats-of-arms of all ages, such as
"Hector Prince of Troy," "David
King of Israel," " Emperor of Judea,"
and so forth, with others of less
illustrious families, though deriv-
ed probably from more authentic
som-ces.

The Railway to St. Andrews runs
through a well cultivated district to

2 m. Guardhridge Stat. The
bridge over the Eden, which below
this opens into a broad creek of the
sea, was originally built by Bishop
"Wardlaw about 1420, and repaired
by Ai'chbishop Beaton 100 years later.
See the arms on the keystones and
buttresses.

4 m. to the S. is Magus Moor, on
which a plantation, still called "the
Bishop's Wood," marks the place
where Archbp. Sharpe was waylaid,
dragged from his coach, and butchered



in the arms of his daughter, who vainly
strove to protect him, by a party of
crazy Covenanters, commanded by
Balfour of Burley and Hackston of
Rathillet, 3d May, 1679. Five of
the Bothwell Bridge prisoners were
brought hither, and hung in chains
as atonement !

5 m. ^S*^. Andrews Stat, about a
mile from the ruins, which stand at
the E. end of the city, the station
being at the W. {Inns, second-rate :
Cross Keys, Market Street, and
Royal, South Street.)

This ancient and historic city and
pari, burgh, of 6316 inhab., seat of
a venerable University, stands on a
rocky and exposed promontory jut-
ting into the North Sea ; cheerful as
a residence and watering-place, and
highly interesting from its historic
associations and numerous remains
of ancient buildings. It consists of
3 chief streets, called North, South,
and Market streets, nearly parallel,
but converging towards the E. at the
Cathedral, and the small pier and
harbour.

A stranger arriving at the Railway
Station may reach the ruins of the
Castle and Cathedral by crossing the
Links (generally alive with players,
female and male, occupied with the
old Scottish game of Golf, of which
St. Andrews is the headquarters),
skirting the town on the rt., and
passing on 1. the handsome Golf
Club House, and the obelisk, called
the Martyr's Memorial.

At the E. extremity of the three
streets, near the small harbour, within
an enclosed cemetery, rise the scanty
and scattered ruins of the grand
Cathedral, which when perfect was
no less than 358 ft. long. The only
existing remains are part of the W.
and E. ends, standing isolated, so as
to mark its vast extent, and part of
the S. nave wall. Of the intervening
walls, tower, and columns, there has
been a clean sweep. Although the
first step in this demolition is due to



Fife.



Route 40. — St. Andrews : Cathedral



263



a thundering sermon of John Knox
against Popery, preached in this ch.,
June 11, 1559, he is not responsible
for its deliberate dilapidation, caused
by the greed for stones to build
houses and dykes in later times.

The see and church of St. An-
drews was founded by Angus, King
of the Picts, who transferred the
mother churc^h of his kingdom to
the E. coast from the remote lona,
and adopted St. . Andrew as the
patron saint instead of St. Columba
{circa 750 a.d.)

Although the actual ch. was begun
1159 by Bishop Arnold, once a monk
of Kelso, it was not finished or conse-
crated until 1318. Less than half of
the W. front is standing, but it in-
cludes a picturesque, pointed, and
deeply recessed central dooricay, sur-
mounted by a trefoil-headed arcade,
flanked by a turret still propped by
a flying buttress.

The nave, consisting of 12 bays, is
gone, except the S. wall pierced with
windows, 2 of which to the E. are
round-headed, and all at least 18 ft.
above the ground. Adjoining the S.
transept was the Chapter Hoitsc, of
which remain an arcaded wall, and
part of a vestibule Avith 3 entrance
arches pointed, of gi-eat elegance,
now walled up. Here are preserved
many old grave-stones, chiefly of
15th and 16th centys. The E. end
wall stands perfect with its flanking
turrets, 3 narrow windows with
round heads below, and a Pointed
window above rising into the gable,
early Pointed, 1202-20. These ruins,
now well protected and cared for,
stand within the enclosure of the Old
Abbey Walls, built by Prior Hepburn
in the 16th centy., 20 ft. high, nearly
a mile long, loopholed and flanked
with turrets for defence, stretching
round by the seashore, and still very
perfect. The enclosure is now, as
heretofore, a churchyard, and serves
as a place of general resort.

Within it, a little S.E. of the
Cathedral, rises the small Chapel or



basilica of aS'j^. Rule or Regulus, sur-
mounted by a square Tower, 108 ft.
high, remarkably perfect, though of
rude masonry. It is a Romanesque
building, erected probably between
1127-44, though a much greater an-
tiquity has been claimed for it. There
is a legend, in fact, that it was erected
by Hergust, a Pictish monarch, in
honour of St. Regulus, which would
assign its date to the 4th centy.
The small ch., very narrow in pro-
portion to its height, 21 ft., has its
chancel arch walled up, and has lost
its E. apse. St. Rule (or Regulus),
according to the legend, landed here
in a ship which had drifted hither
from Greece, without oars or sails,
freighted with the precious bones of
St. Andrew, who forthwith became
the Patron Saint of Scotland, and
attracted pilgrims from all parts, not
only of that country, but of Europe.
A fine view is to be had from the
top of the tower ; admission on aj)-
plication to the sexton.

At the extremity of South-st. , near
the W. end of the Cathedral, is tlie
Priory Gateivay (or Pends), 3 stately
Gothic vaults, finely groined. This
leads into the Abbey Precinct, to the
TieiuPs Barn, and the ruins of

St. Leonardos College^ founded 1512.
Its chapel it roofless, but contains
several interesting monuments. At
the time of Dr. Johnson's visit it was
used as a greenhouse. The College
foundation is now transferred to St.
Salvator, and the two pass under the
style of the United College of St. Sal-
vator and St. Leonard. St. Leonard's
College Hall is a modern boarding-
house for students, where they have
rooms and meals as at Oxford and
Cambridge.

On the opposite (N".) side of the
Cathedral and churchyard, on a rock
rising abruptly from the sea, is the
Castle of the Archbishops, founded
by Bishop Rodger in 1200, but
wholly rebuilt by Bishop Traill in
the end of the 14th centy., now an



264



Route 40. — St. Andreivs ; Castle.



Sect. IV.



empty shell, and not very picturesque.
Isolated by a deep fosse cut in the
rock, it was entered by a di'awbridge,
of which the piers are standing. It
consists of a gabled keep, the kitchen
tower to the E. , the sea-tower to the
W., and a well in the centre of the
courtyard. On the 29th Ma\% 1546,
Norman Leslie, son of the Earl of
Kothes, slipped over the drawbridge
along with some workmen employed
at the time in repairs of the Castle,
followed by James Melville, the
young Laird of Grange, and 15 sol-
diers. They killed the porter, ex-
pelled the garrison, caught Cardinal
Beaton as he flew up the turnpike
stairs of the keep — slew him, and
hung out his body from the front
window in the sight of the people ;
raised the drawbridge, and being
reinforced by numerous followers,
and well supplied with provisions,
prepared to stand a siege. Among
those who joined them was John
Knox, who narrates that the body
of Beaton was salted and buried ' ' in
the boddoni of the Sea Tower, where
many of Goddes children had been
imprisoned befoir."

The post was held for 14 months,
until a French force, in 18 galleys,
commanded by Leo Strozzi, Prior of
Capua, assailed it by sea and land,
and bringing to bear the improved
appliances of Italian artillery and
engineering, breached its walls with
guns mounted upon the Cathedral
and College tower, and in 6 days
compelled it to surrender. The gar-
rison, including Knox, were sent
prisoners to the French King's gal-
leys at Nantes. James VI. found
refuge here, 1586, after his escape
from the Gowrie conspirators.

Crossing by narrow lanes through
Market-st. , by Church-st. , into South-
st., visitors emerge opposite the Post
Office. Close to it is St. Marys Col-
lege, which, with the united colleges
of St. Salvator and St. Leonard,
constitutes the University of St.
Andrews, the oldest in Scotland,



founded 1411, by Bp. Wardlaw. St.
Mary's is devoted to theological teach-
ing. Here is the University Library,
of about 55,000 vols., including some
valuable JNISS. Here are portraits
of John Knox, of Lord Melville, by
IVilkie, et(3. Attached to it is the
residence of the Principal, and a
garden in which grows Queen Mary's
Thorn.

On the opposite side of South-st.
is the Old or Parish Kirk, an ancient
building, but of no interest. It
contains the heavy and elaborate
marble monument of Archbishop
Sharpe, on which his murder is repre-
sented in a clumsy bas-relief, exe-
cuted in Holland, set iip by his son.
{See Magus Moor, p. 262.)

Higher up in South-st. is the
Madras College, an Elizabethan build-
ing, erected 1833, at a cost of £1 8, 000.
part of the bequest of Dr. And. Bell,
a native of St. Andrews, author of
the Madras or Monitorial system of
education, son of a hairdresser here.
It is a juvenile school, on a very large
scale. The number of pupils ave-
rages 900, under the charge of 10 or
14 masters.

Opposite j\[adras College are the
picturesque ivy-clad ruins of the S.
transept of the Oiurch of the Black
Friars, founded 1247 by Bishop
Wishart.

South-st. is terminated at its W.
end by a picturesque Gateivay, the
West Port, of mediaeval architecture.

The geologist and lover of coast
scenery will find plenty of interest
along the iron-bound cliffs, within
3 or 4 m. E. of St. Andrews. The
curious phenomenon of the "Rock
and Spindle " is an instance of ma-
rine denudation, in a veined erup-
tion of trap-rock, and there are occa-
sional ancient sea-beaches, as also
examples of the proximity of vol-
canic agglomeration to the sand-
stone. The strata visible in the
cliff's' at low-water are much bent
and contorted. Between the castle
^.nd the harbour is St. Rules Cam —



Fife.



Route 40a. — Edinburgh to Perth.



265



" Where good St. Rule liis holj' lay,
From, midnight to the dawn of day.
Sang to the billows sound."

Scott.

IsTumeroiis caves occur along the
coast between this and Dysart, which
are believed to have sheltered the
early missionaries.

Conveyances. —Rail to Leuchars
June. 5 m., to join the Edinburgh
and Dundee Rly. ; coaches to An-
struther and Crail.]

[From Leuchars the rly. will event-
ually be carried into Dundee by the
stupendous Tay Viaduct {see Rte.
49), now in progress. Until it is
completed the line skirts the solitary
Tents Moor to the Tay at]

44 m. Tayport Stat., where the
^l5^ carriage has to be changed for
the steam ferryboat to Droughty.

To the 1. of Tayport is Scots Craig
(Captn. W. H. Maitlaiid Dougal).

The mouth of the Tay is of con-
siderable width, and is protected on
the N. by the Forfarshire hills,
which run with considerable uni-
formity E. and W. Looking W.
the traveller obtains a view of the
chimneys and buildings of Dundee,
with tlie thick cloud of smoke that
generally overhangs it.

Close to the pier, on the Forfar-
shire side, is Brottghty Castle, a
single tower of the date of the 16th
centy. Near it the English planted
a Fort, very offensive to the Scotch,
commanding the Port of Dundee and
the Firth of Tay, from which the
intruders were ejected 1550, only by
the help of a French force under De
Thermes.

45 m. Brouglity Ferry Stat, is a
rapidly-increasing suburb of Dun-
dee, and is pleasantly interspersed
with villas and marine residences.

Steamers ply across to Tayport 9
or 10 times a day, corresponding
with the trains N. and S.

494 m. Dundee Stat. {Hotel:
[Scotland. ]



Royal, good) Rte. 49 ; (N. British),
is on the Qua.v, about 300 yds. from
the station for Perth (Caledonian
Rly.) ; a subway connects the two
stations.



ROUTE 40a.

Edinburgh to Perth by Burnt-
island Perry, Markinch, Lady-
bank, Abernethy, and Bridge
of Earn.

This route is the same as Rte. 40
as far as LadyhanTc Junct. Stat. , but
it is not a favourite one, the ferry
across the Forth making it very in-
convenient and unpleasant to some
people. The way by Stirling is
most generally taken, as, though the
actual distance travelled is longer,
the time taken is not more, and all
annoyance of changing carriages is
saved.

The main line to Perth continues
in a N. W. direction, passing— 1.
Kinloch House (C. Kinnear, Esq.),
containing 3 paintings by Wilkie, to

294 ra. CoUessie Stat. A road on
rt. leads to Monimail, 1 m., where
stands Beaton's Tower, which formed
part of the country residence of the
Abp. of St. Andrews, and in 1560
was inhabited by Cardinal Beaton,
who is represented upon the walls by
the arms of the family. Adjoining
it is ilelville House, the seat of the
Lady Eliz. Cartwright, where are
family portraits of the Leslies, and
an interesting whole-length of Gus-
tavus Adolphus.

33 2 m. rt. Lindorcs Abbey (close
to a farmyard), founded in 1178 by
David, Earl of Huntingdon, grand-
son of David L, to commemorate
the capture of Ptolemais, in the
Holy Land. It was bestowed on
Benedictine monks, and possessed
one of the richest endowments in
Scotland. Its remains cover a large



266 Route iO A.— Edinburgh to Pertl : Neidmrgh. Sect. IY.



space of ground, but they are so
fragmentary, so covered -with ivy,
and so denuded of the casnigmasonr}^,
that it is ahnost impossible to iden-
tify any part. Jolin Knox, in the
fervour of his zeal, records how
he " came to Lindores, a place of
black monkery ; we burned their
mass-books before their faces, and
reformed them. " Among those who
were buried in Lindores was the
Duke of Eothesay, who was starved
to death by his uncle in Falkland
Palace. Very near the abbey are
the Loch of Lindores, and the ruined
Gothic church of Abdie on its mar-
gin.

The railway sweeps round the
Craig of Clatchard, which is crowned
with a succession of high ramparts
of an ancient Hill Fort ; attached to
it is a walled enclosure for keeping
cattle. The line joins the Tay at

34i m, Keiohurgli Stat. {Inns :
George ; Commercial). The town
is prettily situated, and from the
rly. looks neat, and built after a
modern fashion ; but it is a dirty
place, of one street only. The view
is very fine looking up and down
the Tay, the chimneys and spires of
Dundee being visible in the distance.
Li the park of JMugdruni House
(Hay Paterson, Esq.) is the cross of
Mugdrum, from a saint named a\lag-
ridin. It consists of one upright
slab of granite, sculptured with
figures of animals. Another cross
stood about 14 m. to the S., on the
slope of the Ochill Hills, overlooking
Strathearn. It was called Macduff's
Cros.'^, and was destroyed by a mob
of fanatics in 1559, who were on
their way to demolish the Abbey of
Lindores. One large block of free-
stone, which served as the base,
alone remains :

" The pedestal
On which in ancient times a cross was

reared,
Carved witli words whicli foiled philo-
logists." Scolt.



The view from it over the Tay
is fine.

[About 9 m. E. of Newburgh are
the ruins of Balmerino, founded
1229 by Ermengarde, the queen of
William the Lion, for Cistercian
monks from Melrose ; she was
buried in the ch. Of it nothing re-
mains but the roofless chapter-house
and cloisters. Near it is a pretty
dell. The place belongs to Fr. A.
Stuart, Esq.]

37 m. Ahcrndhy Stat. This was
an old Pictish capital of Scotland.
It is now an irregular village, with
3 churches and a power-loom mill.
It is chiefiy celebrated for its Ilomul
Toiver, the only monument of its
early greatness. It is 74 ft. in
height and 48 in circumference at
bottom, tapering, towards the top,
to 32 ft. At present it contains the
clock and bell. Ohs. — The door and
window openings, and its very per-
fect even masonry, resembling that
of St. Rule at St. Andrews. It may
date from the lltli or early part of
the 12th centy. About 6 ft. from
from the ground, the "jougs,"an
iron collar, is fastened in the wall.
It was used to confine prisoners
before taking them to jail, but that
purpose is now answered by an iron
cage attached to the foot of the
Tower. The name jougs was derived
from an old Celtic word, which was
the parent of the Latin "jugum, "
and is in all probability the "jug"
that in thieves' slang signifies
"prison."

41 m. Bridge of Earn Stat., at
the point where the old Edinburgh
road crosses the river, at the foot of
Moncrieff" Hill. It consists of the
Inn (Moncrieff" Arms), and a group
of lodging-houses, generally occupied
by visitors to the neighbouring
ilineral Springs of Pitcaithley,
which are about 1 m. to the W. 1 m.
is Kilgraston House (C. T. C. Grant,



Fife.



Route 41. — Edinburgh to Dunfermline.



267



Esq.), a modern mansion in red
stone, with park and gardens, the
cradle of the brothers the late Gen.
Sir Hope Grant, and Sir Francis,
President of the R. Academy. The
interior contains some good paint-
ings by S. Rosa, L. da Vinci, Spag-
noletto, and others.

Pleasant excursions to the top of
Moiicrieff Hill, by permission of the
owner of Moncrietf House, whose
woods extend to the summit, in-
cluding noble old trees and a pro-
mising collection of new conifers.
It is ^ an hour's walk to the top
(see Perth, Rte. 43). The views over
Earn and Tay are superb, h. To
Glenfarg (Rte. 42).

424. Crossing the Earn river, the
rly. joins the Stirling and Perth line.

After passing Moncrieff Hill, in a
tunnel 1^ m. long, the tourist sud-
denly discovers Perth, surrounded
by an amphitheatre of hills, such as
Moncrieff Hill and the Kinnoul
Hills, beyond which the Carse of
Gowrie stretches away towards the

464 m. Perth Junct. Stat. (Rte.
43). {Inns: British, close to the
stat, ; Royal George, near the Tay
Bridge; Salutation, South-st.)



ROUTE 41.

Edinburgh to Dunfermline, Kin-
ross, and Stirling, by Thornton
Junction.

The direct distance from Edin-
burgh to Dunfermline is 17 m. by
Queensferr}% where the rly, stops ;
the remaining 6 m. of hilly road,
after crossing the ferry, must be
travelled in coach or a private con-
veyance {see Rte. 14) until the rly.
now in course of formation, is com-
pleted.

By the present Route the traveller
crosses the Firth from Granton to
Burntisland, and takes the train to

J Tlwrnton Junct. Stat. (Rte. 40).



The line, a branch from the
Edinburgh, Perth, and Dundee Rly. ,
here strikes otf to the 1., up the val-
ley of the Orr, passing through an
uninteresting country, principally
inhabited by a manufacturing com-
munity.

5 m. Cardenden Stat., to the N.
of which is the village of Auchter-
derran.

11 m. Lochgelhj Stat. {Inn:
Minto Arms) ; on the Orr.

10 m, Cowdenbeath Junct : col-
lieries and iron forges. [Hence
another short line of 8 m, runs N.
to Lochleven and Kinross, passing

5 m. Blair- Adam, the seat of "VV.
P. Adam, Esq. , jSI.P., a frequent resort
of Sir AValter Scott in the lifetime
of his friend Chief-Commissioner
Adam. The plot of "The Abbot "
was concocted here, and many scenes
in the beautiful grounds, "the
Kiery Craggs," etc., are described in
the novel. The castle of Lochleven
is a conspicuous object from them.
Near at hand is the Kirk of
Cleish (botham). The scenery is
picturesque, as the rly. crosses a gap
between the Cleish Hills (1.) and
Benarty Hill (rt.), and then skirts
the shores of Lochleven to Kin-
ross.

Lochleven Stat. (Rte. 42).

Dunfermline, Railway.']



country, to

13 m. Halheath, or Hill of Beath,
a conical eminence to rt. of the line,

15 m. Dunfermline Stat. {Inns :
Commercial, near the stat. ; Royal ;
neither particularly good.) Though
a Pari. Burgh and a place of some
importance, both as regards the
number of inhabit. (14,95») and the
produce of its manufactories, Avhich
consist chiefly of diapers and line
table-linen, it is a poor-looking and
ill-built town, occupying the slope^i



268



Route 4 1 . — DunfermTine ; A hhey.



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