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verness and to Aberdeen, see Rte.
55.



EOUTE 49.

Perth to Dundee and Arbroath..

(Rail.)

During the summer a steamer
occasionally plies between Dundee
and Perth, according to tide.



Fiaihva.y. — 7 trains daily to Dun-
dee, in 1 hour from Princes-st. Stat.
Perth {see Rte. 4.3).

After skirting the S. Inch, it
crosses the Tay on a long low wooden
bridge, and follows the I. bank of the
Firth of Tay, winding round the base
of Kinnoul Hill to

3 m. Kiafaiins Stat. On 1. Kin-
faAins Castle, on an eminence over-
looking the Tay, is tlie seat of Lord
Gray. The land originally belonged
to tlie Charteris family. The Castle
was built in 182"2, by Smirke, and
contains a fine library and some good
pictures : — G-uercino, Peter denying
Christ ; F. Francia, Virgin and
Child ; A. del Sarto, male portrait ;
Titian, Head of a female ; Pt,em-
brandt, the Banished Lord ; Rubens,
male head.

On 1. the Sidlaio Hills stretch
N.E.

On the opposite side of the river,
under Moncrieff Hill, are the ruins
of Elcho Castle, a plain, gloomy-
looking building of the 16th centy.

In the neighbourhood of (7 m.)
Glencarse Stat, are Glencarse (T.
Greig, Esq.) and rt. Pitfour (Sir J.
S. Richardson), formerly the pro-
perty of the Hays.

11 m. Errol Stat, and Errol Park
(G. Armitstead, Esq.) The Parish
Church was rebuilt in Romanesque
style, 1832, Gillespie Graham, archt.

The district is very rich in legends
and folk lore, much of which, such
as the tales of Greensleeves, Kin-
noul Rock Diamond, the Devil's
Porridge-pot, the reader will find at
length in Chambers' "Pictures of
Scotland."

10 m. 1. are Megginch Castle (J.
M. Drummond, Esq.), an old resi-
dence of the Errol family, built in
the 16th centy. ; Fingask Castle (Sir
Patrick M. Threipland), which con-
tains an interesting and complete
collection of Jacobite relics, the house
of Threipland having been one of the
most devoted to the cause of the



304



Route 49. — Perth to Dundee ; Bossie. Sect. IV.



Stuarts. The gardens are good ex-
amples of Dutch gardening. The old
keep of Kinnaird Castle (restored) is
not far off. About 2 m. to the N. is
Dunsinane Hill (1114 ft.), the site
of the castle celebrated in " ]\Iac-
beth." It is crowned by a hill fort
of several successive ramparts of
loose stones. It overlooks the coun-
try to and far beyond Birnam Hill.

134 m. Inchtitrc Stat. ; 3 m. to
the N. is Eossie Priory (Lord Kin-
naird), situated on the slope of Eos-
sie Hill, which commands a fine
and extensive vieAV over the Firth of
Tay and the Carse of Gowrie. It Avas
built in 1817, and contains a valu-
able collection of pictures : amongst
them are — Vamhjck, Portrait of a
Lady, painted in his Genoese man-
ner ; Gainsborough, Portrait of a
Man, delicately executed in a cool
tone ; Guido Reni, the Repentant
Magdalene, tenderh^ executed in a
broken and harmonious tone ; L. da
Vinci, beautiful portrait of a Lady,
called La Columbine ; Sassofcrrato,
Virgin and Child, a particularly fine
example ; P. Veronese, Kneeling
"Woman at Altar ; L. Caracci, Re-
pentant Magdalene ; A. del Sarto,
Portrait of a Man, one of his finest
pieces ; Michael Angelo, or more
probably Marcello Venusti, the Cruci-
fixion ; Rubens, Portrait of a Man, of
great freshness of conception ; Rem-
brandt, Portrait of a Man, signed
and dated 1666 ; Tintoretto, Conver-
sion of St. Paul, spirited ; Sir J. Rey-
nolds, a good replica of the Banished
Lord, in the National Gallery. — fV.
There are some fine pieces of sculp-
ture and interesting antiquities.
The grounds of Eossie are very
pretty, and are ornamented by a
campanile tower, with a very sweet
peal of bells.

15^ m. Longf organ Stat. Between
the village and the rly, is Castle
Huntly (G. Paterson, Esq.), standing
on a high rock, perpendicular to the



S. W. , but sloping off" to the E. The
tower, to which some very taste-
less additions have been made, was
built on the foundations of a still
older one by Sir A. Gray, Master of
the Household to James II., in 1452,
and the present building now con-
sists of — 1, the original tower ; 2,
the Castellum de Huntly of 1452 ;
3, additions by the Earls of Strath-
more ; and 4, the wings added by
Mr. Paterson in 1778. Castle
Huntly was sold to the Earl of
Strathmore in 1615, and its name
changed to Castle Lyon.

On rt. are the ruins of Dron
Chapel, a branch establishment be-
longing to the monastery of Cupar.

For the latter part of the way the
rly. skirts the edge of the Tay ; it is
cai-ried on huge substructions through
the deserted stone quarries of Kin-
goodie, near

17^ m. Tnvergou'rie Stat. Here
the line enters the county of Forfar.
At the head of a bay on the N. shore
of the Tay is the small mouldering
ruin of Invergoivrie Ch. , an old build-
ing, chiefly of 15th centy., but claim-
ing a greater antiquity, because
founded in the 12th centy.

Adjoining is the burial-place of
Lord Gray.

On 1. is Gra}^ House (Lord Gray),
and Camperdown (Lord Camper-
down), a modern house, with Ionic
portico.

To the N. W. of Gray House is
Foulis Easter Church. Near the
door are the " jougs" for confining
drunken or refractory persons. In-
side the ch. is a fragment of the
original oak Roodscreen, with painted
panels of the Crucifixion, and other
Bible subjects.

The rlv. from Strathmore, Newtyle,
and ]\Ieigle, 10^ m. (Ete. 50), falls in
a little way from

Neivtyle June. Stat.

At Lochee, now a suburb of Dun-



Forfar.



Route 49. — Dundee.



305



dee, not far from the Den of !Mains,
is Claverhouse, theijatrimony of John
Graham of Claverhouse, Viscouut
Dundee, the hero of Killiecrankie.

The rly. approaches the extremity
of

The Great Tay Pudlway Bridge,
begun 1871, to convey the N. B.
Rly. directly into Dundee from Leu-
chars Stat, without resorting to the
ferry, over the Estuary, here 2 miles
wide, may be completed in 1876-7.
It is 10,320 ft. long from shore to
shore, resting on 88 piers, some of
brick, which were partly built on the
bank and floated to their places, and
lowered by means of hydraulic rams,
the rest of iron cylinders. It con-
sists of 89 spans, varying in width,
one on the N. shore of 160 ft., on
iron bowstring girders ; while 14 in
the centre, over the navigable chan-
nel, are of the great width of 200 ft.,
giving a clear headway of 88 ft.
above liigli water. The difficulty of
constructing these wide spans was
enhanced by the rocky nature of the
river bed, and the strong current of
the tides. The engineer is Mr. Th.
Bouch, of Edinburgh. The cost will
be at least £2oO,o6'0.

21^ m. Dundee West Stat. (Perth
and Forfar Railways), at the water-
side, close to the docks, and about 100
yds. from the Arbroath and Broughty
Ferry Stat., now connected by a
tunnel. {Inns : Royal Hotel, Nether-
gate, opposite the Town Ch. and
Tower ; British Hotel, in Castle-st.,
neither first-rate. )

The town of Dundee occupies a
favourable position on the N. side of
the Firth of Tay, not far from its
mouth, on two hills, sloping gently
to the water. It is a flourishing
seaport and pari, burgh, ranking
third in all Scotland for population
(118,977), shipping, and trade, whilst
it is also one of the most important
seats of the Manufacture of Linen
{Flux) ; but its special staple is Jute.
[Scotland.]



At the waterside, between the West
and East Railway Stations, are the
Bocks, named after Earl Grey, King
William, Victoria, and Camperdown,
occupying an area of 33^ acres, filled
with shipping from the Baltic, the
East Indies, etc. An Archioay, sin-
gular rather than beautiful, called
Royal, because built in honour of
Queen Victoria's visit, 1844, leads,
between Grey and King William
Docks, to the Pier.

Union-st., near the West Stat, and
Castle-st., opposite the Royal Arch,
lead up into the broad High-st. , in
which is the steepled Town House.

Opposite to it runs Ileform-st., the
chief thoroughfare in the town, but
not beholden to the architecture of
its buildings.

In Nethergate, the continuation of
High-st., rises the Old Steeple (St.
Mary's), one of the finest Gothic
towers in Scotland, dating from the
14th cent., though attributed to a
vow of David, Earl of Huntingdon,
brother of King William (when in
danger of shipwreck), to build a ch.
to the Virgin on the spot where he
should first step on shore. It is a
massive structure, 156 ft. high. In
1651, when General Monk assaulted
Dundee — at that time a place of re-
fuge for the Royalists driven out of
other cities, with much of their pro-
perty — this tower was occupied by
the garrison, and held out until
burning straw was applied below.
Lumsden, the governor, was slain
here, but the stories of indiscri-
minate massacre of the inhabitants
by Monk are believed to be fabulous.
The tower was restored in 1872, by
Sir Gilbert Scott — who, it is hoped,
may be furnished with funds by the
Dundee citizens to complete it with
the crown of open stonework which
once surmounted it, like that of St.
Giles's, Edinburgh. The ch. belong-
ing to it was destroyed by the English,
under Edward I.,"^1295 ; and again,
1548. Three modern churches have
come to attach themselves to it. In
o 9



306



Route 4 9 . — Dundee.



Sect. IV



the E. cli. some ancient portions re-
main, and in the ch. -yard some old
grave slabs, carved with crosses, etc.,
are stowed away.

The only other bit of antiquity is
the Old Port, in Cowgate, not far
from Baxter's mills. George Wish-
art, the Reformer, having heard tliat
the plague was raging in Dundee,
came hither to give the consolations
of religion to the stricken, and chose
this building whence he might preach
to them outside the gate, and to the
sound assembled within. Not long
after Wishart was executed at St.
Andrews by order of Cardinal Beaton,
but it must be borue in mind that
at the very time he was conspiring
to kill the Cardinal.

Eeform-st. leads into an irregular
open space, in the middle of which
is the Albert Institution (Gothic, by
Sir Gilbert Scott), containing Public
Free Librar}"-, Hall, and Assembly
Eooms, surmounted hy a spire ; a
curved staircase leads up to the en-
trance.

On the N. side is the Hiqh School,
with a Greek portico, and the Gothic
Exclianrjc, with square tower and
News-rooms. On the S. side the
Eastern Club. None of these build-
ings rise much above mediocrity in
art.

St. PauVs Ejnscopal Ch., in Castle-
st., is one of the most successful of Sir
Gilbert Scott's Gothic churches, and
has an elegant tower and spire, 210
ft. high. It occupies the site of the
Castle of Dundee.

On the north side of the town are
the Justiciary and Sheriff- Court
Houses, a large classical pile of
buildings.

There are also two People's Parks,
one the gift of the late millionaire of
Dundee, Sir David Baxter, Bart. :
good places of exercise for the natives,
but Nvith no special attraction. A
visitor with time on his hands and
muscles to his legs may ascend Bim-
dee Law, 535 ft., and enjoy a view



of the Firth of Tay, the Bell Rock
Lighthouse, St. Andrews, and the
Tay Bridge.

The town of Dundee bristles with
nearly 100 stalks of tall chimneys,
and abounds in great Mills, all built
of freestone. In these are carried on
the staple manufactures of the place
— Flax and Linen. The largest in that
line are Messrs. Baxter Brothers'
spinning mill, in King-st. ; 25,000
persons are employed here in that
trade, and the value of the annual
export of linen is nearly £3,000,000.
The spinning and weaving of Jute,
second in importance only to that of
flax, is almost a speciality at Dundee,
and was introduced by the spirit of
enterprise, when Russian hemp was
rendered scarce and dear by the
Crimean war. It is the fibre of a
Bengal annual plant [Corchorus cap-
sularis), 8 ft. high, with a stem
no thicker than the finger. It is
imported hither direct from Cal-
cutta to the extent of 100,000 tons
per annum, worth (say) £700,000,
which, when manufactured, realise
£2,000,000. It is chiefly converted
into sacking. The grand Jtite Mills
of Messrs. Gilroy, in Lochee Road,
have nearly 60 windows in a row,
and are 5 storeys high ; they employ
1500 persons, chiefly women. Cox's
Mills, N.W. of the town, at Lochee,
are even larger.

The outside of the mills is all that
the tourist is likely to see, as there
is a great indisposition on the part
of the millowners to admit strangers,
unless properly introduced. Per-
haps when he has seen the dust
and heard the noise that proceeds
from Baxter's mill, he will not be so
anxious to go inside. At present
there are 72 power-loom firms, own-
ing 8000 power-looms and 203,000
spindles.

Dundee enjoys a curious speciality
in its manufacture of Marmalade, of
which about 1000 tons are turned out
annually by Keiller and Co., requir-



Forfar.



Route 49. — Dundee to Arbroath.



30'



ing at least 3000 cliests of bitter
oranges and 3000 tons of sugar. As
an instance of the collateral require-
ments of the trade, upwards of a
million and a half of jars are fur-
nished from Newcastle annually.

Hector Boece, the most untrust-
worthy of Scottish annalists, was
horn in Dundee, in the middle of
the loth cent, ; also Adm. Duncan.

A steamer to Perth. Steamers to
Newcastle and London. Ferry
steamers to Newport, on the S.
side of the Tay, 10 or 12 times a
day.

Railways. — To Edinburgh (involv-
ing 2 steam ferries), by Broughty
Ferry, Cupar, Lady bank Junct.,
Thornton Junct., Burntisland Ferry,
and Granton, 50f m. ; by Perth and
Stirling, 92 m.

Distances. — Broughty Ferrj^ 2 m. ;
Newburgh, by water, 10 ; St. An-
drews, 14^ ; Leuchars, 9 J ; Edin-
burgh, 50| ; Perth, 21 J.

[Those who wish to go due N. to
Blairgowrie and Braemar, can do
so without making a detour to Perth
or Arbroath, via the Newtyle Ply.,
which joins the main line at New-
tyle, 16 m. There is little to see on
the way, the country not being par-
ticularly striking, although it im-
proves as the line is carried through
the Sidlaw Hills.]

Railway to Arbroath. — From the
East Stat. Dundee, the trains run to

23^ m. Broughty Ferry Junct. Stat.
(Rte. 40). A colony of villa resid-
ences of Dundee merchants. On rt.
are the ruins of Broughty Castle, oc-
cupied by the English in 1547, after
the victory of Musselburgh. It was
stormed by the French auxiliaries, in
the Scotch service, in 1550, and dis-
mantled. Of late years, however, it
has been repaired and fortified to



guard the entrance of the Ta}^ which
it commands.

Here passengers going S. to Edin-
burgh diverge across the ferry.

Steamers cross the ferry to Tay-
port several times a day, correspond-
ing with the trains either way to
Edinburgh, by Burntisland, to Cupar,
Kinross, and to St. Andrews (Rte.
40).

Near Broughty, the direct rly. to
Forfar, 214 m., turns N.

26 m. Monifieth Stat. On rt. is
the promontory called Buddon Ness,
conspicuous at night by the Tay
lighthouse.

28 m. Between Barry Stat, and
32 m. Carnoustie, a dreary tract is
passed, known as the Carnoustie
Sands. This name signifies the
" Cairns of Heroes," and refers to a
number of tumuli to be seen here.
It is said that they mark the graves
of the Scots who fell in battle near
this village when the Danes, under
Camus, were defeated by Malcolm
IL

34 m. to the 1. is East Haven.
3 m. is Panmure, a seat of the Earl
of Dalhousie, a modern Scotch castle
by Bryce. The pillar upon a hill in
front is a monument to the 1st Lord
Panmure.

38 m. Arbroath Stat. {Inns : Albion ;
^Yhite Hart), a well-built and busy
town and pari, burgh, Pop. 19,974,
possessing some good shops, a har-
bour neither commodious nor of
easy access, and manufactures of
coarse linen canvas. It is the Fair-
port of Sir Walter Scott's "Anti-
quary." Its unabbreviated name is
Aberbrothoek, from its situation at
the mouth of the Brothock river. It
was made a ro3'al burgh by William
the Lion, to whom the town is also
indebted for its



308



Route 49. — Arbroath ; Bell Rock.



Sect. IV.



Abbey, founded 1178, and dedi-
cated (1233) to St. Thomas a Becket.
Its remains are very disjointed and
fragmentary, but they are grand in
position, picturesque in outline, and
in the colour of the dark red sand-
stone. " I should scarcel}" have re-
gretted my journey," wrote Dr.
Johnson, " had it afforded nothing
more than the sight of Aberbro-
thock." It seems to have been very
spacious, and enclosed a large portion
of the present to^Yn, though its
establishment consisted only of an
abbot and 24 monks. The ke3's of
the ch. are kept in a cottage close by
the W. entrance. The Church was
270 ft. long— 10 ft. longer than the
Cathedral of Elgin — and consisted of
nave of 8 bays, with aisles, transept
with aisles, and chancel. It is a very
fine example of the First Pointed
style, and even though the grand and
deeply moulded IF. doorway is cir-
cular, its mouldings are of that style.
Above the W. entrance porch is a
Gallery of 6 fine Pointed arches
opening into the nave. The entire
N. wall of the ch, is gone, along with
piers and pier-arches, only S. side,
and E. and W. end, with the bases
of 2 towers, remaining.

For many years the municipal
authorities were in the habit of
selling the materials (without giving
any account of the proceeds), which
is the cause of the disappearance
of so much of the building. This
nefarious practice was stopped in
1815, by order of the Barons of the
Exchequer, who, by seasonable re-
pairs, saved the remainder.

King John granted leave to the
monks and burgesses of Aberbroth-
wdck to trade without molestation
or tax with any place in England,
except the city of London. In
1320 a general assembly of the
estates of Scotland was held in the
abbey, when a spirited declaration
was drawn up of the independence
of the Scottish Kingdom of the Eng-
lish Crown, and a protest against any |



interference by the Pope or his
legates. Amongst the abbots of
Aberbrothockwere the three Beatons,
the Cardinal, David, and two Arch-
bishops James, one the uncle and
the other the nephew of the Cardinal :
also Gawin Douglas, the translator
of Virgil.

The entrance to the enclosure of
the abbey is through a fine Gothic
Gateway, constructed for defence,
and once furnished with barbacan,
drawbridge, and j)ortcullis.

The grave of K. "William is pointed
out in front of the high altar. The
windows at the E. end consisted of
3 divisions, each one of 3 lancets,
deej)ly embayed ; above was a fine
rose window, as at the W. end. It
was called the of Arbroath ; and,
lighted from within, once served for
a beacon, as it faces the sea. At this
day a spire at the end of the abbey
property, when seen through it, is a
guide to ships entering the harbour,

Tlie S. Aval] of the nave is still
standing, as well as i)art of the S.
transept ; and attached to it is the
Chapter house, still perfect in walls
and roof. It is surrounded with
sedilia. Among the monuments pre-
served in it is part of a sculptured
figure, with feet resting on a lion,
su])posed, on this slight foundation,
to be the effigy of the founder. But
upon the figure, which is draped
more like that of an ecclesiastic than
a king, "figures of knights in full
armour are clambering up : one
appears to be struggling with the
drapery below, another has reached
the waist ; and the fracture which
is across the shoulder leaves dangling
the mailed heels of two others, which
must have reached the neck. Is it
possible that there can be here any
reference to the slaughter of Becket,
to whom the abbey was dedi-
cated?"

Of the abbot's house the kitchen is
still visi])le on the S. side of the abbey
church, and in the High Street a
portion of the abbey buildings re-



Scotland. Boute id. — Arbroath; Red Head.



309



mains in tlie shape of a tower, now
used as a butcher's shop.

A fine ballad of South ey has im-
mortalised the abbots of Aberbro-
thock for their munificent humanity
in establishing and maintaining a
bell beacon on that dangerous reef of
rocks in the German Ocean, which is
supposed to have received its name
of the " Bell Rock" from this cir-
cumstance, but it is probably only a
legend.

" The Abbot of Aberbrothock

Had pLaced that bell on the Inchcape rock ;

On a buoy in the storm it floated and

swung,
And over the waves its warning rung.
When the rock was hid by the surge's swell
The mariners heard the warning bell ;
And then they knew the perilous rock,
And blessed the Abbot of Aberbrothock. "

A lighthouse was erected upon it
in 1810 at an expense of £60,000.
It was suggested by R. Stevenson
(the father of the present celebrated
lighthouse engineers, D. and T.
Stevenson), that the "Bell " obtained
its name from the domed form of the
rock.

The Abbot of Arbroath had the
custody of the Brechbannach or sacred
banner of St. Columba, for which the
lands of Forglen in Banffshire were
given to the abbey. As, however,
the banner required to be followed to
the field of battle, it remained really
in the hands of laymen, while the
Church received the pecuniary ad-
vantages attached to the duty.

The town of Arbroath is, like
Dundee, dependent on its mills for
linens and canvas, of Avhich there
are a considerable number. Flag-
stones, too, of old red sandstone
are exported under the name of
" Arbroath pavement. "

Conveyances from Arbroath. — Rail
to Dundee, 17 m., and to Guthrie
JuNCT. 8 m., for Forfar and Aber-
deen.

At Carmijlie 3Tanse, 6 m. S. E. of
Forfar, the reapmg-machine was in-



vented by the Rev. Patrick Bell,
1826, It continued in use till 1868.

[The pedestrian should not omit
an excursion along the coast to Mon-
trose, distance from 16 to 17 miles.
The cliff" scenery is remarkably fine.
If time is short, he may go to Auch-
mithie by road, 3-^ m. , but in so doing
he will miss some curious objects.
On the top of the cliffs, about 1^ m.
from Auchmithie, are an entrenched
fort called Lud's Castle, and a sin-
gular chasm known as the FoL The
caves are down below, and should be
visited from Auchmithie in a boat,
unless it is very low water, when they
may be reached on foot. The Lady's
Cave obtains its name in consequence
of the light falling in such a way as
to resemble a veiled figure. Another
is the Mason's Cave, from the appear-
ance of the rocks at the entrance,
which look as if they had been built
up artificially ; while another is the
Green Cave, on account of the luxuri-
ance of the hart's-tongue fern {Scolo-
2)endrium vulgarc) ; Asplenium ma-
rinum also grows here,

A uchmithie is an exceedingly primi-
tive fishing village, with a public-
house, the "Mussel Crag " of Scott's
"Antiquary." From thence keep
the cliff-road, passing on I, the dark
woods of Ethie, on the estate of
the Earl of Northesk, 2 m, 1, is
Anniston, the seat of Col. Rait,
At Red Head the cliff's are magnifi-
cently grand and precipitous, and
an additional interest is imparted by
their being the scene of the escape
of Sir Arthur and Miss Wardour in
the "Antiquary." From this point
the coast trends inward, forming the
graceful curve of Lunan Bay. About
the centre stands Red Castle, an old
fortress of William the Lion. From
its colour and position it is a strik-
ing object, though little is left but
a portion of a tower, and a long Avall
of very thick masonry. Below the
castle the mouth of tlie Lunan can be



310



Route 49. — Arbroath.



Sect. IV.



crossed by a rude bridge of poles,
which demand some care. But there
is a stone bridge a little higher up,
close to the mansion of Lunan (Capt.
Blair-Imrie), There is a curious
story, that a Dutch vessel was once
wrecked in Lunan Bay, and that the
captain and crew were treated with
great kindness by the parish clerk,
whose daughter the captain ulti-
mately married. He returned to
Amsterdam, was promoted to a
situation by his employers, ulti-
mately became a partner in the house,
and his descendants, under the name
of Baring, are now members of the
British peerage. Should the tourist
wish to strike inland here, he can
proceed up the valley of the Lunan
to Inverkeilor. Ascending the cliffs
again from the sands of Lunan, he
comes on Buckie Den, a beautiful
little "den," running steeply to the
sea. Passing Bodclom, where are
some limekilns, the next callage is
Uson, inhabited by fishermen. On
1. is Dunninald (Miss Arkley). A
little past Uson is the ancient bury-
ing-ground, overlooking the Eock of
St. Skecigli, a very picturesque and
singular trap-rock, jutting sharply



out from the red sandstone. Its
seaward end is perforated by natural



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