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will be remembered, was Thane of
Cawdor, murdered Duncan in this
castle. In reality, however, no part
of the castle is older than the loth
centy. It contains some family por-
traits and fine tapestry, representing
among other subjects the adventures
of Don Quixote. In the dungeon
is an old hawthorn - tree, which
grew on the spot, the subject of the
legend that the founder of the
castle had a chest of gold earned
by an ass, and that he had been
advised by a hermit to build wher-
ever the ass stopped. The halt took
place at this very tree, which was
enclosiMl in the fabric.

Around the Castle are some noble
old trees : ohs. a walnut and chestnut
especially. There are fine walks in
the woods.

2\ m. higher up the river jSTairn,
on its 1. bank, is Kilravock Castle
(Major Rose). It is not generally
shown, but by favour may be seen on
presentation of stranger's card. It
consists of an old square tower, built
in 1460, with lower buildings of a
later date, and has been in the Rose
family ever since. There is a good
collection of armour and family pic-
tures, and the gardens are beauti-
fully laid out and well worth a visit.
The 14th April, 1746, Prince Charles
Edward spent at Kilravock, Avhere
he praised everythingi and made him-
self exceedingly agreeable. The
next day was the Duke of Cumber-
land's birthday, which he spent at
Kilravock, remarking to Mr. Rose,
the then proprietor, "you had my



cousin here yesterday, " On the 3d
day the cousins met at Culloden.]

Bail to Inverness.

99 J m. Fort-George Stat. The
fort, which is 3 m. distant, is an
irregular polj-gon, with 6 bastions,
and was built soon after the Rebel-
lion of 1745, to keep the Highlanders
in check. It is large enough to hold
3000 men. Johnson and Boswell
were entertained here by Sir Eyre
Coote, who was governor at the
time. It Avas made one of the mili-
tary centres and depots, 1872.

1. m. from Fort-George is a Ferry
across to Fortrose, a nearly straight
road. The road is continued S. to
Grantown, and across the Grampians
by Tomintoul to Braemar (Rte. 64).

10| m. Dalcross Stat., to the 1. of
which is Dalcross or Dacus Castle,
where the royal troops were put in
array just before the battle of Cul-
loden. The castle consists of 2
square blocks of buildings, joining
one another at right angles. The
windows are stanchioned with iron,
and the original massive oaken door,
studded with huge nails, still SAvings
at the entrance. The hall is perfect,
and has the dais or raised part at one
end for the lord and his guests. The
ceiling is of carved oak, partly
painted. It was built by Lord
Lovat in 1621, and in the 18th
centy. was purchased by the Macin-
tosh family. It is now used as a
farm-house.

rt. about half-way between Dal-
cross and Culloden Stats., overlook-'
ing Inverness Firth, is Castle Stewart,
a fine example of the turreted house.
It seems to have been built by the
Earl of ]\Ioray in the latter part of
the 16th centy. In 1624 it was
taken by the ]\Iacintoshes and ren-
dered uninhabitable, though in later
years it has been repaired.

105 m. Culloden Stat. On 1.,
close at hand is Culloden House



SCOTLAJsD.



Route 55. — CuUoden.



369



(A. Forbes, Esq.), built on the site
of the old mansion, which in 1745
belonged to Duncan Forbes, Presi-
dent of the Court of Session, and a
staunch supporter of the Hanoverian
cause. It was for some days before
the battle the headquarters of Prince
Charles. About 3 m. from the stat.
is Drummossie Moor, the ground on
which the Battle of Cullodcn was
fought on the 16th April 1746. It
was then a wide open swampy heath,
extending southwards from the
Moray Firth, a great part of which
has since been converted into arable
land, and covered with luxuriant
crops of grain. By the road from
Inverness it is 6 m. to the large
boulder stone upon which the Duke
of Cumberland is said to have break-
fasted that morning. The ground,
it will be seen, was admirably adapted
for the Eoyalists — strong in horse
and artillery, and everything else
appears, as if by a fatality, to have
conduced to their success. Prince
Charles was obliged to fight to pro-
tect Inverness, but he might have
chosen better ground than this. He
had won every battle that he had
fought — he had not abused his suc-
cesses by misconduct— and yet his
army was demoralised as though by
a succession of defeats. The pay of
the men had been long in arrear,
and among the officers there was jeal-
ousy and distrust of one another.
The whole of the previous day the
army had but one biscuit per
man, and it had been marching
all night with the intention of sur-
prising the duke. This it had
failed to do, and was now going to
fight upon the most unsuitable
ground that could have been select-
ed. And to crown all, at the last
moment arose that ever - recurring
difficulty about the position on
the right wing. The Macdonalds
claimed it as their right from time
immemorial. The Stewarts and
Camerons were placed there, and
the Macdonalds on the left. The



armies had been about equal in
numbers, but pressed by hunger and
fatigue nearly one-half the rebels
had straggled into Inverness, or
fallen asleep on the line of march.
The Duke of Cumberland drew up
his forces in 3 lines, and began the
battle with his artillery. The French
gunners in Prince Charles' service
feebly replied. The Highlanders
waxed impatient and began to waver.
Lord George Murray, seeing no time
was to be lost, led forward the clans
on the right, who, charging with
their usual impetuosity, broke the
Duke's first line. But the second,
drawn up 3 deep, front rank kneeling,
reserved their fire till the enemy
were almost on their bayonet-points,
and then poured in so murderous a
volley as to make the Highlanders
recoil. M 'Lachlan and M 'Lean were
killed, while Lochiel was carried off
badly Avounded. Now was the time
for the Macdonalds to have proved
the justice of the claim they held so
tenaciously, and, like the ISIacpher-
sons on a similar occasion, to have
retrieved the fortunes of the day ;
but in vain the Duke of Perth rode
up and implored them to advance.
In vain Macdonald of Keppoch
charged at the head of a few per-
sonal retainers, and fell, exclaiming,
"My God ! do the children of my
clan forsake me ?" Still one chance
remained, and all might yet be
well. Lord Elcho galloped up to the
Prince, and begged him to put him-
self at their head and lead the charge
in person. The Prince hesitated,
and declined. Lord Elcho turned
away with a bitter execration, and
swore he would never see his face
again. A few minutes afterwards
Charles suffered himself to be led
from the field — the Macdonalds
marched off without striking a blow,
but with pipes playing and colours fly-
ing — the battle of Culloden was lost,
and with it the hopes of the Stuarts.
The insurgents lost 1000 men killed
and wounded, the royalists 300.



370 Rs. 55, Stones of Clava. — 55a, Aberdeen to Banff. Sect. Y.



A monument \ m. to the W. of
the great boulder shows where the
contest was fiercest, and where most
of the slain were buried.

[1 m. to the S.E. of Culloden
Moor, and 4 from the station on the
S. (rt. ) bank of the river Kairn, stand
the Stones of Clava, one of the most
extensive remains of the kind in the
kingdom. A footpath leads from
Cumberland's Boulder Stone across
the road, past a farmhouse, to the
edge of the river Kairn, which is
crossed by a wooden bridge. On
the S. side of the river are several
cairns, but it is probable that ori-
ginally they were scattered about on
both sides of the stream, for on the
N. there are upright stones here and
there in the corn-fields, and the little
tributary of the Nairn is choked with
stones of all sizes which have been
cleared off the fields.

The monuments on the S. side
extend rather more than 1 m. They
consist entirely of cairns surrounded
by circles of stones, and of many
detached upright stones, either mark-
ing the spot where a cairn has
stood, or part of an avenue lead-
ing to and from the centre. The
cultivation of the valley, and still
more the erection of cottages and
farm-buildings close by, have played
sad havoc with this curious monu-
ment of antiquity — here detached
stones have been heaped together,
there the cairns have been scattered.
The valley extends N.E. and S.W.,
and the uncultivated part of it is so
covered with gorse and juniper as to
prevent one's comprehending the
general ground plan of the whole.
The principal .object is a line of 4
cairns, more or less perfect. When
undisturbed they were 16 ft. high
and 50 ft. in diameter. A ring of
upright stones confines the base of
each, and the whole is surrounded
by a circle of detached slabs, some
50 yards in diameter. The 3d from
the E. seems to be the most import-



ant, and the slabs, are larger and
flatter. With the exception of the
last, which has fallen in, the cairns
have all been opened, the easternmost
very scientifically, by the order of
]\lrs. Campbell of Kilravock ; it was
found to contain a chamber 12 ft. in
diameter, with a passage 2 ft. wide
opening towards the S. In the
chamber was an urn, in which were
ashes. The fields to the W. are full
of blocks which show how far the
cairns extended. The largest of all
is nearly a mile to the W. Eound
this cairn was a circle of moderate-
sized stones, and beyond that a ring
of very large ones, of the latter of
which a single specimen is standing,
12 ft. high by 9 broad in its widest
point. There can be little doubt,
from all these indications, that the
plain of Clava was at some prehis-
toric time a cemetery for the great
and noble Caledonians in the N. But
whether all the interments took place
at once, or whether, as in loua, these
sepulchral monuments must be attri-
buted to the history of several cen-
turies, is a matter of conjecture.
Fergusson ( ' ' Old Stone Monuments" )
supposes Clava to have been the
burial-place of Brude, King of the
Picts, who Avas converted to Christi-
anity by St. Columba.

The 'flat shores of the Firth of
Inverness are carefully cultivated
and teeming with grain, as are also
those of the Black Isle opposite. On
apj)roaching the Terminus, see rt.
the mouth of the Caledonian Canal
and the height of Craigphadrick
(Rte. 64).

110 m. Inverness. Junct. Stat. (Rte.
64). {Inns: Caledonian, very good ;
Station Hotel. )



EOUTE 55a,

Aberdeen to Banff, by Inveram-
say, Fyvie, and Turriff.

As far as Inveramsay Junct. is



Scotland. Route 55a. — Aberdeen to Banff: Fyvie.



371



described in Ete. 55. Quitting that
stat. the line reaches

2 m. IVartle Stat, and Warthill
House (Wra. Leslie, Esq.), an old
Scottish, tower-house, with a hand-
some modern addition, filled with
precious objects of Oriental art. Here
also is an interesting portrait of
Prince Charles Edward, with a hawk
and cocked hat. The house is sur-
rounded by thriving woods, which
hide it from the rly.

6 m. Rotliic, near which is Rothie
House (Col. Forbes Leslie).

9 m. Fyvic Stat. To the rt. , over-
looking the banks of the Ythan river,
is *Fyvie Castle, one of the stateliest
and best preserved castellated man-
sions of Aberdeenshire. It occi.ipies
a commanding site, and is built in
the form of the letter L, with 3 lofty
square towers, crowned by bartizan
turrets, named after their founders,
Preston, Meldrum, and Gordon
towers. Between the first two is the
old entrance, flanked by round bas-
tions, now closed, but retaining its
massive iron crossed-barred gate.
The present entrance is in the rear,
and leads to a broad Avinding stair.
Tlie interior contains an interesting
painting by Murillo, and portraits
of Monmouth, Claverhouse, Queen
Mary, Montrose, and Cecil, Earl of
Salisbury. The original castle, pro-
bably a tall peel tower, dates from
the 13th cent. Edward L is said
to have slept in it 1 296. The domain
was part of the royal chase down to
the time of Eobert II., whose son
received it as a gift from his father,
but shortly gave it up to his cousin.
Sir James Lindsay. In 1390 the
estate of Fyvie, Avith the castle,
passed from the Lindsays to Henry
de Preston, by whom the Preston
tower on the S.E. was built. In
1596 it was bought by Alexander
Seton, created Lord Fyvie and Earl
of Dunfermline, Lord Chancellor,
and tutor to Charles I. By him the



Seton tower was added, and his
arms sculptured on a tablet of free-
stone over the gateway. It is pro-
bable also that the whole was re-
modelled and redecorated under his
supervision. The tower on the IST.W.
was added by the Gordons, who
bought the estate in 1726. In
the S.W. toAver is the Charter-
room, adorned with grotesque carv-
ings, and underneath it is a cham-
ber, walled up. No one knows
AA-hen or why it was closed, but
a superstitious tradition that some
great calamity Avould folloAV its
opening has hitherto checked curi-
osity. In 1644 the park Avas occu-
X)ied by the ]\Iarquis of Montrose,
whose intrenchments may still be
traced near the garden. He Avas
defeated here by Argyle.

It is noAV the seat of Col. W. Cosmo
Gordon. On the Preston tower
is a figure of the Trumpeter of Fyvie,
the subject of a charming love
ballad.

3 m. loAver doAvn the Ythan is the
ToiL'cr of Gight, which belonged to
the branch of the Gordons from
Avliich came Byron's mother. It was
besieged by Montrose 1639, when
he upheld the Covenanting cause,
but he failed to take it.

To the I. oi Auchterless ^Ut. {lil
m.) is Towie, noAV a farmhouse, but
formerly Tolly Castle, the residence
of the Barclay family. The old hall
is still complete, and appears to have
been built or used for a chapel. It
has a groined and ribbed roof, and
is decorated with sacred emblems.
In the recess at the farther end are
4 shields with representations of the
Evangelists. An inscription on the
exterior (partly illegible) says : —

" Sir Alexander Barclay de Tolly
Fundator, deeessit
Anno Domini 1136
In time of Valtb al' men
Semis friendly and friend is not^^
Knavin bot in adversity. 1593."

In reality the date of the foundation



372 Route 5r^x.— Turriff ; Banff; Duff House. Sect. V.



must be about 1300. The cynical
spirit of the later inscription may be
explained by Thomas the Ehymer's
lines upon the castle : —

" Barclay Tolly of the glen,
Happy to the maids, but never to the men,"

Of this family was Field Marshal
Barclay de Tolly, who commanded
the Russian troops at the battle of
Smolensko.

To rt. of Auchterless is Hatton
Castle, the seat of Garden Duff,
Esq., which still preserves part of
the old tower of Balquhally, the
place of the Mowatts, sold by them
in 1723.

18 m. Turriff {Inn : Commercial),
a thriving industrious town, with
manufactures of flax, thread, and
brown linen, is a place of consider-
able antiquity, as shown by the re-
mains of the old Church, once the
property of the Knights Templars.
It is 120 ft. long and 18 broad, and
has a handsome belfry, with a fine-
toned bell of the year 1557. There
are monuments to the Lindsay and
Leslie families. The town Cross is
very old, and used to be the spot
where the Sheriff's Court assembled.
In 1639 the Master of Forbes, who
had collected a body of Covenanters
here, was ignominioush^ routed by a
party of Royalists, and the skirmish
was afterwards known as the ' ' Trot
of Turriff"." On this occasion, in
this remote village, the first blood
was drawn in the civil war of Scot-
land. In the neighbourhood are
Forglen (Sir R. J. Abercromby), a
handsome modern house (2 m. from
.stat.), beautifully situated on the
banks of the Deveron, an estate of
8000 acres, and Dalgety (A, D.
Ainslie, Esq.).

The rly. now approaches the river
Deveron, and reaches

' 21 m. Plaidy Stat,
2 m. rt. is Craigstone Castle (Mrs.
Pollard-Urquhart), built 1607. It is



a plain copy of the principal tower
of Fyvie, so studiously plain indeed
that the corner towers have been
omitted after the corbels to support
them had been built. The only de-
coration consists of a row of grotesque
sculpture over the central arch.

25 m. King Edward Stat., a cor-
ruption of Kin-Edart, formerly be-
longing to the Comyns. There are
remains of a castle 1^ m. off, on a
rocky eminence, which was one of
their strongholds. 2 m. 1. Eden
House, belonging to M. E. Grant
Duff, Esq., M.P.

On an eminence, separated from
the town by the river Deveron, here
spanned by Smeaton's Bridge, Om-
nibus to and from the town \ m. is

Banff Terminus.

29 m. Banff {Hotel : Fife Arms,
clean and good), a Pari. Burgh and
seaport of 2d class at the mouth of
the Deveron, which separates Banff
from Macduff. (Pop. 7439.) On the
shoulder of the hill next the sea
stood the Castle, at times a royal
residence, and occupied for a daj'- or
two by the invader Edward I. in
1296 and 1298. The castle is now
supplanted by a modern house ; and
a few lumpish walls and a ditch alone
repi'esent it. Beyond it is Chalmers
Hospital. In the Old Church-yard,
behind the Post-Offiee is a fragment
of a Gotliic Church, with one or two
monuments. On the height near the
present church are the Schools, a
handsome building with a Grecian
portico, built from funds left by Jas,
Wilson, a native of Banff. In this
building is a Museum, where some
relics are preserved of Ferguson the
astronomer (b. at Keith 1710).

In Low St., opposite the Fife Arms,
are the County Buildings, and near
the end of the street, close to the
church, is the entrance lodge to

Duff House (Earl of Fife), a hand-
some Italian mansion, with towers at
the four corners, designed by the



Banff.



Route 55 a. — Banff ; Maaluff.



373



elder Adams, and built about the
middle of the 18th centy., sheltered
by trees near the mouth of the
Deveron. It contains a fine collec-
tion of paintings, which can be seen
in the absence of the family by an
order from the factor. Besides a
number of family portraits of more
than average merit, the following are
the most noticeable old pictures : —
Henrietta Maria, Fandi/cJc, full length
in white satin ; Penelope Countess
Herbert, same ; Charles I. as Prince
of Wales, Velasquez, a good picture,
but not a favourable portrait — the
expression is sinister, and reminds
one of his son James II. Lady Mary
Coke, and Mrs. Abington, Sir J. Rey-
nolds, a lovely picture, face full of
expression and softness of colouring ;
Hawking, Wynants ; Sir W. Lent-
hall, Speaker of the House of Com-
mons, 1640, Mytens; Infant Saviour,
feeling the sharpness of the Crown of
Thorns, Alonzo Cano ; Italian Land-
scape, Zuccarelli : Salvator Mundi
astride upon the globe, Luca Gior-
dano, a tine jjicture, with more ex-
pression than is generally found on
this subject; Assumption, AIunllo{l);
Duke of Richmond, Vandyck; Duch-
ess of Richmond, same ; Charles I.,
Vandyck; Duchess of Richmond,
Lely, a beautiful face and figure ;
Prince Henry, Jansen; Jane Duchess
of Gordon, Reijnolds; Princess Eliza-
beth ; 3 children of James I., stiff
and disagreeable ; 3 small heads by
Holbein; an ecclesiastic, J. van
Eyck ; a philosopher with a sciill,
Q. Matsys ; head of a girl, Murillo ;
Louis XIV, Rigaud ; Queen Eliza-
beth, Hilliard ; porti-aits of the Eng-
lish kings from Henry V. to George
II., including a full length of
Henry VIII. by Holbein ; the
Chevalier, Prince Charles, and Car-
dinal York by G. Hamilton, etc.
There is a handsome library 70 ft.
long, and a good collection of arms
and armour. There is a charming
walk straight through the Park to
Alvah Bridge (2 m. ), where the rocks



rise to the height of 50 ft. and are
said to be as deep below the surface
of the water. There is a Gothic
mausoleum in the Park containing
monuments to various members of
the family. The estate amounts to
72,000 acres.

Banff has a reputation for sea-bath-
ing, but there are no machines.
However, a Bath-house was opened
in 1872.

A little to the E. of Banff, on the
other side of the Deveron, is the
town of Macduff, politically united
to Banff, though otherwise independ-
ent, devoted to herring-fishing and
some shipbuilding. It takes its
name from the Fife family, whose
property it is. From the hills above
there is a charming view of the va,le
of Deveron, and the Sutherlandsliire
mountains in the distance.

There is an Episco^Kcl Cli. at Banff.

The terminus of the Strathisla
Raihray, leading to Elgin and Inver-
ness by Tillynaught and Grange,
also to Portsoy (Rte. 55b), is at
Banff Harbour, close to the Pier.

5 m. from Banff on the road to
Portsoy, passing the gable end of
the old ruined ch. of Boyndie, are
the remains of the Castle of Boyne,
once the property of the Edmon-
stones and then of the Ogilvys. An
older castle stood once upon the sea-
shore, of which a few fragments re-
main. Boyne Castle overlooks a
deep ravine, which served as a de-
fence to the N.W. On the S. is the
entrance by a raised causeway across
the moat. The gateway is protected
by 2 round towers, and the whole
building consisted of a rectangle, de-
fended by towers at the angles. The
W. side, with its hall, 80 ft. long,
was added in the latter part of the
16th centy.

2 m. S. of Banff is Inchdrewer
Castle, now converted into a farm-
house. Here, in 1713, Lord Banff
was bui'nt under very suspicioiis cir-
cumstances.



374



Ro^ite 55b. — Perth to Elgin : Craig ellacliie. Sect. V.



ROUTE 55b.

Perth, to Elgin, by Craigellacliie
and Rothes, and to Banff, by
Craigellachie, Dufftown, and
Keith Junction. Rail.

From Perth to Boat of Garten
June. Stat, is described Rte. 48.
Quitting the Highland Railway, this
line continues to descend Strathspey,
by Nethy Bridge Stat.

Grantoivn Stat., and

Cromdale Stat. The river makes
a wide sweep between well wooded
hills. The Scottish dance music, the
"Strathspey," is derived from this
district."

rt. is Tiilchan Lodge, I'esidence of
the hospitable M. T. Bass, Esq.,
M. P., in a charming situation, and
well backed by fir-woods, on 1. bank
of river.

Advie Stat.

Near Dalvey is Glenlivat, famed
for its whisky.

The Avon, the largest tributary
of the Spey, descending from the
Cairngorm Grampians, falls in from
the E. {see Rte. 52a). Railway
crosses the Spey just above the junc-
tion.

Ballmdalloch Stat. At Delnes-
haugh is a small Inn (Aberlour H.)
where a horse and car may be hired
to Tomintoul. Ballindalloch Castle
(Sir G. Macpherson Grant, Bart.)
consists of an imposing old square
tower with modern additions. In the
park are some fine avenues, leading
towards the junction of the two rivers.
It is an estate of 14,223 acres.

Blacksboat Stat.

The spire-like peak of Ben Rinnes
is a conspicuous object on it.

Carron Stat. The Spey is again



Aherlour Stat, on rt. bank of
Spey. 1 m. up the river Lour is a
pretty fall, the Lynn of Ruthrie, 30
ft. high.

rt. Aberlour House (Miss Mac-
pherson Grant), a handsome modern
mansion, picturesquely situated.

A long hilly promontory, stretch-
ing IST. from the Grampians towards
the Spey here terminates in the clitt'
called Craigellachie, round which
the road, the river, and the railway
wind. "There is nothing remark-
able in either its height or form ; it
is darkened with a few scattered
pines and birch trees, and touched
along the summit with a flush of
heather ; but it constitutes a kind
of headland or promontory in the
group of hills to which it belongs, a
sort of initial letter of the mountains,
and thus stands in the minds of the
inhabitants of the district, and the
Clan Grant, for a type of the coun-
try." — liuskin. In old times it was
the trysting-place of the clan, and
hence their war-cry became, " Stand
fast, Craigellachie."

Craigellacliie June. Stat. Inn :
Fife Arms (fishing). The Spey is
here crossed by Telford's elegant iron
Bridge of a single arch, 150 ft. span,
so debased as to allow ample water-
way for the destructive floods. Here
a riy. branches rt. to Banfl' by Duff-
town (see next page).

The rly. to Elgin follows the Spey,
which winds round the W. base of
the lofty hill of Ben Aigen, rising
due N. after passing rt. near Arn-
dilly the junction of the river Fid-
dich, as far as

Rothes Stat. (Grant Arms, a fair
Inn), a picturesquely situated vil-
lage on the 1. bank of the Spey, and
directly in view of Ben Aigen (1500
ft.) From this place a branch of the
noble family of the Leslies takes the
title of Earl. The ruined Avails of



Scotland. Route 55b. — Craigellaclm to Banff.



375



their old Castle rise above it on the
W. They sold this estate about
1700 to Grant, Earl of Seafield, and



Online LibraryJohn Murray (Firm)Handbook for travellers in Scotland → online text (page 58 of 73)