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the Avail, he ayIU see a rude untrimmed
stone in fi'ont of the Exchange, called
Clach-na-Cuddin, stone of the pails,
because the water-carriers used to
rest their tubs on it. By folloA\nng
Bridge Street, he will reach the



Scotland.



lioute 64. — Tiiverness.



413



Sns2)ension Bridge, from which lie
will behold L, on the height, the City
Jail and County Courts, imitating
in a humble way the feudal and royal
castle which once occupied the grand
site and commanded the passage
between the N. and S. of Scotland.
It was blown up by Prince Charles,
1746. Dr. Johnson was willing to
look upon the ruins which he visited
as the site of Macbeth' s Castle, an
assumx:)tion for which there exists no



to 2

S 1:3 Caledonian

m6 Hotel.

o ^ Steeple. +

■^ To Canal. 83.



To the Jail
•cp or
Castle.



Post Office+ :



Church Street.



PLAN



INVERNESS. :S :

■^ :
Ingles Street.

+ Railway.
Rly. Stat,
and Hotel.



evidence. The view from the Terrace
in front of the jail is pleasing. Cross-
ing the river by the Chain Bridge,
and turning 1., we come to the

Eijiscopal Cathedral (St. Andrew's)
of the see of Aloray and Koss, of
which the Primus resides here. It
is a handsome modern Gothic build-
ing (Alex. Ross, architect), conspicu-
ous for its twin towers, intended to
be crowned with spires when money
comes in. It is a cross ch. , in style
Dec, with aisles, ending in an apse.
The Nave, of 5 bays, has granite
piers ; the roof of timber. The Font,
of white marble, and supported by
an angel, is copied from one by Thor-
waldsen at Copenhagen. The ch.
cost about £20,000.

A furore for Gothic has infected
the kirks here — Old, Free, and
United Presbyterian — all of which



have adopted the st3de, while two
have built towers, which aspire, some
day, to have spires.

Oliver Cromwell appreciated the
strategic importance of Inverness,
and built a strong fort on the rt. bank
of the river, below the town, to com-
mand the passage and bridle the
wild Highlanders. It was pulled
down at the Restoration to please
the Clans and their Chiefs.

The Academy is a school where
about 200 pupils are educated, to
which is attached a bequest of a
Captain Mackintosh for boys of his
name. Here is also one of the
schools endowed by the late Dr. Bell,
of St. Andrews.

The country in the neighbourhood
is exceedingly pretty — every charm
of wood and cultivation is here in
profusion. The landscape is flanked
on the one side by the Firths of
Moray and Beauly, and on the other
by the fresh-water lochs of Dochfour
and Ness.

The dialect of the Inverness people
is much more pleasant and less broad
than that of the lowland or Aber-
deenshire Scotch. Some account for
this by the fact that the English
troops of Cromwell were garrisoned
here, and taught the people (who
then spoke nothing but Gaelic) a
better English than they would other-
wise have acquired. Certain it is
that English spoken more ' ' trip-
pingly on the tongue" is not to be
met with in Great Britain.

Pleasant walks 1 m. S. W. to the
Cemetery on the Fairies' Hill (Tom-
na-hurich). See below.

About a mile above the town the
Ness is divided by several islands,
joined by bridges covered with trees,
and intersected by agreeable paths.

The outlet of the Caledonian Canal
is at Muirtown, Ig m. W. of Inver-
ness, where it descends into the sea
through six pair of gates.

Steamers every morning at 7, from
Muirtown Quay, start to Bannavie,



414



Route 64. — Environs of Invenii'ss. Sect. VII.



60 m., and Fort-William (see Ete.
39). Passengers may breakfast and
dine on board. A sea-steamer will
take them on at once to Oban from
Bannavie.

Railways South by Nairn and
Forres, 24 m., to Dimkeld — Perth,
144; Elgin, 36; Banff and Aberdeen,
108. North to Golspie, 83 ; Ding-
wall, 181 ; Tain, 44 ; Lairg— to Skye
by Dingwall and Strome Ferry (Rte.
62) ; Beauly, 10 m.

Environs. — A. Craig PhadricJc, an
isolated conical hill, 420 ft. high, 2.§
m. W. of Inverness, beyond the
Caledonian Canal, forms the ex-
tremity of the mountain chain pro-
jecting forward and commanding a
large expanse of flat country. Its
siimmit is traversed by two walls or
ramparts of large stones, partly vitri-
fied on the surface. This hill fort
was the capital of the Northern Picts
in the 6th cent. St. Columba came
hither from lona to convert and
baptize Brud, King of the Picts.

B. Nearer the town than Craig-
phadrick is a smaller hill of much
the same shape, called Tom-na-hurich
(Hill of the Fairies). This has been
converted into a cemetery, most of
the graves being on a iHateau on
the top of the hill, which is reached
by a road winding round the sides.
The hill is prettily wooded, and is
one of the most beautiful burial-places
in the north.

c. Cullodcn Moor, battle-field of
1746, is 6 m. bv road. 1 m. from
Culloden Stat. (Rte. 55).

D. Clava Plain, 3 m. from Cul-
loden, is strewed Avith a number of
old stone circles and cairns [see Rte.
55).

D. The Fall of Foyers is 18 m.
"W. on the S. shore of Loch Ness
(Rte. 39). The daily steamer from
Inverness reaches the Fall about 9.30
A.M. ; the return steamer touches
there about 12,

From Inverness to Cromarty a



mail car runs daily, returning the
same evening. Convej^ances can also
be had at the inn on the N. side the
Kessock Ferry (Rte. 65), which is the
connecting link between the Firths
of Moray and Beauly, and about f
m. broad. Upon the N. side of it is
a conical hill, wooded to the top, on
which are the remains of a vitrified
fort. Take the old road to it (which
will shorten the way by about a mile)
and ascend the hill, round which the
new road is carried. The whole of this
peninsula of Ross-shire, lyingbetween
the Firths of ]\Ioray and Cromarty,
was in old times known as the
' ' Black Isle, " from the dark colour
of its soil. It was also called *' Ard-
meanach," "the Monks' Height,"
from its religious establishments.
It has 3 great ridges, about 600 ft.
in height, running parallel to each
other. The old road crosses them in
succession, while the new one goes
round their bases ; but, except in the
case already mentioned, it is doubtful
whether the new road is really the
longer. [By the road to the 1. on
the N. of Beauly Ferry, the traveller
reaches at 5 m. the old tower of
Redcastlc, once the principal house
of the promontory, which, on the
forfeiture of the earldom of Ross, be-
came a royal castle, and then the
property of the Mackenzies.

The road soon after enters Beauly
near the rly. stat. (Rte. 65).] 4g m.,
at the bottom of the first hill, is
the village of Munlochy, from which
there is a road going due N. to
Invergordon, while that to the rt.
leads along the coast to Fortrose and
Cromarty.

Passing at some distance on I.
Rosehaugh, formerl}^ the property of
"the bluidy Mackenzie," now the
seat of James Fletcher, Esq., the
tourist reaches

8r, m. the village of Aroch (pro-
nounced Auch), occupied, it is said,
by the descendants of a Danish co-
lony, who have preserved many Norse
words and expressions in their Saxon



Eoss-SHiiiE. FiOutc (di. — Inverness to Cromarty : Fortrose. 415



tongue. The House of Aroch be- ^
longs to J. G. Mackenzie, Esq.

10 m. Fortrose. The quickest
way of reaching Fortrose from In-
verness is to go by train to Fort-
George Stat., then to walk 4 m. to
Fort- George, whence a ferry-boat
lands the passenger 1 m. from
Fortrose.

Fortrose {Inn, good), a somewhat
lifeless seaport and Pari. borough-
Pop. 911 — was formerly the seat of
the Bishops of Ross, whose palace has
utterly disappeared. The lane on the
rt., at the broken shaft of the old
cross, leads to the Cathedral, stand-
ing in a green close. It is a mere
fragment of a large Cross ch., and
consists of the S. aisles of nave and
choir of elegant 2d Pointed Gothic,
in red sandstone, the sharp mould-
ings testifying, as usual, to the skill
of Scotch masons. It was not com-
pleted until 1185, by Abbot Frazer,
who came from ]\lelrose, and the ch.
retains portions of his work in the
Perp. style of that Southern abbey.
The ruin of the ch. is attributed to
Cromwell, who used its stones to
build the fort at Inverness. Against
the wall of the chancel is the cano-
pied toynb, "much mutilated, of a
Countess of Eoss, said to be founder
of the ch., 1330 ; and there is a later
and poorer monument of a bishop.
One arched compartment under the
tower is walled off as the burial-place
of the Mackenzies of Seaforth.

Near the N.E. corner is the Chap-
ter-house, a detached building of 2
storeys, the upper one is used as a
school, and the lower— a crypt, in
which there are some sedilia — as a
granary or coal-hole. Sir James
JNIackintosh went to school at Fort-
rose, 1775.

12 m. EosemarJde, an old borough,
much frequented for sea-bathing.
There is a ferry hence to Fort-
George. The road to Cromarty is
very uninteresting, but the walk



along the edge of the cliffs is a
favourite resort of geologists, and has
been much illustrated by the writ-
ings of Hugh Miller. The Burn of
Eathie exhibits the junction of the
granite and the old red sandstone.
The road passes Xewhall (J. A. S,
Mackenzie, Esq.) and Pontzfield,
(G. 3iL G. Munro, Esq.)

20 m. Cromarty (anc. Crombathi,
"the crooked bay") was in former
days a place of some importance, but
has been reduced to its present in-
significance principally by the failure
of its herring-fishery. Pop. 1176.
Cromarty Bay is well known as one
of the safest anchorage grounds in
the north. This is owing to lofty
isolated rocks ( Lower Silurian), which
form its portal, called " the Souters,"
which contribute to break the force
of the waves outside. " One who
approaches from the E. is at once
struck with the narrow chasm-like
entrance of the Cromarty Fii*th, cut
through a long lofty range of red
sandstone precipices. It is wholly
unlike the mouth of any other firth
in the countr}^ for it is not the sea-
ward expansion of a land valley, but
seems in some abnormal fashion
to have been broken through a
high barrier of hard rock." — Gcikic.
Cromarty House (Col. Ross) stands
upon the site of the old castle of the
Earls of Ross. On a hill above the
town rises a pillar-statue of red
sandstone to the memory of Hugh
Miller, b. 1802, in a humble cottage
close to the churchj^ard, which con-
tains several tombstones cut by him
while a mason. Tarradale, in the
Black Isle, not far distant, was the
paternal estate of Sir Roderick Mur-
chison, the geologist.

Steamers from Edinburgh to In-
verness call at Nairn, Cromarty, and
Invergordon twice a week.

From the ferry on the IST. of Cro-
marty it is 9 m. to Tain, and a diver-
sion to the old Abbey Ch. of Fearn,
and the stone at Shandwick, will



416



Eoute 64. — Nigg ; Fearn ; Tarhet.



Sect. VII.



make it 3 m. longer, but it is not
worth while, except for a determined
ecclesiologist, to go to Fearn, which
he can reach more easily by rail.
The first place passed from Cromarty
is the village of Nigg, where there is
a very curious old sculidured stone
attached to the S.E. corner of the
Established Ch. It has been broken,
but is riveted together again. Upon
the top are 2 figures in an attitude of
supplication, and below their out-
stretched hands are 2 dogs, while be-
tween the two descends the Holy
Dove, with the wafer in its mouth.
Underneath is a cross composed of
rectangular figures. Z\ m. from this
is the cross at Shandioick, a still more
handsome and curious monument. It
lies about 1^ m. beyond Ankerville
Kirk, at which point the roads part.
The stone stands about ^ m. above
the village, is about 9 ft. high, and has
on it a large cross formed of a number
of bosses, which, being covered with
lichen, look like so many brass-
headed nails. Below the horizontal
shaft are 2 representations of St.
Andrew's martyrdom, and below that
again an elephant and a dog. These
stones may have been preaching-
stones in the early days of Christian-
ity, erected to mark the place where
the priest or missionary of the dis-
trict would meet and preach to the
people.

Fearn Stat, is 2 m. from Sandwick.
The Abbey was originally founded
at Edderton, 12 m. to the N. W., but
was subsequently placed here, on
account of the fertility of the soil.
It Avas built by Farquhar, 1st Earl
of Ross, about the year 1230, and
inhabited by Augustinian monks.
Patrick Hamilton, the earliest martyr
of the Scottish Reformation, who
was burnt at St. Andrews in 1528,
was Abbot of Fearn, and at his
death the abbey was annexed to
the bishopric of Ross. The chapel
was used for Divine worship till the
year 1742, when the roof fell in on a |



Sunday and killed 44 persons. The
ch. was subsequently repaired with-
out the slightest regard to architec-
tural propriety.

The style is mixed, the doors be-,
ing round, and the windows pointed.
The entrance was on the N. side by
a Dec. door. Both on the N. and S.
sides are small chapels, which at first
sight bear the appearance of tran-
septs. The chapel was roofed with 5
arches or ribs, 2 of which are still
standing. In the S, chapel, now the
Shandwick burial-ground, is a re-
cumbent figure, under a handsomely
carved canopy, long supposed to be
that of an abbot, but ascertained to
represent a lady of the clan Mac-
kenzie, with a veil over her face. One-
half of the chancel is set apart as the
burial-place of the Ross family.

From Fearn there is a road to Tar-
hct Ness, the extremity of the penin-
sula. To get thither a little piece of
the county of Cromarty is traversed,
the remainder belonging to Ross-
shire.

On the 1. is Loch Slyn, at the
N. E. corner of which are to be seen
the ruins of an old castle.

4 m. beyond this is Tarhet, in the
churchyard of which are some
curious plain and sculptured stones,
and beyond is a fragment of the old
castle of Balone, an outpost of the
Earls of Ross, allowed to fall into
decay after the strength and aggres-
sive power of Denmark and its set-
tlements had ceased to be formidable.



ROUTE 65.

Inverness to Golspie and Helms-
dale, by Beauly, Dingwall,
Tain, Bonar Bridge, and
Lairg (Kail).

1014 m. Three trains daily in
8 hrs.

The railway journey, of which this



Scotland. Route Q^. — Inverness to Golspie — Beanli/. 417



route forms a part, may now be con-
tinued nearly to John-o'-Groat's, at
least N". to Wick and Thurso. The
line passes through one of the most
fertile and best-farmed districts in
Scotland, the land chiefly held by
resident landlords.

Quitting the central station at In-
verness, the train crosses in succession
the Ness, the locks of the Caledonian
Canal, and the road to Clachiiaharry,
the "Watchman's Seat," whence
the citizens in olden time looked
anxiously out for the predatory bands
who came from the N. and W. to
plunder and destroy. The line keeps
Craigphadrick, with its vitrified
fort, to the 1., skirting the S. side
of Beauly Basin, and passing rt.
Kessock Ferry (Rte. 64), leading to
the Black Isle.

34 m. Bunchrew Stat. Bunchrew
House was formerly a residence of
the Lord President Forbes. On the
opposite side of the basin is Redcastle



(Right Hon. Hy. Jas. Bailie), the
old fort of the Mackenzies (6500
acres).

54 m. Lentran Stat.

Tg m. Clunes Stat.

10 J m. Beauly 8t3it. Inn: Beauly
Hotel, good quarters for fishing and
for making excursions. This village
is named from the Priory " de bello
loco," whose ruins still remain, sur-
rounded by some venerable trees, at
the end of the broad street, on the 1.
bank of the Beauly. It was founded
by Sir John Bisset of Lovat in 1230 for
monks of the house of Val des Choux
in Burgundy. At the Reformation
the then prior gave it in trust to Lord
Lovat, and his descendants have
retained its revenues. The ch. is of
Pointed Gothic, consisting of nave
ind choir without aisles, rather plain,
if not rude, in style ; in the S. wall
ire 3 windows in shape of large tre
bils. It contains several monuments,
;hiefly to the Mackenzie family.

Excursions. — The beauties of the



upper valley of the Beauly are hardly
to be exaggerated. No stranger
should omit to visit its three gi-and
gorges of Kilmorack (with its falls),
the- Druim (pron. Dream), and the
Chisholm's Pass, nor should he stop
short of the romantic Loch Afirick,
all described in Rte, 65a.

Within 4 m of Beauly, on the S.
side of the open valley, laeyond the
river, are Belladruvi, the seat of J.
Merry, Esq., on a tributary stream
(5400 acres), and still nearer Beau-
fort Castle (Lord Lovat), long seat
of the Bissets, now of the Frazers
(161,574 acres). The old tower was
besieged by Edward I., and was
nearly razed to the ground after Cul-
loden. The present house is not
remarkable. A charming drive of 7
or 8 m. may be taken through the
parks and woods of these two fine
domains, returning by the Falls of
Kilmorack, crossing the Beauly by
the timber bridge 2^ m. from the
Inn [see Rte. 65a).

121 m, jj/j^^y Qj^ Q^,^ s^g^^ y\]iQre
large sheep and cattle fairs are held
in an enclosed space upon the Moor
once a month during winter and
spring, and twice a month during the
remainder of the year. Passing 1.
Highfield (J. Gillanders, Esq.), where
is a neat Episcopal Chapel, and
Conon House, the property of Sir
Kenneth Mackenzie, Bart., of Gair-
loch, a lovely view is obtained on 1.
of Strathconon, a picturesque and
fertile valley, backed by a range of
mountains of moderate height, over
which towers Ben Wyvis. Castle
Brahan, the seat of Jas. Stewart Mac-
kenzie, Esq., of Seaforth, stands on the
loAver slopes of the ridge, surrounded
by thick masses of trees. It is an
old castle, but so cropped and mo-
dernised outside as to look like a
factoiy. An estate of 8051 acres.

16 m. at Conon Stat, the river of
that name is crossed, just as it flows
into the Cromarty Firth. About 2
m. rt. on the S. bank of the Fii-th is



418



Route 65.—DmgwaU—AuU Graat. Sect. YII.



Ferintosh, once greatly celebrated for
its whisky ; the privilege of distilling
which free from duty was originalh^
granted 1689 to Duncan Forbes,
father of the President of the Court
of Session, as a recompense to him
for the losses he had incurred from
the soldiers of Buchan and Carron
at the Revolution. It was redeemed
in 1786 for a payment of £20,000 to
the family.

18| m. Dingwall Junct. Stat.
(Inns : National, best, but ill-man-
aged, near the Stat. ; Caledonian),
Pop. 2125, is still called in Gaelic
Inverpefferan, because of its situation
at the mouth of the Peffer, near the
head of the Cromarty Firth. Ding-
Avall is a Norse name derived from
Tingvolla, " Field of the Thing " or
Parliament, or place of genei'al as-
sembly. There is one long street,
with an old tower, once a jail, in the
centre, and at its N. end is the Ely.
Stat., and close to it the new Jail
' and La2V Coujis, and a Gothic Free
Kirk. Behind the old court-house,
which is still used occasionally as a
lock-up, stands aii obelisk 57 ft. high,
strengthened by bands of iron, erect-
ed by order of one of the Earls of
Cromarty over his own grave, that
his wife might be disappointed in her
threat of dancing thereon ! It is
now in a field b}^ itself, outside the
cemeterj'.

From Dingwall Excursions may
conveniently be made westward by
the STcyc Ely. to Skye — the first
stage, 5 ra., being the watering-place
of Strathpcffer (Rte. 62) ; also to
Loch Maree and other interesting
Highland scenery {see Rte. 63).

Railways to Golspie and Helms-
dale ; to Inverness ; — to Strathpcffer,
Garve, Auchnasheen ; to Strome
Ferry by Skye Rly. (Rte. 62), which
diverges W. from Dingwall Stat.

Continuing N". the rail from Ding-
wall keeps close to the shore of the
Cromarty Firth, having on 1. the hill



and woods of Tulloch (D. Davidson,
Esq.) (36,130 acres), and of Foiolis
Castle, the seat of C. Munro, Esq.
(4458 acres). The clan of that name
has been seated in this country for
many centuries.

23 m. Foiolis Stat. A little far-
ther on is the village of Evanton.
On the height is Balcony House
(Miss Munro), built on the site of an
old fortress of the Earls of Ross.

25 m. Novar Stat, li m. from
the Stat, is the extraordinary Eavinc
of the Ault Graat or "Ugly Burn,"
which flows out of Loch Glass on
the northern flanks of Ben Wy^ds.
Its deep and tortuous channel, only a
few feet wide, nearly 2 m. long, be-
tween sandstone cliffs 100 or more
ft. high, is overgrown with bushes,
concealing the burn, which rumbles
beneath like a subterranean torrent.
' ' Over the sullen pool in front we
may see the stern pillars of the por-
tal rising from 80 to 100 ft. in height,
and scarce 12 ft. apart, like the
massive obelisks of some Egyptian
temple ; while in the gloomy vista
within, projection starts out beyond
projection, like column beyond
column in some narrow avenue of
approach to Luxor or Carnac. The
precipices are green, with some moss
or byssus, that, like the miner,
chooses a subterranean habitat — for
here the rays of the sun never fall ;
the trees, fast anchored in the rock,
shoot out their branches across the
opening, to form a thick tangled
roof at the height of 150 ft. over-
head — while from the recesses Avithin,
where the eye fails to penetrate, there
issues a combination of the strangest
and A^ildest sounds ever yet produced
by water — there is the deafening
rush of the torrent blent as if with
the clang of hammers, the roar of
vast bellows, and the confused gabble
of 1000 Yoices."— Hugh Miller.

Then succeed the beautiful beech
and fir woods which surround Novar
(Col. Ferguson of Raith) (1 4,582 acres).



Ross-shire. Boute 65. — Invergordon ; Fearn ; Tain. 419



At the back of Novar Stat, is tlie
mil of Fyrish{U7 8 ft.)

28^ m. Alness Stat., a village of
considerable size, at the mouth of
the valley. 5 m. up the Alness river
is Ardross, a grand modern Costle,
built by Alex. Matheson, Esq. The
rly. crosses the Alness by a singular
viaduct, consisting of a skew bridge
built on a curve, to

31-^- m. Invergordon Stat., a flour-
ishing little port with a good harbour
{Inn: Commercial, good), situated
opposite the opening of the Cromarty
Firth into the sea. Invergordon
Castle, a short distance to the "W.,
was burnt down 1804, and is still a
ruin. The views in the neighbour-
hood are varied and pretty, embrac-
ing seaward the whole of Cromarty
Firth and the Black Isle, while Ben
"Wyvis is a conspicuous and magnifi-
cent inland feature.

34 m., near Delny Stat., is Tarhai
House, a seat of the Duchess of
Sutherland (Countess of Cromartie).
It lies between the road and the sea,
and was built by the late Lord
M 'Leod on the site of one of the old
castles of the Mackenzies, Earls of
Cromartie, forfeited after the rebellion
of 1715, but subsequently restored.
It is surrounded by some venerable
yews and elms, and old gardens. Es-
tate of 149,879 acres.

36 m. ParJchill Stat.

37^ m., near Xigcj Stat. (Sculp-
tured stones), is Balnagoican House
(Sir C. Ross, Bart.), a very handsome
mansion, consisting of an old tower
with a pointed roof, numerous tur-
rets — one of the grandest specimens
of the Scottish architecture of the
16th centy. It has beautiful gardens
and grounds, communicating with
a picturesque rocky glen. Estate of
110,445 acres.

39 m. Fcarn Stat., whence the
ecclesiologist can pay a visit to the
old ch. of Fearn (Rte. 64). Calrossie
is another seat of Sir C. Eoss. The



high fanning of this disti'ict is cele-
brated. The rly. noAV descends
slightlv to the shores of Dornoch
Firth."

42 m. Tain Stat. {Inns : Royal H.,
fair; Balnago wan Arms . Pop. 1765),
an antique town of gradually de-
creasing importance. Its name is
evidently a comiption of "Thing,"
the Norse for "Court," the town
having been the capital of the dis-
trict h^ng between the Firths of
Dornoch and Cromarty. It was
made a royal burgh by Malcolm
Canmore, and is still a picturesque
old-fashioned place, which Avill well
repay a halt. In the centre of it
stands the original Tower of the
Sheritfs Court, re-cased, but retain-
ing its quaint old shape and its coni-
cal spire, with small pointed turrets
at each angle. Below the town, that
is, between it and the Dornoch Firth,
is a large flat, partly covered by the
drifting sand. Here stands the old
rough chaxiel in ruins, dedicated in
the early part of the 13th cent, to St.
Duthus, a Bishop of Ross. Probably
there was some restoration at that
time, for it will be seen that the E.
end is of later date than the rest.
The masonry of the body of the ch.



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