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6. To DalmaUy ; ascend Ben Cruachan.

7. Excursion to Loch Awe ; visit Blairgour Fall.

8. To Inveraray ; Excursion to Loch Long.

[42] VI. Skeleton Routes. Introd.

9. Rest at Inveraray. '

10. Inveraray to Tarbert ; if the day suits catcli steamer at West

Tarbert for Islay.

11. Islay.

1 2. Return to East Tarbert ; by coach to Campbeltown.

13. Campbeltown by steamer to Glasgow.

14. Glasgow.

15. Glasgow ; Bothwell ; Falls of Clyde ; evening by steamer to

16. Gareloch or Loch Goil or Loch Long.

17. Greenock ; Rothesay ; (Bute) to Arran.

1 8. Arran ; ascend Goatfell ; Corrie.

19. Loch Ranza ; Tormore ; Corrie-an-lachan.

20. Steamer to Ardrossan ; Ayr ; Burns's Monument ; Brig o' Doon.

21. Dalmellington and Loch Ness.

22. Maybole; Girvan ; Stranraer; Castle Kennedy.

23. Rest at Stranraer.

24. Rail to Kircudbright ; Dundrennan Abbey ; evening to Dumfries.

25. Dumfries ; Lincluden ; New Abbey.

26. Caerlaverock ; afternoon rail to Lockerbie, Beattock and Moffat.

27. Moffat ; St Mary's Loch ; Selkirk.

28. By rail to Abbotsford and Melrose.

29. Dryburgli ; drive to Kelso.

30. Roxburgh ; Jedburgh ; proceed by rail to Hawick ; see Branx-


c. A Months Pedestrian Tour on the West Coast.

1 . Rail to Balloch ; steamer to Rowardennan ; ascend Ben Lomond ;

afternoon by short track to Loch Ard and Aberfoyle.

2. By Loch Drunkie to Trossachs ; by Glenfinlas to King's House.

3. Rail to L. Earn ; Killin and Tyndrum ; catch coach to Dalmally.

4. Ascend Cruachan ; excursion on Loch Awe ; coach to Oban.

5. By Appin to Ballachulish.

6. Glencoe nearly to King's House.

7. Walk to Fort- William by Devil's Staircase.

8. Rest at Fort- William (Caledonian).

9. Ascend Ben Nevis ; sleep at Bannavie,

10. Walk to Kinloch-Aylort ; (Mail car) walk to Arisaig.

11. Arisaig (it would be well if this could be timed to catch the

steamer on one of its visits to Skye).

12. Broadford ; either walk to Torriii, get a boat to Kilmaree, and

walk to Camasunar}^ ; or else go from Broadford to Sligachan

Scotland. VL Skeleton Routes. [4:3]

by car, and start for tlie Coollins from there, — in any case, a
long and arduous day.

13. A second day ought to be devoted to Glen Sligachan and Hart

o' Corrie ; evening drive from Sligachan to Portree.

14. Rest at Portree.

15. Quiraing ; better drive there, for the road is long and dull.

1 6. Storr Rock ; back to Portree, evening by steamer to Balniacarra.

1 7. Balmacarra to Shiel House Inn ; by Loch Alsh and Duich.

18. Mountain road by Kintail ; Fall of Glomar to Loch Carron.

19. To Applecross.

20. To Shieldag and Loch Torridon ; either rest at Shieldag, or

push on to Kinlochewe.

21. Rest at Kinlochewe (good inn) ; Loch Maree.

22. 23, 24, Loch Maree and Gairloch ; if possible, from Gairloch

catch a steamer going north to Loch Inver, as the road, though
a fine coast road, will scarce repay, where time is an object ;
if there is no steamer take the mail-car.

25. Loch Inver to Assynt and Inchnadamff.

26. Car to Lairg ; rail to Dingwall ; 'bus to Strathpefi'er.

27. Ascend Ben Wyvis ; evening to Inverness.

28. Down the Caledonian Canal to Foyers ; walk to Fort- Augustus.

29. By Corryarrick Pass to Loch Laggan ; catch Qoach to Bridge of


30. Glen Roy ; ascend the hills, and descend to Loch Oich at

Laggan ; catch steamer to Oban.

D. An Antiquarian Tour of One Month in the Lowlands.

1. Steele Road Station ; visit Hermitage and Nine Stane Rig, or

else the Catrail from Riccarton ; Hawick ; Goldielands and
Branksome Towers.

2. Camps on the Eildon Hills ; Melrose Abbey.

3. Abbotsford ; Lessudden ; Dryburgh.

4. Eckford Church ; Jedburgh ; Roman Road ; Kelso.

5. Linton Church ; excursion to Yetholm.

6. Hume Castle ; Coldstream ; Flodden Field,

7. Berwick ; Norham ; Lady kirk.

8. Coldingham ; Cockbumspath Stat ; Innerwick Castle ; Dunbar,

9. Tantallon and Dirleton Castles.

1 0. Haddington Church ; Pinkie House ; Holyrood.

11. Edinburgh.

1 2. Edinburgh ; Craigmillar ; Hawthornden ; Roslin.

1 3. Crichton and Borthwick Castles ; sleep at Peebles.

[44] VI. Skeleton Routes. Introd.

14. Peebles ; Traquair ; Neidpath ; camps on the Lyne ; terraces at


15. Driunmelzier ; Drocliil ; return to Edinburgh by the Caledonian


16. Corstorphine ; Kirkliston ; Linlithgow.

17. Torphichen ; the Kipps ; Bannockburn ; Stirling.

18. Stirling ; Cambuskenneth ; sleep at Glasgow.

19. Glasgow to Dumbarton.

20. Blantyre ; Both well ; Hamilton ; Cadzow.

21. Paisley Abbey ; Castle Semple ; Kilwinning ; Ardrossan.

22. Dundonald Castle ; Ayr ; Burns's Monument.

23. Maybole ; Crossraguel Abbey ; Greenan Castle ; Girvan ; Stran-

raer^ by evening coach.

24. Castle Kennedy; Wigtown; excursion to Whithorn ; sleep at


25. Examine Stone Circle ; rail from Newton-Stewart to Kircud-

bright ; Dundrennan Abbey.

26. Moat of Urr ; New Abbey ; Dumfries.

2 7. Dumfries ; Caerlaverock Castle ; Lincluden.

28. Lochmaben Castle ; Burrenswark Hill ; Carlisle.

E. Antiquarian Tour of One Month on the East Coast,
commencing at Edinhurgh.

1. Edinburgh.

2. Corstorphine ; Linlithgow ; Dalmeny.

3. Craigmillar ; Crichton ; Borthwdck ; Pinkie House.

4. Donibristle ; Aberdour ; Rossyth ; Dunfermline.

5. To Stirling ; Cambuskenneth.

6. Rail to Tillicoultry ; Castle Campbell ; Kinross.

7. Rail to Kirkcaldy ; Dysart ; St. Monance Church ; Falkland.

8. Dairsie Church ; Leuchars ; St. Andrews.

9. Dundee ; Arbroath.

1 0. Montrose ; Red Castle ; Brechin ; Edzell Castle ; Dunnottar.

11. Old and New Aberdeen.

12. Insch ; Hill of Noth ; Huntly.

13. Keith ; Balvenie Castle ; Rothes ; Elgin.

14. Elgin ; Spynie.

15. Pluscardine ; Birnie Kirk.

1 6. Burghead ; Forres ; Culloden ; Inverness.

17. Craigphadrick ; Beauly.

18. Dingwall ; Knockfarril ; Fortrose ; Cromarty.

19. Nigg ; Shandwick ; Fearn ; Tain.

Scotland. VI. Skeleton Routes. [45]

20. Dornoch ; Skibo ; return to Inverness.

21. Highland Railway to Dunkeld.

22. Excursion to Blairgowrie and Kirkmichael Circles.

23. Perth ; Abernethy Round Tower ; Mugdrum Cross ; Lindores


24. Ardoch Camp ; Crieff ; Inchaffray Abbey.

25. Dunblane ; Doune ; Sheriffmuir.

The rest of this month may be devoted to coast below Edinburgh,
as in last route.

F. Pedestrian Tour of One Month through Ross, Sutherland, and Caith-
ness arriving by Steamer from Oban to Glenelg.

1. Excursion to Glen Beg ; Cross Mam Rattachan to Shiel House


2. Excursion to Falls of Glomach and Pass of Kintail.
, 3. To Strome Ferry by Lochalsh and Balmacarra.

4. Jeantown to Applecross.

5. Applecross over the hills to Shieldag.

6. By Torridon to Kinlochewe.

7. Rest at Kinlochewe (good inn).

8. To Gairloch.

9. Gairloch to Poole we and Aultbea.

10. To Ullapool.

11. Excursion to Strome Falls and Loch Broom. ■•

1 2. Ullapool to Inchnadamff.

13. To Loch Assynt and Loch Inver.

14. Rest at Loch Inver.

15. To Culkein ; get a boat to Badcoul ; then on to Scourie.

16. Visit Handa ; on to Rhiconich.

17. Rhiconich to Durness ; see Smoo.

18. Excursion to Cape Wrath.

19. Drive to Loch EriboU ; walk from Heilim Inn to Altnaharra.

20. Altnaharra to Tongue.

21. Rest at Tongue.

22. Tongue to Melvich.

23. Melvich to Thurso.

24. Thurso to Houna.

25. Duncansbay Head and Wick.

The remainder of the month may be devoted to the Orkney and
Shetland Islands, catching the steamer from Lerwick or Kirk-
wall to Aberdeen. If the tourist prefers he can take the
coach from Wick to Helmsdale.

[46] VI. Skeleton Routes. Introd.

27. Helmsdale to Golspie.

28. Eest at Golspie.

29. Golspie to Lairg and Locli Shin.

30. To Dornocli and Tain. Take train to Inverness.

G. Pedestrian Tour up the West Coast, commencing at

1 . Walk to Loch Katrine ; steam to Stronachlachar ; walk to

Inversnaid ; steamer to Tarbet or Rowardennan.

2. Ben Lomond ; evening to Tarbet or Arrochar.

3. To Inveraray.

4. To Dalmally.

5. Ascend Ben Cruachan.

6. To Oban.

7. Rest at Oban (Great Western or Caledonian).

8. To Appin and Ballachulish, or to Ballachulish by steamer.

9. Glencoe and King's House.

10. By Devil's Staircase to Fort- William and Bannavie.

11. To Kinloch-Aylort.

12. To Arisaig. This should be timed if possible to catch the

steamer going north to Broadford.

14. Rest at Broadford.

15. Walk to Sligachan.

16. Coollins.

17. To Portree.

18. Storr Rock and Steinscholl.

19. Quiraing ; back to Portree.

20. Steamer to Balmacarra ; to Shiel House Inn.

21. Rest at Shiel House Inn.

22. Falls of Glomach.

23. To Jeantown.

24. Applecross.

25. To Shieldag.

26. To Kinlochewe.

27. To Gairloch.

28. Rest at Gairloch, (good inn).

29. To Poolewe and UUapool.

30. Ullapool by mail car to Dingwall.

H. Pedestrian Tour of Three Weeks in the District of the Braes of
Angus and the Grampians.

1. From Arbroath to Auchmithie, and along the coast to Montrose.

Scotland. YI. Skeleton Routes. [47]

2. Eail to Brecliiii ; see neighbourliood of Edzell.

3. Edzell to Glen Clova, by Lethnot and West Water.

4. Loch Brandy ; Glen Dole.

5. Glenprosen ; Glenisla.

6. Glenshee ; Glen Clunie ; Braemar. (The coach may be caught.)

7. Rest.

8. Glen Tilt ; Blair- Athole.

9. Glen Bruar ; Glen Tromie ; Kingussie.

10. Rail to Aviemore ; Larig Pass ; Glen Derrie. If no conveyance has

been ordered from Braemar, a night's lodging (primitive) may be
had at Macdonald's, the forester at Glen Derrie.

11. Ascend Ben Muich-Dhui ; Cairngorm.

12. By the E. Larig Pass to Abernethy ; rail to Grantown.

13. May be spent in the neighbourhood of Grantown or Dufftown.

14. Rest.

15. Grantown to Tomintoul.

16. Tomintoul by Inchrory to Braemar.

17. Ascend Lochnagar, and by Bachnagairn to Clova.

18. Clova by the Capel to Ballater.

1 9. Ascend Morven ; see Burn of the Vat.

20. Ballater to Edzell, over Mount Keen and Glen Mark.

2 1 . Edzell to Fettercairn (drive) ; then over Cairn Mount to White-

stones Inn

22. By Birse to Aboyne ; or by Strachan to Banchory, and rail to
♦ Aberdeen.

This tour may be indefinitely extended or altered, but it will give
the visitor a good idea of the most mountainous district in
Scotland. Should he prefer going westward, he can proceed
by rail from Grantown to Dalwhinnie on the 1 5th day, and

1 6. Laggan Inn ; Glentreig ; Glen Roy.

17. Ben Nevis, Glen Nevis, etc.

[48] VII. ExplaTiation of Gaelic Names. Introd.


The following list of Gaelic roots, in current use for the naming of
places in the Highlands, is only a very small fraction of what might
readily be given. Persons who wish to pursue the subject will
find excellent aids in Robertson's " Gaelic Topography of Scotland,"
Edinburgh, 1869 ; Joyce's "Orig. and Hist, of Irish Names of Places,"
Dublin, 1871-2 ; and Taylor's "Names and Places." In order to
understand certain changes to which the root is subject in flexion,
and in the formation of compound w^ords, some peculiarities of the
Gaelic language require to be known, which may succinctly be set
down here.

The language spoken by the Scottish Highlanders, and by the
Celtic race in Ireland — for the Scottish and Irish Gaelic are one
language, and not two — is a branch of the great Aryan family, of which
Latin, Greek, and Sanscrit are the most notable members. The fact of
this affinity — for a long time ignored — was first established to the
satisfaction of the learned world by Prichard in his book, " The East-
ern Origin of the Celtic Nations proved." Quaritch, London, 1831.
The exact position of Gaelic in reference to its sister languages is only
now in the process of being scientifically ascertained ; but, so far as
exact analysis has hitherto gone, it would appear that Latin and
Teutonic have almost equal claims to a close relationship with the
Gaelic ; Greek analogies are more sparse ; and its supposed connection
with Hebrew may be left out of view altogether till the general rela-
tion of the Semitic languages to the Aryan shall have been more
clearly defined. The relation to Latin is at first blush certainly the
most obvious ; of this the numerals alone are a most striking
instance ; and some Latin roots of frequent occurrence will strike a
very superficial scholar in the subjoined list, as ach = age?', tigh=
tignum, heann=pinna, uisge=aqua, loch=lacus, tir= terra, and a few
others, the majority of these words being, as it happens, also Greek.

The method of varying the roots by flexional syllables added
to the termination, so familiar to the classical scholar, is used also
in Gaelic, but to a limited extent ; and the terminations, where they
exist, are so much curtailed, and in practice slurred over and
cheated of their proper value in such a fashion, that for the common
purposes of social communication they scarcely seem to exist. On
the other hand the Hebrew method of varying the quality of the
root by modifications of the radical vowel is in constant use, as in
the case of Tay-^iuilt, a well-known station between Oban and Loch
Awe, where uilt is the genitive case of alt, a brook, wdth the defi

Scotland. YII. Explanation of Gaelic Names. [49]

nite article n interposed between the two elements of tlie compoimd.
On such changes the reader will of course keep an eye, where they
may appear in the subjoined list, or in the works above referred to ;
but what requires much more attention from every person who is
anxious to understand the significance of Gaelic names, is the remark-
able change in the form of w^ords which habitually takes place by
w^hat is technically called asjnration ; that is by a soft breath-
ing, with which the initial or middle consonant of a word
is affected in such a manner as to polish away the sharpness
of its emphasis, and sometimes to efface it altogether. Thus h
with the aspirate It becomes v. and is written bh ; and /, which is
already asjjirated, being equal to jj/j, on receiving a double dose of
aspiration is obliterated altogether. To know the cases in which
this aspiration takes place, to a Saxon ear forms one of the great
practical difficulties of the language ; the general principle on
which it proceeds is no doubt a combination of euphony ; but it
will be enough here to state that the initial consonant of an adjec-
tive is aspirated when it is in concord with a feminine substantive,
while the masculine substantive claims the full value of the letter.
Thus we say Slcerry-vore, a big reef, because Sgeir, a reef, is feminine ;
but Lismore, a great garden, because lios, which signifies a garden, in
Gaelic, and a fort in Irish, is masculine. In the same way the
familiar adjective breac, spotted or brindled, becomes vracMe when
used as an epithet to designate a well-known hill near Pitlochrie in
Perthshire ; and when fal, long, is affixed to beann the f disappears,
as in Ben Ad, the northniost peak of Ben More in Mull. By another
singular phonetic habit in certain words beginning with s, the
sibilant becomes a dental in the course of flexion, as saor, a car-
penter, but Mac-an-taor, Macintyre, the son of the carpenter ; so
sail, the salt-water joined with cea7in, head or end, becomes Kintail,
as the country of the Macras is called in Eoss-shire, which is identical
etymologically with the town of Kinsale in the south of Ireland,
%vhere the s of the root remains unchanged. Another element of
perplexity to the English student of Gaelic topography arises from
the absorption of the definite article into the following word, as in
Dalness, i.e. Dal-an-eas, Vale of tJie Waterfall.

Those who wish to pursue the study of Gaelic — a language full
of interest not only to the philologer but to the historical student
and the lover of popular poetry — should not allow themselves to be
deterred by any considerations of extraordinary difficulty generally
imagined to belong to that language. No doubt two-thirds of the
vocabulary may prove altogether new even to a good linguist ; but
in other respects Gaelic is no more difficult than any other language.
[Scotland.'] c 2

50] yil. Explanation of Gaelic Words, and


Its peculiar liquid and nasal sounds, which contribute so much to its
euphony, will be found mostly in French, German, Italian, or
Spanish ; its ch, equivalent to the Greek y^, is easily learned, and the
frequent mute consonantal combinations in which it delights (as in
the English might, sigh), fall under a common rubric which the ear
will learn easily to acknowledge. In the pronunciation Macalpine's
pocket dictionary will be found useful for acquiring a certain
limited vocabulary to start with. No expedient will be found more
profitable than the study of topographical etymology, to which the
subjoined list may be looked on as giving an introduction. Many
hundreds of descriptive Celtic roots are photographed in the local
designations of Scotland and Ireland ; and the amount of curious
and interesting information that naturally springs out of this topo-
graphical study will surprise and delight those who have not been
accustomed to connect philology with any special associations of
intellectual enjoyment.


. At the mouth of .

Abertarf .

At the mouth of the Tarff.


. A field . . . .

Achallader .

Field of the wooded stream.

Aird — ard . A height— high .


The bluff of the Great head-
The dwellmg in the corner.

Aig. .

. A small nook or creek .

Arisaig .

Alt. .

. A brook

Taynuilt .

The house of the brook.


.. A river ....

Benavon .

The Ben of the river.

An .

, Diminutive at the end
of words .

Ben Lochan .

Mountain of the little loch.


.. Beautiful .

Loch Aluin .

Fair Lake.


, A habitation


A dwelling.

Araidh .

. A sheaUng .

Inveraraidh .

At the mouth of the river of
the shealing.

Ba .

. A cow ....

Loch Baa



, A village or town


The town of the church or


. White, fair .


The fair hollow or valley.


. A projecting top .

Dunbar .

Fortress on the projecting


. A birch tree


Birch field.


. A mountain pass .

Ballochbuie .

The yellow-pass, or the pass
of victory.


. Little . . . .

Glenbeg .

Little valley.


. A mountain .


Big mount.


. A plain

Blair-Athole .

Plain of Athole.


. A bank, slope, brae .


House of the brae.


. Spring water

Glenburnie .

Brook dale.


. Bottom, root

Bunawe .

Bottom of the river Awe.


. Spotted, brindled


Spotted or striped mount.


. Yellow.

Loch Buie

Yellow Lake.

Cam, CAi

iBUs . Crooked, a creek .

Cambusmore .

Great bend.


. A heap of stones .


Dark blue heap or mount.


. A turn, a winding

Carron .

The winding stream.


. A fortress or town


The fortress.


A strait, firth


The dwelling of the strait.


. Head, end .

Kintail .

Head of the salt water.


. A church


Church of the Virgin Maiy.

Cro .

. A sheepfold .


Valley of the sheepfold.


Names of Places in the Highlands.


Clach .

. A stoue


Stone of the tub (Inverness)

Cluain .

. A meadow .

Cluny .

The meadow.


. A hill, a knoll .

Knock in Mull A little hill.


. A cauldron, a hollow


The yellow hollow.

Coille .

. Wood ... V


The woody water

Creag .

. A rock, a clift'


The rock of the fire.

Cruach .

. A rick or stack' .

Ben Cruachan

The stack-shaped mountain.


. The back, behind

Culloden for

A plain behind the sea-


shore (oitir. )


. Xarrow

Glencoe or

The narrow glen.


. A dale, a field .


Field of the hospital.

Daraeh .

. An oak .


Rock of the oaks.

Dearg .

. Red .


The red mountain


. Water .


At the mouth of the water.


. Abridge .

Drumn'drcchit The bridge of the ridge.


. A ridge

Drum (Ir^'^ines
of Drum

A ridge.

Dubh .

. Black, dark .


Mount of the black sow.


. A fortress .


Fort of the alder pool.

Eadar .

. Between


Hill between two lakes.

Eaglais .

. A church


Church of St. Feochan.


. A waterfall .


At the mouth of the river
which flows from the loch
of the Fall of Foyers.

Eilean .

. An island .

Eilean Sgiat
hack or Skye

- Winged island.


. Long .

Loch Fad

Long loch.

Falach .

. Cover, shelter


Vale of shelter.


. Growth


Growth of alders.


. A whistle .




. An alder .


A place full of alders.

Fionn .

. White, shining .


Shining lake.

Garbh .

. Rough .

Garavalt .

Rough stream.


. An enclosed field


Great field.


. Short .

Gairloch .

The short lake.


. Grey .


Grey fort.

Gleann .

. A uaiTOw valley .


The valley of the yew tree.


. A blacksmith


Smith's dwelling.

Gorm - .

. Dark blue .


Tlie blue hill.


. The sun


Sunny hill or nook (aig)

Innis or I>

OH An enclosed place o]

' Inchgarvie

Rough Island.

Inbher .

. An outlet, a confluence

; Inveresk

The outlet of the river Esk.


. A hollow

Laggan .

A hollow.

Larach .

. Site of an old ruin


Little old ruin.


. A flagstone .


Field of flags.


. A plain

Lenny .

A plain.


. An herb


Valley of herbs.


. A meadow .


House of the meadow.


. An elm-tree .


Lake of elm-trees.


. The slope of a hill

Largs .



. A leap .


Outlet of the leaping water.


. A pool .

Corra linn

The pool of the cauldron.


. A lake . . .


At the mouth of the little lake.


. A bend, a loop .

Loch Lubnaig

Lake of the bending comer.

[52] VII. Explanation of Gaelic IVords and Names. Introd.

Machar .

. A plain by the sea

The Machar in
lona and S.

Uist .

Jlagh .

. A field .


A field.

Maise .

. Beauty .

Strathmashie .

Beautiful vale.

Maol .

. Bald lieadland .


The broad headland of Can-

Monadh .

. An upland moor .

M on ess .

Moor of the waterfall.


. Great .

Morven .

Great mountain.


. A sow .


Glen of the swine.


. A small creek or bay

. Oban

A little bay.


A hollow
A pool .
A harbour

Pittenweem Hollow of the caves.
Polbeath . The pool of the birches.
Portree . . King's harbour.



Reidh .




A fern .

A fort .

Smooth, clear, a plain

A king .

A projecting point

Brindled, spotted

Rathveu .

Moor of ferns.
The hill fort.

Dairy . . Vale of the king.

Ross of Mull . Projecting point of Mull.

Brae Riach . Spotted mount.


Srath .

A needle

A rock in the sea

A fairy . . . .
A sliarp rock
A nose, a promontory ,
A strath, broad valley .



Thin needle-like confluence.
At the mouth of the great

The valley of fairies.
Sharp ridge of the young men.
The promontory of the alders.
Broad vale.



Tir .





A bull .
A house
Land .
A well .
A hillock
A hill .
A little hill

The Tarfif river
Taynuilt .
Cantire .
Torloisk .
Tullibardine .

Bull or fierce stream.

House of the brook.

End of the land.

Well of the Virgin Mary.

The hill of the barn, sabhail.

Hill of the watch-fire.

The bard's knoll.


Upper, high .
A cave .

Wemyss .

Upper district.
The caves.

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