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Sect. IV



and summit of a steep hill, its only
distinguishing feature being its
church, ruined Abbey, and Castle.
Among modern structures the St.
Leonards Works is the handsom-
est though not the largest of the
power-loom Aveaving-mills.

The Palace was long the residence
of the Scottish kings.

" The king sits in Dunfermline tower

Drinking the blude-red wine ;

Where sail I find a skeely skipper

Will sail this ship o' mine ? "

Ballad of Sir ^Patrick Speiis.

The scanty ruins of the Royal
Palace, now property of the Crown,
stand on a projecting rock above the
wooded glen of Pittencrief (seat of
J. Hunt, Esq.), traversed by the
winding burn from which is derived
the name Dunfermline, i.e., castle
of the winding stream. It was built
by Malcolm Canmore. In it were
born Maud, wife of Henry I. of
England, and her brothers (after-
wards kings) Edgar, Alexander, and
David II., father of Robert Bruce.

King Edward I., in his second in-
vasion of Scotland, 1303, held his
Court here, and at that time the
Castle was burned, it is supposed by
accident. It was rebuilt by James
IV., 1500.

Mary Queen of Scots lived here in
1561. Her son, James VI., sub-
scribed the Covenant here ; and here
his children, Charles I. and Princess
Elizabeth, were born. Charles II.
also inhabited the palace before his
march to Worcester, and was forced
by the Covenanters to sign "the
terrible act " known as the Ikinferm-
line Declaration, in which his parents
are condemned in sufficiently strong
language.

The high road from Queensferry
ascends between the Castle and the
Abbey ruins, and these last are ap-
proached through a massive Gothic
vaulted Gatevjay.

The Abbey, "The Westminster of
Scotland," was founded by the



Saint-Queen Maigaret, sister of the
refugee Prince Edgar Atheling, and
her husband Malcolm, 1070-93, for
Benedictine monks from Canter-
bury. Of their church nothing re-
mains. A second church was partly
replaced by an elegant pointed
choir and transepts, added 1250,
but ruined by the Reformers, and
finally swept away, 1818, to make
room for the tasteless edifice, con-
structed in entire ignorance of the
true principles of Gothic, which at
present serves as Parish Church. In
the space between the 2 easternmost
piers, where the high altar stood,
Robert Bruce was buried, and a blue
marble slab at the E. end is said to
mark the grave of Queen ]\Iargaret.
The balustrade of the tower is
wrought into the words, " King
Robert the Bruce ! ! ! "

Most fortunately there has been
preserved of the second eh. the nave
and western portion, date 1150, of
pure and simple Romanesque. It is
externally somewhat marred by the
great size and massiveness of the
buttresses, added in the 16th cent.
On each side of the round-headed
W. doorway rises a narrow square
tower, lighted with windows of Dec,
date. The N. aisle is entered by a
porch. The inner doorway is very
rich Romanesque, presenting a. con-
trast to the groined roof, which is
of later date. The Romanesque
nave, 106 ft. long and 54 ft. high,
is supported by tall cylinder piers
and round arches, forming 5 bays.
Some of the piers are grooved in zig-
zags and sjjirals, not unlike those of
Durham. The arch next to the door
was rebuilt by James VI., in the
early pointed style. This impres-
sive nave is cut off from the modern
church by a hideous partition
wall.

Dunfermline Abbey succeeded
lona as the place of sepulture of the
Scottish kings. King Duncan, or
Macbeth, was the last buried at
lona : and Malcolm Canmore and



FiFE. Routes 41, Dunfermline. — 42, Stirling to Kinross. 269



his son having been killed at Aln-
wick, were moved hither in 1110.
Malcolm and his queen lie at the E.
end. Their sons were buried here,
Kings Edgar, Alexander I., David
II. ; Malcolm IV., Alexander III.,
and Robert the Bruce. His remains
were disinterred in 1818 {see the
admirable description in " Tales of a
Grandfather. " They were found en-
cased in 2 coverings of sheet lead,
and wrapped in a shroud interwoven
with threads of gold, A cast of the
king's skull was taken by the
Phrenological Society of Edinburgh.
They were replaced in a new coiBn,
and re-interred ; the pulpit now
stands over the spot where they lie.
In the S. triinsept is a marble
monument to General Bruce, Men-
tor to the Prince of Wales.

Of the rest of the Abbey nothing
is to be seen but the Abbey Gateway
and " Fratery," or Refectory, stand-
ing in the S.W. corner of the ch.-
yard, the most striking portion of
which is the W. window, still per-
fect, of 7 lights, the upper part filled
with quatrefoils. It was probably
put up at the end of the 16th centy.
The remains appear to date from the
14th centy. Edward I. wintered in
the Abbey in 1303, and had no sooner
quitted it than it was burned by his
soldiers, along with the town.

There is a good view of the town
from the terrace in the ch.-yard.

The bulky U. Presbyterian Church
in Queen Anne St. was one of the
earliest churches of the Secession.
That movement had its origin here,
and in front of this cli. is a stone
statue of its chief leader, Ralph
Erskine, who is buried in the Abbe}^
Ch.

3 m. from Dunfermline towards
the sea is Broomhall, seat of the Earl
of Elgin. In it are preserved the
sword (and helmet ? ) of Robert the
Bruce, and the bed of Anne of
Denmark, in which Charles I. was
born, brought from Dunfermline.



Here are some valuable paintings,
Seb. del Piomho. — A female portrait,
Leon, da Vinci. — St. Sebastian. An.
Caracci. — St, Francis before the
Crucifix. Felasqicez. — Duke of
Olivarez. Moroni. — A Blacksmith.
Elzheimer. — St. Peter delivered from
Prison,

Rail to Stirling, 21 m. ; Kinross,
11 m. ; Thornhill Junct. (Rte, 40),
15 ; coach to Edinburgh, 16 m.

Distances. — Inverkeithing, 4 m.;
Queensferry, 6 m. Rail in progress.

The remainder of the route to
Stirling is effected by a branch of
the North British, which runs partly
through a colliery district. In the
neighbourhood of Oakley, 4.^ m., are
Inzievar (A. Smith Sligo, Esq.) and
Luscar, 6 m.

Eastqrange is the stat. for Culross
(Rte. 15).

104 Kincardine Stat., the town
being 2 m. on the 1. 12 m. Clack-
manncm (Rte. 19); 14 m. Alloa;
21, Stirling (described in Rte, 18).



ROUTE 42.

Stirling to Kinross and Perth., by
[Alva] Alloa, Dollar, Castle
Campbell, Humbling Bridge,
and Cauldron Linn [Glenfarg],

The Devon Valley Rly. passes
many scenes of beauty. This line
strikes F, from Stirling Stat., cross-
ing at once the Forth, touching tAvo
or more of its meandering " links ; "
1. goes the line to Callander (Rte.
21).

14 m. Causeway Head Stat., at
the foot of Abbey Craig ; N. of this
rises Dunmyat, one of the most
picturesque of the Ochill range of
hills, and commanding an interesting
view from its top, which may be
reached by the road passing Logie



270



Eoute 4:2. — Tillicoultry ; Dollar. Sect. IV.



Ch. From it may be seen the course
of the Forth, its links, its tributary,
the Devon, Arthur's Seat, the Gram-
pians, and Airthrey Castle (Lord
Abercromby).

The Devon river is crossed before
reaching Cambus Stat. ; rt. is Tulli-
body House.



[Branch Ely. to Aha, 5^ m., fol-
lowing the course of the Devon by
Menstrie Stat., a seat of the Avoollen
cloth, tartan, etc., manufacture, and
the birthplace of Gen. Sir Ralph
Abercromby, 1734.

5| m. A iva Terminus {Inn : John-
stone Arms), a thriving village of
4296 inhab., abounding in woollen
mills, agreeably placed at the foot of
the Ochill Hills, which are penetrated
by very picturesque glens.

1| m. E,, on an eminence, is Alva
House (J. Johnstone, Esq.), built in
the reign of Cliarles I., though much
altered subsequently. The grounds
are beautifully laid out, and are re-
markable for their fountains and
terraces. A remarkably fine avenue
of oaks leads from the house to the
ch., and behind the village is the
exceedingly pretty Glen Alva, called
the "Silver Glen," from the silver-
mines that used to be worked here.
The family of Johnstone obtained
the estate of Alva by purchase from
the Erskines, Earls of Mar.

The ascent of Ben CI each, the
highest of the Ochills, may be made
in 34 hrs. from Alva, following the
horse-path to Blackford, The view
from the top is most extensive, and |
has been excellently engraved in
Knipe's Panorama, from a drawing by ;
the Ordnance Survey officers, pub-
lished at Stirling.

TillicouHry Stat., on the Devon ;
here are mills for the manufactur-
ing of tartans and other woollen
stuffs. By following the glen into
the mountains, the pedesti'ian will
come to some romantic little falls



and charming scenery. Tillicoultry
House, to the IS", of the village, is
the seat of E. Wardlaw Ramsay,
Esq. ' ' The whole of this part of
the country is one continued scene
of beauty, rendering this portion
of Clackmannan one of the most
delicious of Scotland. From the
gates of Muckhart, along the foot
of the Ochills, is a ride exceeded
in beauty by very few lines in Scot-
land of equal length ; singular too
as it is beautiful, bounded on one
hand by a lofty and continuous wall
of green, cultivated, and wooded
mountains, and on the other looking
over a wide and open expanse of
country which dazzles the eye by
its richness." — Maccidloch.

Between Tillicoultry and Dollar
1., is Har-sneston (James Orr, Esq.),
" on Devon's banks," celebrated by
Burns, and " Tait's Tomb," the
family burial-place of the Archbp.
of Canterbury, whose father built
Harvieston.

12 m. Dollar Stnt. {Inn : *Castle
Campbell, comfortable). The origin
of this name is " Dal-ard," the steep
valley. It is a very pretty Swiss-look-
ing little village, celebrated for a
large Academy, a building in the
Doric style, founded by the muni-
ficent bequest of John M'Nab of
Stepney, who left his native place a
poor bo}^, and afterwards realised a
large fortune in the West Indies.

Dollar is traversed by the Dollar
brook, and it is a truly delightful
walk to follow up that stream, con-
stantly ascending through a wooded
glen, 1 m., to the ruins of * Castle
Camjybell, which stands on a project-
ing buttress of the mountain, iso-
lated by deep gorges on either side,
meeting together \ m. below the
fortress. In ascending it is desir-
able to follow the rt. hand or E.
gorge, up which the path winds un-
til it reaches the gate in the rear of
the castle. After exploring it, and,



Scotland. Route i2. — Castle Camplell ; Rumbling Bridge. 271



if time allows, ascending to tlie point
of view about 300 yards behind it,
the traveller may return by tlie other
path, plunging into the deep wooded
dell, having the castle on his left.
This in a short distance narrows into
a most extraordinary and romantic
chasm — a mere chink split in the
mountain side, in places not 2
yards apart, between walls of bare
rock 200 ft. high. The tumbling tor-
rent occupies nearly the whole space
below, and the gorge would be in-
accessible to human foot were it not
that the rock path is eked out by
many bridges and platforms of wood
clamped Avith iron stanchions
against the vertical rock. These
have been made at the expense of
the good people of Dollar, who have
thus laid open to strangers a scene
unequalled of its kind in Britain,
and nearly resembling the famous
Goi-ge of Pfcjfers in Switzerland,
though on a smaller scale.

To return to the Castle. It is a
buikiing of much interest from its
romantic and commanding position,
and its ancient strength and good
preservation. It is approached
through an outer court or Barme-
kin, and, as usual, its chief feature
is a square keep tower, probably of
12th centy., to which a more mo-
dern wing, with an open arcade, is
attached. On the first floor of the
tower was the great hall, with a
remarkable cradle roof of stone,
ribbed. Adjoining it is the ])it or
dungeon, entered by a trap-door in
its floor. From the top of the tower
is a splendid view, extending to the
winding Forth, Clackmannan Tower,
and the Pentlands.

The origin of this castle, or how
it came into the hands of the Argyle
family, is unknown, but it was origi-
nally called the Castle of Gloom,
situated in the parish of Dolour, sur-
roiinded by the Glen of Care, and
watered by the rivers of Sorrow. In
4189 the first Earl of Argyle obtained
an Act of Parliament to change its



name to Castle Campbell. In 1556
John Knox preached here a short time
prior to his going to Geneva, and in
the next centy. Montrose, on his
way to Kilsytli, sacked and burnt
it in revenge for the destruction of
Airlie, and it has never since been
inhabited save by a keeper, who is
a very intelligent guide. It re-
mained in the possession of the Ar-
gyle family from 1465 to 1S05, when
it Avas sold to Crauford Tait, Esq.
It now belongs to James Orr, Esq.

From Dollar the ascent of Ben
Cleuch, one of the liighest of the.
Ochills, is a walk of 5 m. passing
Castle Campbell].

Beyond Dollar, 3 m., the rly. is
carried over the Gairnie, on a, viadiict
of 6 arches, 110 ft. high, and over
the Devon on a second long viaduct.

Humbling Bridge Stat, is only
200 yards from the bridge over the
Devon, so called on account of the
roar of the torrent passing under it,
and about 300 yanls from the com-
fortable Inn, through whose grounds
access is obtained to the very re-
markable and picturesque scenes
which the Devon here presents.
•The river runs for nearly a mile
through a dark rocky chasm, whose
sides, 100 to 200 ft. high, are vertical,
if not overhanging. In places, how-
ever, the channel is so tortuous and
broken by sudden descents that the
river writhes and twists, burrowing
and undermining so as to be lost to
view. In others it whirls round and
round, for ever carrying loose stones
along with it, which hollow out the
rock into cau\lrons, and f)olish the
sides quite smooth. The small fall
near the Inn is called the DcviVs
Mill, because it grinds and inimbles
like a mill, and never minds Sun-
day. This gorge or chasm is groAm
over with trees, which root in all
the crannies of the rocks, and form
a most picturesque contrast with



Route 42. — Kinross ; Lochleven.



Sect. IV.



their green foliage to the grey-
rocks. Paths and steps give access
to the best points of view. The
most striking scene is the Bridge
itself, Avhich, like the Pont du
Diable on the Pass of St. Gothard,
is double, consisting of an older
narrow arch built by a local mason,
1713, surmounted by a more modern
and loftier one 70 ft. above stream.
The views through the 2 arches
athwart the foliage is very striking,
and there is much here to attract
the artist. A pleasant footpath
along the 1. bank of the Devon leads
down the valley 2 m. from the
Bridge to the Cauldron Linn, where
the whole body of water, descends in
two falls through a deep gap between
vertical clilfs. The walk to this
spot is exceedingly beautiful ; and
when the river is full the cascade
is well worth seeing. Access to it
on the rt. is gained through the
grounds of Blairhill (A. Haig, Esq.),
from whom permission must be ob-
tained.

Ih m. to S. of Rumbling Bridge is
Aklie, the seat of the JNlercers of
Aldie, now represented by the Dowa-
ger Marchioness of Lansdowne.

1^ m. Crook of Devon Stat., so
called from the abrupt bend which
the Devon river makes in its descent
from Sheriffmuir at the base of the
Ochill Hills. Near it is Tullibole
Castle, the residence of the Rev. Sir
H. W. Moncreiff, Bt. Thence
through a well cultivated country,
bounded on 1. by hills.

Kinross Jund. Stat. [Here a
branch riy. turns S. by Kinross to
Dunfermline by Cowdenbeath Junct.
(Rte. 41.)]

7 m. Kinross, for Lochleven Stat.,
close to the Lake, the mills, and the
boats. Lniis : Kirkland's, best, and
well managed ; Bridge House, near
the lake. Kpiscopal Ch., a neat
Gothic building on outskirts of the



town. Kinross is the capital of the
county of the same name. The
whole of this district, including
the 3 counties of Kinross, Fife, and
Clackmannan, used to be called the
Ross {i.e. the peninsula), and Kinross
means the "head of the peninsula ;."
just as Culross on the Firth of Forth
means the "bottom of the penin-
sula," and so on. The town was
once noted for its cutlery, but its
manufaiiture now is that of coarse
linen and woollen goods. There are
several large Mills on the loch side,
close to the raihvay stat., 4 m. from
the centre of the town. A wide turfed
avenue leads from the town to
Kinross House (Sir Graham Mont-
gomery, Bt.), on the lake shore, now
uninhabited. It was built by Sir
William Bruce, architect of Holy-
rood.

Kinross stands on the W. side of
Lochleven. Twenty boats are kept
for hire; charges for visiting island
and castle, 5s. ; for iishing, 2s. 6d.
an hour ; boatman's fee. Is. an hour.

Lochleven is a sheet of water 9
m. in circuit, famed for its Cattle
and its pink Trout. On its S. shore
rises the picturesque hill of Ben
Arthey. There are several islands,
on one of Avhich, nearest the town, \
m. from the shore (about 20 minutes
to row), is Lochleven Castle, a for-
tress of considerable antiquity, be-
longing to the Douglas family.
Here Queen Mary Avas imprisoned
after her surrender at Carberry Hill,
1567, and remained 11 months in
the custody of Lady Douglas of Loch-
leven, a woman adapted by temper,
and still more by circumstances, for
a gaoler, having been the mistress
(she said Avife) of James V., and
mother of the Earl of Murray, AA*ho,
if legitimate, Avould have been King
of Scotland. A picturesque object
at a distance, the castle on a nearer
approach is seen to be a rough square
Peel ToAver, standing in a court, sur-
rounded by a rampart wall, which



Kinross.



lioute 42. — Lochleven : Castle.



273



once included various offices now
pulled down. The tower was entered
at a round-headed low door half-
way up the Avail by a draw-stair or
platform. It consisted of two
vaulted chambers, below a store-
house and kitchen, with trap-doors
in the floors, and above three storeys,
of which the wooden floors are gone.
In this tower dwelt Lady Douglas.
Her prisoner was secured in a de-
tatched round turret, in the angle
of the rampart, where she occupied
a room only 15 ft. in diameter,
furnished with a fireplace and one
window, and entered by a corkscrew-
stair from the courtyard. Within
these walls, on the 23d July, 1567,
by persuasion or compulsion of the
Earl of Lindsay and Melville, Queen
Mary signed a deed of Abdication of
the crown in favour of her son, and
another appointing her brother, Mur-
ray, Regent. Only a month before
the discovery and publication of her
secret correspondence with Bothwell,
found in the famous "Casket," had
occurred. Many attempts were made
by Mary's friends for her deliverance,
but in vain. She was more suc-
cessful with her personal fascina-
tions, by which she succeeded in
captivating the heart of George
Douglas, the son of her gaoler, whose
devotion to her caused him to be
expelled the castle. He left behind,
however, a confederate, Willie Doug-
las, a boy of 18, who on the night of
the 2d May, 1568, while the inmates
of the castle were at prayers, secured
the keys, placed the queen in a boat
belonging to the castle, having
locked the gates behind him, threw
the keys overboard, and conveyed her
to the mainland, where she was re-
ceived by Lord Seton, George
Douglas, and Sir James Hamilton,
and taken to Niddry Castle.

Confined and rough as these ruined
walls are, an indescribable interest at-
taches to them, when we think of the
illustrious and interesting prisoner
who sighed beneath that roof, who



trod those very stone steps, who sat
on that stone seat, and peered long-
ingly day after day through that
contracted window. Owing to the
recent drainage of the lake, by which
1400 acres of land have been added
to its margin, the area of the island
has been enlarged, and boats can no
longer land, as in Mary's time, close
under the castle ' walls. Queen
Mary's escape forms one of the
principal scenes in Sir W. Scott's
"Abbot." On the 15th of the same
month (May) Mary was defeated at
Langside by her brother, and fled to
England.

Upon St. Serfs Isle are the niins
of an old priory, said to have been
founded for the Culdees, by Eocha,
King of the Picts. David I. trans-
ferred the building and property to
Augustinian canons, and ordered the
Culdees to conform to the rules of
that order, or to leave the priory.
AndreAv Wynton, one of the earliest
of the Scotch annalists, was prior of
this place.

5 m. from Kinross, on the E. shore
of the lake, is the village of Kin-
neswood, the birthplace of Michael
Bruce the poet, author of the " Ode
to the Cuckoo," commonly attributed
to Logan.



Eail to Rumbling Bridge, 7 m. ;
also to Ladybank, 16 m. (for Perth)
to Dunfermline.

Distances. — Dollar, 11m.; Milna-
thort, 1* ; Perth, by Glenfarg, 17 ;
Dunfermline, 11.



The PJy. from Kinross to Lady-
hank Junct., 16 m., enjoys partial
glimpses of Lochleven.

Milnathort Stat. A large power-
loom mill here. [The old road to
Perth here branches off to the 1. and
runs through the truly beautiful



274



Route 43. — Stirling to Perth : Ardoch, Sect. IV.



Glenfarg, a defile in the Oehills,
owing much of its beauty to the
picturesque form of the porphyry
hills which bound it, descending into
the vale of Earn at the Ijridge of
Earn, The old Edinburgh road
threaded the windings of this pass :
a still older road traversed the hill-
top to the point from which Sir
"Walter Scott's description of Perth,
in "The Fair Maid of Perth," was
taken, viz. "the Wicks of Baiglie."
The mineralogist may find scmie
good specimens of minerals, includ-
ing that known as " Staurolite," in
Ghnfarri, where the rock is being
quarried for I'oad-metal.

About halfway up the glen is
Balmanno, one of the most perfect
examples of the old Scottish mansion.
Close by it is the pretty waterfall of
Dron, a noted place for the breeding
of water-ousels, the nests of which
are placed between the waterfall
and the rock, so as to be almost in-
accessible. There is a charming
Avalk, turning off to the 1. at Dron,
and following the road to Forteviot]

The rly. is then carried up the
Vale of the Eden, through a some-
what uninteresting country, to

Strathmiglo Stat., at the back of
the Lomond Hills ; 4 in. from Falk-
land, Anchtcrmuchtii Stat. The
view on the rt., however, is relieved
from monotony by the escarpments
of the Lomond Hills, which rise to
between 1700 and 1800 ft.

Ladybank Jdnct. (Ete. 40).

Perth Junct. Stat. (Ete. 43).



ROUTE 43.

Stirling to Perth, by Crieff

Junction and Auchterarder.

The line from Stirling to Dun-
blane, 54 m., is given in Rte. 21.
Here the Rly. to Callander (and the
Trossachs) branches 1. (Rte. 21, p.
176).



[To the rt. 3 m., and nearly equi-
distant from Dunblane and Kinbvck
Stations is Sherijf'muir, celebrated
for the undecided battle fought there
in 1715, between the Earl of Mar,
who commanded the Pretender's
forces, and the Duke of Argyll,
at the head of the royal troops,
which were inferior in number.
Mar's object was to cross the Forth
and join his friends in the S., and to
prevent this, Argyll gave him battle.
The rt. wing on each side was com-
pletely victorious, and pushed its
successes so far as not to have noticed
til at its left was irretrievably routed.
Both sides claimed the victory, but
the fruits of it were with Argyll, for
the Earl retreated. This was the
battle of which Burns wrote —

" There's some, say that we wan,
And some say that they Avan,

And some say tliat nane wan at a', man ;
Bnt of one thing I'm sure.
That at SheriHmuir,

A battle there was, which I saw, man ;
And we ran, and they ran.
And they ran, and we ran,

And we ran, and they ran awa' man."

The Battle Stone upon which
the Highlanders are said to have
sharpened their dirks before the
action, as well as the mound where
the slain were buried, are still to be
seen.]

The rly. from Dunblane keeps to
the X.E., up the valley of the Allan,
which is fed by several minor streams
rising in the Braes of Doune.

11 m. Greenloaning Stat. There
is a fine glen on the 1., leading in 24
m. to

I5 m. Ardoch Hotise (Geo. Home
Drummond, Esq.), in whose park the
archaeologist will find the most per-
fect Roman cam}) in Great Britain, a
series of green turfed banks and
ditches, one within the other,
arranged in the form of squares.
The space within one set of entrench-



Perthshire. Route iZ. — Stirling to Perth : Ardoch. 275




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