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archways, and is covered with lichens.
The geologist should not omit going
down and examining it. 1^ m. be-
yond Uson, in a field by the rocks,
is a small burying-ground of the
families of Williamson and Scott.
Uson House is the residence of G.
Keith, Esq., and some distance
beyond is Rossie, the seat of —
M 'Donald, Esq., a very beautiful
place, overlooking the estuary of the
Esk. From L^son House the road
leads through a pretty avenue of trees
to the village of Ferry den, Avhere a
ferry-boat conveys the tourist to
Montrose (Rte. 50).]

From Arbroath the rly. turns
sharp to the 1. and runs inland up
the valley of the Brothock, past

Colliston Stat, (attached to the old
ch. of St. Vigeans. In the church-
yard are some curious sculptured
stones) and LeysiniU Stat., to

8 m. Guthrie Junct., where the
main line from Perth to Aberdeen is
met (Rte. 50).


Aberdeen — Forfar — Deeside — Braemar — Strathspey — Elgin-
Banff — Nairn — The Cairngorm Mountains.


1. Gcnerallnformation. § 2. Deer Forests. § 3. Places of Inten


50 Perth to Aberdeen, by Cupar -

Angus, Forfar- {Brechin),
Montrose, and Stonehaven .

51 Kirriemuir to Ballater and

Braemar, by Glen Clova .
51a Brechin to Glenshee, by

JVest Water, Clova, Glen

Prosen, and Glenisla. For

51b Brechin to Ballater, by Ed-

zell and Glenmark
51c Brechin to Banchory, by

Edzell, Fettercairn, and the


52 Aberdeen to Braemar, by

Banchory, Ahoyne, Ballater,
(Rail), and Balmoral
52a Braem,ar to Aviemore, by
lAnn of Dee, Wells of Dee,
and the Larig Rue Pass.
[Ascents of Ben Muieh-Dhui
and Loch A' an {Avon)]


52b Braemar to Dunk eld, by
Spital of Glenshee, Bridge

315 of Cally (Pitlochrie) and

Blairgowrie . . .347

326 52c Braemar to Blair-Athole,

by Bainoch and Glen tilt . 349
53 Aberdeen to Fraserburgh and

Peterhead . . .351

329 54 Aberdeen to Alford and

Strathdon, by Kintore . 354

331 55 Aberdeen to Inverness, by
Huntly, Keith, Elgin, For-
res, and Nairn (Great

333 North of Scotland Eail-
wat) . . . .358

55a Aberdeen to Banff, by In-

334 veramsay, Fyvie, & Turriff 370
55b Perth to Elgin, by Craigel-

lacMe and Rothes, and to
BanflF, by Craigellachie,
Dufftown, and Keith Junc-
342 tion (Rail) . . .374

§ 1. General Information.

The country traversed by the following group of Routes compre-
hends the Cairngorm Grampians — some of the highest mountains
of Scotland, and most impressive in their scenery. Ben Muich-Dhui
is the monarch of the group, surrounded by the almost equally lofty
Cairntoul, Braeriach, Cairngorm, Ben-a-Bourd, Ben-A'an. These
granite giants hang over the " Wells of Dee," the source of that
grand river on whose banks our queen has fixed her quiet and

312 § 1. General Information. Sect. V.

sunny residence, where, backed by another giant, most Alpine of
peaks — Lochnagar — and surrounded by a circle of mountains, she
enjoys a retirement more complete than any other part of her
dominions could afford. At the base of their conchoidal and j)reci-
pitous corries sleep the romantic tarns of Loch Muick, Loch Dhu,
Lochnagar, and Loch Avon, "in the bosom of beauty."

The headquarters for exploring this region is Castleton of Brae-
mar, distant from 18 to 20 m. from the mountain summits men-
tioned above ; and as there is no Inn or place of refuge nearer than
the vale of the Spey — 15 m. farther — to visit their summits and re-
cesses is a feat not unAYorthy a member of the Alpine Club.

To hardy pedestrians the excursion to the source of the Dee,
perhaps the highest source in Britain, the Pass of Larig, Loch Avon,
and Loclinagar, are specially recommended. They will nowhere find
valleys or gorges narrower, corries or precipices loftier — hitherto
little explored or known. If more convenient, they may begin their
walks on the S., or by the Forfarshire side of the mountains, by as-
cending the romantic Glen Clova — paradise of plants and flowers ; or
from the N. boundary of the district. Strathspey ; or from Athole,
by Glentilt.

Strathspey, a glorious valley, skirting the N. roots of the Gram-
pian range, and commanding most attractive views of their (even in
sunmier) snow- dotted peaks, presents, by the Glen of Avon and
other tributaries, many gaps of access to their recesses. Parallel
with this chain, N. of the Spey, the chain of the Mouadh Leadli, from
whose sides springs the Findhorn — romantic and ruthless stream,
dear to salmon-fishers and artists — studded with lovely seats, Dun-
phail, Altyre, Belugas, Glen Furness, Darnaway, etc.

For easy-going travellers, a carriage-road exists from Dunkeld or
Pitlochrie by Spittal of Glenshee ; while from Aberdeen a Bailway
will carry them to Ballater, whence it is a drive of 18 m. to Brae-

On the outskirts of this range, besides the lovely valleys of the
North and South Esk, attention must be called to the very grand
Cliff Scenery on the sea-shore, from Stonehaven to the mouth of the
Dee — including the Bullars of Buchan and Dunottar Castle.

The district is by no means barren in Antiquities, though they
are confined to its outskirks, in the fertile valleys, etc., or the roots
of the hills — such are the primitive but huge constructions, the
Stone Forts, called Catertuns (Bte. 51a).

This is the country of the Sculptured Stones — rude monuments,
but deftly carved in relief, with figures of men and animals, patterns
of interlacing knots, mixed with strange symbols, the meaning of

Introi). §2. Deer Forests ; Agriculture; Inns. 313

which has never been explained : such as a figure like the letter Z,
two circles joined, resembling a pair of spectacles ; some bear the
Christian cross, combined with figures of dragons and other mon-
sters, reseml)ling the elephant or walrus, similar to the peculiar
figures on early Irish illuminated MSS. The date assigned to them
is the 8th or 9th cent. They occur most frequently, and almost ex-
clusively, in the country between the mouth of the Tay and the
shores of the Moray Firth. Among the chief examples — the Stones
at Forres (Sueno's), Meigle, Aberlemno, Largo, Forteviot, and Elgin
Cath., may be specified. Ecclesiastical remains of high interest occur
at Brechin, whose Round Tower resembles those of Ireland, in the
Church and College of Aberdeen, the magnificent ruins of Elgin
Cathedral and Chapter-House, and the less extensive remains of

In no part of the United Kingdom are so many grand inhdbitecl
Castles as in Aberdeen and Nairnshires, built in a peculiar and very
picturesque style — partly as defensible houses, sometimes with draw-
bridge and portcullis, and always with bracketted angle-turrets or
bartizans. Among the finest of these are Glamis and Cawdor,
Fyvie, Castle Frazer, Kildrummie, Craigievar, Glenbucket, and
Edzell in ruins.

There is no lack of more modern mansions and seats — the
princely Gordon Castle, Aboyne, Haddo, Invercauld, Castle Forbes,
Cortachy, and, at the head of all, the Regal Balmoral — an admirable
specimen of the Scottish style of architecture revived.

§ 2. Deer Forests ; Agriculture ; Ixns.

Deer Forests. — A large part of the main and moorland of Aber-
deenshire and the adjoining counties is kept as a preserve for deer,
and large rentals, as is well known, are paid for the exclusive rights
of shooting over them ; but unfortunately the best time for rambling
about the hills is also the season for deerstalking, when the lairds
and owners of shootings use their utmost endeavours to keep tourists
from all but the strict road, and in many cases try, through their
keepers, to prevent them following certain valleys or ascending cer-
tain mountains. On the part of the owners, tourists should remem-
ber that it is very hard that the deer should be disturbed, and the
whole day's shooting disarranged, simply because people will stray
out of the regular road and wander about at their own sweet will.
On the other hand, it is a moot point whether a mountain can be
closed to tourists. The best plan is for them to adhere as closely as
possible to the path, and not to trespass on enclosures or forests — so

[Scotland.] p

314 § 3. Places of Interest. Sect. V.

that, in case of attempts on the part of keepers to bar the passage,
the onus of proving their right to do so will lie with the proprietors.

Aberdeenshire is divided into several districts — Mar in the S.,
Buchan in the N.E., Garioch traversed by the Urie, and Formartin
in the centre ; and though once possessed by a great Celtic popu-
lation, Gaelic is not at all spoken, except in the Braemar district.
The present inhabitants are partly of Saxon or Flemish, and partly
of Norwegian and Danish origin, and speak a patois peculiar to
themselves. It is somewhat like the dialect spoken in the lowlands,
but much sharper : for example, what is always fat ; boots, beets,
etc. , Diminutives are also used very freely. For several excel-
lent anecdotes illustrating the dialect, see " Dean Eamsay's Re-
miniscences of Scottish Character," a most excellent and amusing work.
In no portion of Scotland have greater industry and skill been ex-
hibited, or more capital invested, in agricultural pursuits, than here,
and that with a soil naturally wet and cold, and a climate so unpro-
pitious that it has been described a? divided into two seasons — " nine
months winter, and three months bad weather." Consequently wheat
is seldom sown here, and 100,000 acres of arable land are devoted
to oats and turnips. From skilful management of the turnip crop
this district has become one of the chief meat-producers in Britain,
and sends copious supplies both of live cattle and dead meat to the
London market. On the week preceding Christmas more than 2000
head of cattle, besides sheep, are sent up to London from the mar-
kets of Aberdeenshire, Banff, etc.

The 1)171 accommodation is as good as in any part of the High-
lands. At Aberdeen there are numerous hotels. There are good
Inns at Braemar (2), Glen CI ova, Alford, Inverurie, Grantown,
Forres, Ellon, Newburgh, Banff, Abernethy, Craigellachie, Fochabers,
and Kingussie. Many of the landlords have fishings to let. (See
"Sportsman's Time- Tables and Guide to the Rivers and Moors of

§ 3. Places of Interest.

Meigle. — ^lonuments in churchyard ; Alyth ; Airlie Castle ; Den
of Airlie ; Slug of Auchrannie.

Kirnhnuir. — Cortachy Castle ; Glen Clova ; Glen Dole ; Loch
Brandy ; Loch Fee ; Glen Prosen (Rare Ferns).

Forfiir. — Glamis Castle ; Restennet Priory ; Aberlemno Forts ;
Melgund Castle ; Guthrie Castle.

Brechin. — Cathedral ; Round Tower ; Caterthun Forts ; Edzell
Castle ; the Burn ; scenery of West Water ; Fettercairn ; Slack of
the Birnie.


Route 50. — Perth to Aberdeen.


Montrose. — Museum ; Basin ; Links ; Den Finella ; Bervie Cliff

Laurencekirk. — Kincardine Castle.

Stonehaven. — Dunnottar Castle ; Muchalls House.

Blairgowrie. — Kirkmichael antiquities ; Glenshee.

Braemar. — Invercauld ; Falls of Corrymulzie ; Linn of Quoich ;
Linn of Dee ; Wells of Dee ; Cairngorm ; Ben Muich-Dhui ; Loch-
nagar ; Loch Callater ; Loch Avon.

Ballater. — Pannanich Wells ; Byron's lodging ; Pass of Ballater ;
Burn of the Vat ; Glen ]\Iuick ; Abergeldie Castle ; Balmoral.

Ahoyne. — Castle ; Earthworks ; Lumphanan Peel Bog.

Banchory. — Crathes Castle ; scenery of the Dye and Feugh.

Dinim. — Castle ; Dykes ; Corbie Den.

harbour ; Cathedral ; King's College
Union Street ; Court-houses ; Marif^chal

A herdeen. — Pi er and
Chapel ; Brig o' Balgownie
College ; Granite Works.

Peterhead. — Quarries ;
Slaines Castle.

Kintore. — Castle Frazer.

Alford. — Craigievar ; Kildrummie Castle ; Towie Castle
bucket Castle ; Colquhanny Castle ; Dune of Invernochty.

Tui-riff. — Church ; Fyvie Castle.

Banff. — Duff House ; Craigstone Castle ; Vale of Deveron.

Huntly. — Castle; Stones of Strathbogie ; Gordon Schools
Huntly Lodge ; Hill of Noth.

Bullers of Buchan ; Coast Scenery ;



Perth to Aberdeen, by Cupar-
Angus, Forfar, Brechin, Mon-
trose, and Stonehaven.

Perth, described in Ete. 43.

There is another road to Aberdeen
via Dundee and Arbroath (Rte. 49),
The line to Diuikeld (Rte. 48) is fol-
lowed as far as

7? m. Stanley Junct,, where the
Forfar Ely. branches off to the rt.,
keeping the rt. bank of the Tay,
which is crossed at

11 m. Cargill Stat., at the conflu-
ence of the rivers Tay and Isla. 14
m. to the 1. of the stat. are the ruins

of Stohhall, the seat of Sir John
Drummond, whose daughter married
Robert III., and became Queen of

In the angle formed by the junc-
tion of the Tay and Isla (to the N. of
Cargill) is the village of Meikleour,
with Roman remains in the shape of
camp and praetorium. On a height
commanding the junction of the
rivers is a noble mansion-house,
built 1873 by Bryce for the Marchion-
ess of Lansdowne. Another camp
may be visited a little to the E. of

134 m- Woodside Stat.

154 na. Cupar- Angus Junct.
[Hence a branch line is given off on
1. to Blairgowrie, the route thence
by the Spital of Glenshee to Brae-
mar (Rte. 52b). 1

31 G Boute 50. — Perth to Aberdeen : Cupar- Angus. Sect. Y.

Cupar-Angus {Hotels: Stratlimore
Arms ; Kailway), distinguislied from
Cupar in Fifeshire by the addition of
Angus, the old name for the county
of Forfar. The town stands on the
borders of Perth and Forfarshire,
and on the bank of the Isla, and
possesses some factories for the
coarser kinds of linen.

An abbe}^ was founded here in
1164 by Malcolm IV. for Cistercian
monks, but it had been getting out
of repair before the Reformation, and
its rain was completed at that time.
The only vestiges of this once mag-
nificent structure are in the X. angle
of the present churchyard, on the
side of the road to Dundee.

To the 1. of the town is Hallybur-
ton, the seat of Lord J. F. Gordon
Hally burton.

18 m. Ardhr Stat. A branch on
rt. is given off to Newtyle and Dun-
dee (Rte. 49).

21 m. MeigJe Junct. Stat. {Inn:
Belmont Arms), the town lying 1
m. to the N. In the ch.-yard are
Sculjiturccl Stones, representing the
story of Prince Arthur's wife, Yanora
(or Guinever ?), who was captured by
the Picts. Her husband some time
afterwards rescued her, but finding
that she had been seduced during
the separation, sentenced her to be
torn in pieces by wild beasts, which
is supposed to be depicted upon the
stones. Some regard them as hunt-
ing scenes. Near Meigle is Belmont
Castle (Lord Wharncliffe). [A short
branch of 5 m. is given off to Alyth,
a small town with some coarse linen
factories, lying pleasantly on the
southern slope of the Grampian dis-
tiict. In its neighbourhood is Paith-
ven, for many years the seat of the
Crichton family. Ruthven House
(Mrs. Ogilvie) is modern, pleasantly
situated on the river Isla, near the
site of the ancient castle. 2 m. to
the 1:T. of Ruthven is Airlie Castle
(Earl of Airlie), at the junction of

the Melgum and Isla, both famous
trout and salmon streams, and highly
picturesque with rock and foliage.
In 1639 the Earl of Airlie was a
strong royalist, and left Scotland to
avoid signing the Covenant. During
his absence the castle was burnt by
the Earl of Argyle, acting under the
authority of the Committee of
Estates. It is the subject of the
ballad "The Bonnie House of Air-
lie," and this injury was afterwards
avenged by Montrose by the destruc-
tion of Castle Campbell. Some
remains of the old castle have been
incorporated with the present build-
ing, the E. wall, with its portcullis-
entry, being still entire. The re-
mainder has disappeared. The
principal residence of the Earl of
Airlie is at Cortachy, near Kirrie-

In the grounds of a farmhouse,
called "the Barns of Airlie,^' is a
"weem" or cave, the roof of which
is rudely sculptured. The Glen or
Den of Airlie is very romantic, par-
ticularly at the waterfall or Slug of
Audirannie, 60 ft. high, and is well
worth a visit. The whole is ex-
ceedingly fine, the banks being in
many places perpendicular, and 400
ft. in height. It is a noted place
for ferns, and Asplenium viricle is
plentiful. The tourist may return
to Kirriemuir, 12 m. distant, instead
of to Alyth.

Between Alyth and Meigle is
Hollywood, the seat of Clayhill Hen-
derson, Esq., and in the neighbour-
hood is Kinloch (Sir George Kinloch,

Quitting Meigle Junct., the line
approaches the Sidlaw Range, con-
spicuous on which is a ruined tower
on the summit of Kilpurnie Hill,
1151 ft.

244 m. Eassie Stat.

26| m. Glamis Stat., 1 m. from
which on rt. is Glamis Castle (Earl of
Strathmore). Admission liberally
granted to castle and gardens. Small
Inn in the villacre.

Scotland. Boute 50. — Perth to Aberdeen: Glamis.


This "magnificent old Baronial
Castle " is perhaps the finest and
most picturesque of the Scottish
castles now inhabited, and at the
same time one of the most cheerful
and habitable. It owes its present
aspect, clustered with turrets, barti-
zans, and extinguisher roofs, to the
first Earl of Strathraore, 1675-1687.
Doubtless it has older portions in-
cluded in the square tower with
walls 15 ft. thick, which overlooks
the whole, and the lower wings are
still more modern. The old chron-
iclers say that Malcolm II. died at
Glamis, and some add that he was
assassinated. But then Macbeth was
Thane of Glamis, and perhaps lived
there, and he was said to have mur-
dered a king. So, by a conjunction
of tradition and fiction, the scene
immortalised by Shakespeare has
been transferred hither, and the
room in which Duncan breathed his
last is even pointed out. ' ' It con-
tains a curious monument of feudal
times, being a secret chamber, the
entrance of which by the law or
custom of the family must only be
kno^\^l to 3 persons at once, the
Earl, his heir-apparent, and any
third person they may take into
confidence." — Si7' IF. Scott.

At the execution of Lady Glamis
for witchcraft, and for conspiring to
poison King James V. (!) in 1537,
the castle was forfeited to the Crown ;
but Avlien her innocence had been
established it was restored to her
son, whose descendant, Patrick, be-
came Earl of Strathmore in 1606.
In 1716 Prince Charles Edward
lodged for some time here, and held
a sort of court. Sir Walter Scott
adds: — "A disciple of Kent had
the cruelty to render this splendid
old mansion more parkish, as he was
pleased to call it, to raze all the ex-
terior defences, and to bring his
mean and paltry gravel walk up to
the very door out of which, deluded
by the name, we might have imagined
Lady Macbeth (with the form and

features of Siddons) issuing forth to
welcome King Duncan."

It is entered by a low door, sur-
mounted by shields of the bearings
of the noble family of Lyon ; also
by the arms of the royal family, in
allusion to the time when James V.
lived here during the forfeiture. A
winding stair in the circular tower,
set in an angle of the building, leads
to a low vaulted hall decorated with
armour and the bufi" coat of Claver-
house. It occupies nearly the whole
space of the tall square central
tower, Avhich seems to be the oldest
part of the castle. The drawing-
room (once the hall) is embellished
with a finely carved and arched ceil-
ing and noble fireplace. In addition
to family portraits are some pictures
of the Stuarts and their ministers —
of Claverhouse, the Duke of Lauder-
dale, and James Thomson the poet ;
and opening out from this is a small
dark-panelled chapel, one of the
oldest portions ; it was consecrated
before the Reformation. Some hand-
some cabinets, and tapestry repre-
senting scenes in the life of Nebu-
chadnezzar will be admired. The
visitor should not omit to see the
view from the top of the castle, over
Strathmore and 12 counties, the
range of the Grampians, the towns
of Alyth, Blairgowrie, Eorfar, Mount
Blair, and the Craigs of Clova. The
kitchen is old.

In front of the house a curious
sun-dial will be noticed, with an ex-
traordinary number of faces to the
sun. Amongst the curiosities of the
place is the "lion-cup" of Glamis,
the original from which Sir W. Scott
took the idea of the ' ' Blessed Bear of
Bradwardine " in " "VVaverley." The
Park of 1000 acres is traversed by
the river Dean ; it abounds in fine
trees. The pinetum and gardens are

In front of the manse, in the vil-
lage of Glamis, is a sculptured stone,
called King Malcolm's gravestone.

Soon after passing Glamis Stat.


Route 50. — Perth to Aherdeen : Forfar. Sect. V.

a brief glance is obtained of tlie
castle, on rt.

28J m. Kirriemuir Junct. [from
this a short branch leads on 1, to
Kirriemuir [Inns : Airlie Anns ;
Crown), a brisk manufacturing little
town, with a trade in brown linen.
Like Alyth, it is pleasantly placed
on the southern slopes of the hills,
called the Braes of Angus. In the
cemetery are some sculptured stones.
In the neighbourhood are Logic (Col.
Kinloch), Lindertis (Sir T. Munro),
and Kinnordy (birthplace of the emi-
nent geologist, the late Sir Charles
Lyell, Bart.), while Airlie Castle is
only 4 J m. to the W. 2^ m. W. rises
the four-storeyed fortalice of Invcr-
quharity Castle, seat of a branch of
the Ogilvies, one of whom fought for
James VIl. at the Battle of the
Boyne. For pedestrian route from
Kirriemuir to Ballater, by Glen
Clova {see Rte. 51). It is a drive
of 15 m. from this to Glen Clova
Inn. J

321 m. i^o?/ar Stat, (^i^n: County
Arms, post horses ; Pop. 12,555), a
royal and pari, burgh, and cajiital of
the county of the same name. Brist-
ling with stalks of chimneys, it is by
no means an attractive town ; but
possesses handsome County Buildings
and a Public Hall, for which it is in-
debted to a liberal townsman, Peter
Reed, confectioner. It contains eight
or nine large power-loom mills, which
employ many of the inhabitants in
weaving coarse linens.

An octagon turret, formerly the
Town Cross (date, time of Charles I.),
now marks the site of the Castle,
which was a royal residence in the
days of Malcolm Canmore. Queen
]\Iargaret had a retreat upon the
Inch in Forfar Loch, now partl}^

The town acquired an infamous
notoriety from the number of old
women executed here under a charge
of witchcraft. A hollow on the north

of the town is still called "The
Witches' Howe," and the Forfar
" Bridle," which was used as a gag,
is still preserved in the Tow/i Hall,
where are also portraits of Admiral
Lord Duncan, by Opie, and of Henry
Dundas, Lord Melville, by Raehtim.

The hill above the town is con-
verted into a public Cemetery, planted
with coniferous trees, and laid out
in walks.

A little to the E. of the town, 1. of
the rly., are the remains of Rcstennet
Prioinj, of the date of the 13th cent.,
although an earlier ch. is supposed
to have existed here, foimded by St.
Boniface in the 7th cent. The square
tower, surmounted by an octagonal
,spire, is the principal portion that

Glamis Castle is 6 m. off {see

FinJiavcn Castle is a ruined strong-
hold of the Earls of Crawford. Near
it is a Roman camp of considerable
extent. At Aherlemno, in a field not
far distant, are two sevlptured stones^
with figures of men and horses.

Passing some small lochs, the rly.

35 m. ClocTcshriggs Stat. ; imme-
diatel}'- after which is Rescobie Loch,
formed by the Lunan river. Lastrcea
thelyjjteris is to be found in it.

37 J m. 1., close to Auldbar Road
Stat., is Balgavies (pronounced Be-
gays) House, a modern building en-
grafted on the old castle.

[1. 4 m. Melgund Castle is a fine old
ruin, said to have been built by Car-
dinal Beaton. Between Melgund
and Brechin is Auldbar (P. J.
Chalmers, Esq.), a castellated man-
sion, part of which was built by Sir
Thomas Lyon, Treasurer of Scot-
land, whose arms, impaling those of
his wife, daughter of the Regent
Morton, are cut below the bartizan.
Auldbar is built on the edge of a
ravine of great depth. The grounds

Forfar. Route 50. — Guthrie Junction ; Brechin.


are very picturesque, and contain a
charming terrace garden. ]

39-^ m. at Ghthrie Juxct. the
Arbroath line is given off on rt.
(Rte. 49).

Guthrie Cctstle (1.), the seat of the
family of the same name, is a square
tower, built in 1468, but much added
to of late years.

Gardyne Castle (1 m. on rt.) is a
baronial structure of venerable as-
pect, standing on the declivity of a

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