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Spreading herb^, and flowerets bright,
Glistened with the dew of night ;
Nor herb, nor floweret, glistened there.
But was carved in the cloister-arllhes as
fair."—Scott's Lay.

Excursions : — a. To Dry burgh, 6
m. ; b. Smailholm, 8 m. ; Kelso, 14
m. ; c. Abbotsford, 3 m.

Distances. — Hawick, 16 m. ; New-
town St. Boswells, 3 ; Earlston, 4^ ;
Lauder, 10 ; Galashiels, 4 ; Selkirk,

[a. The road to Dryburgh and
Kelso crosses the Tweed by a chain
bridge to the hamlet of Gattonside,
1 m. , and then turns to the right to
Leader Foot, where the Leader, a
river rising in the Lammermuir Hills
and flowing past the towns of Lauder
and Earlston (Ete. 3), joins the
Tweed. Allerly, near Gattonside,
was the seat of the late Sir David
Brewster. On the other side the
road to Dryburgh turns off to right,
passing Gladswood. From the top
of the hill there is an exquisite view
of the Tweed winding round a small
peninsula just below, emerging here
from a patch of wood, there dis-
appearing into another, while at
some distance, forming the opposite
side of the valley, rise the Eildon
Hills. Bemerside (now occupied by
Lord Jerviswoode) is the seat of the
family of Haig, who have held it for
more than 700 years, according to a
prophecy of Thomas the Ehymer : —

" Betide, betide, whate'er betide,
Haig shall be Haig of Bemerside."

On right, overlooking the Tweed, is
a rude statue of Wallace.

6 m. Dryburgh Abbey, described
p. 13.]

h. The road to Kelso turns off at

Leader Bridge, the road speedily
ascends high ground to the village of

8 m. Smailholm, 1 m. to the S. of
which, overlooking a very extensive

tract of country, stands Smailholm
Tower, the scene of Sir Walter Scott's
balled "The Eve of St. John." It
belonged formerly, like all this dis-
trict, to the Pringles ; but is now
the property of Lord Polwarth. Sir
Walter's grandfather — "the thatched
mansion's grey-hair'd sire " — lived
at Sandyknowe, a farmhouse close
by, where the poet spent part of his
childhood. The Tower is a lofty but
plain building, in a ver}^ ruinous
state : —

" Then rise those crags, that mountain

"Which charm'd my fancy's wakening


It was a barren scene, and wild,

Where naked cliffs were rudely piled ;

But ever and anon between

Lay velvet tufts of loveliest green ;

And well the lonely infnnt knew

Recesses where the wallflower grew. . .

And still I thought tliat shatter'd tower

The mightiest work ot human power ;

And marvell'd as the aged hind

With some strange tale bewitch'd my

mind." — Marmion, Introd. to Canto iii.

Even were the associations not so
interesting, the view from Smailholm
would be a sufhcient inducement to
visit it, as " it takes in a district in
which every field has its battle and
every rivulet its song. "

From Smailholm the road gra-
dually falls to

14 m. Kelso (Rte. 2).

c. To Abbotsford, 3 m., the best
way for pedestrians is to pass down
the main street of Melrose, and then
take a path between the two kirks.
This path runs along the high bank
overhanging the river, and is at once
the shortest and most picturesque.
The distance can easily be walked
in I of an hour. The village of
Darnick is passed on the left, as also
Chief swood, a pleasant little cottage,
in which Mr. and Mrs. Lockhart
lived during the lifetime of Sir
Walter, and where he himself was
accustomed to spend many a holi-
day after the fatigues of authorship.
Darnick Toioer, a Border Peel or


Route 1. — Ahhotsford.

Sect. I.

"Strength," in tlie liaralet of tlie
same name, was the ancient resi-
dence of the Lairds of Darnick, and
contains a museum of Border anti-
quities. Sir Walter Scott obtained
the nickname of the "Duke of Dar-
nick," from his excessive fondness
for the place. At Huntle}^ Burn
(Lord H. Kerr) the path joins the
main road, and at the turnpike the
visitor must turn to the left, the road
on right leading to Melrose Bridge
and Galashiels. The entrance to

Abbotsford (Hon. Mrs. ]\Iaxwell
Scott) is by a small postern in the
wall. There is admittance every
day but Sunday, Christmas, and New
Year's Day, from 10 a.m. to 6 p.m.,
or in winter till dusk. Fee Is.
each. The house and grounds are
thoroughly well kept, and the libe-
rality of the owner in giving the
public access to them deserves all
praise. The many-turreted house
is ill placed, close under the road, on
a slope descending to the Tweed. It
was originally a farmliouse, and owes
its existence entirely to the poet,
who prided himself on having planted
almost every tree in the grounds.
It is interesting not only for its
founder's sake, but as an historic
museum of (chiefly) national relics.
Visitors enter by a small side door,
and, having inscribed their names,
are conducted to the Library of about
20,000 volumes. This was preserved
as the best Memorial by the friends
who wished after his death to do tlie
poet honour, and has become an heir-
loom in the family. Sir Walter by
his will charged it with a legacy of
£5000 to his younger children,
which was defrayed by the subscrip-
tion, thus preventing a sale. With
this room is connected the Study in
which the poet wrote, and which is
little changed since his time. Open-
ing from this is a small octagonal
dressing-room, in wliicli are still
preserved the stick with which he
walked, the chair in which he wrote,
and the identical clothes Avorn by

him. The dining and drawing room
(in which he died) contain many in-
teresting relics, most of them pre-
sents from those who admired his
genius and patriotism. The noble
bust by Chantrey is the finest and
most exact likeness of Scott.

Ammig the portraits are those of
Oliver Cromwell, Claverhouse, Duke
of Monmouth, Dryden, Prior, and
Gay by Lely, Hogarth by himself,
Sir Walter's son, and his great-
grandfather, called " Beardie :" —

" My great grandsire came of old,
With amber beard and flaxen hair,
And reverend apostolic air." — Marmion.

He was a partisan of the Stuarts,
and refused to shave till their resto-
ration. The most interesting picture
of the collection is one of Queen
i\[ary's head, taken an hour after
her execution. See also Napoleon's
pen and Avriting-case, Queen Mary's
seal. Rob Roy's purse and gun,
Prince Charles's suuft'-box, Burns's
toddy-tumbler, miniature of Sir
Walter as a boy — his knife and fork
and snuff-box ; the swords of ]\Ion-
trose (given him by Charles I.) and
of Prince Charles Steuart, Hofer's
rifle, &c.

The Armoury contains weapons of
every age in the history of Scotland.
Here, too, are the keys of the old
Tolbooth, a good portrait of Prince
Charlie, the pistols of Napoleon and
of Claverhouse, and James IV.'s
armour, swords used by a German
executioner, thumbikins, and scold's
bridle, claymores of the '45. The
panelling of the entrance-hall Avas
brought from the old palace of Dun-
fermline. Round the cornice are the
armorial bearings of the families who
kept the Scotch Borders. The door-
way is embellished with fossil stags'-
horns, and on the outside the visitor
should observe the door of the old
Tolbooth of Edinburgh built up into
the side of the house.

Of late two starino; residences, the.

S. Scotland. Route 1. — Ahhotsfmxl — Galashiels.


Castle of Glouroerem and another,
have planted themselves on the
banks of the TAveed, opposite Ab-
botsford, thus inhumanly marring
the privacy of Sir Walter's house.

The Abbotsford estate comprises
1237 acres.

A walk of a mile leads to Abbots-
ford Ferry, stat. of the Selkirk Ely.
(Rte. 6.)

A charming ramble may be made
up the Huntley Burn, which takes
its rise in Cauldshiels haunted Loch,
on the hill alcove, and flows through
the Ehymer's Glen, so called because
Thomas of Ercildoune is supposed to
have met the Queen of the Fays in
it. It abounds in examples of Sir
Walter's taste as a planter. Equally
pretty are the banks of the Allan
Water, which joins the Tweed near
the Pavilion, and which is the scenic
type of " Glendearg " of the " Monas-
tery. "

Passing on right the Pavilion (Hon.
Mrs. Henry), the Ely. crosses the
Tweed near the village of Bridgend,
the locale of the scene in the
"Monastery" Avhere Father Philip
met the White Lady of Avenel at
the Ford. Lea^dng Abbotsford to
the left (a slight glimpse only being
obtainable), the rly. soon joins the
Selkirk line, and reaches

65 m. Galashiels Junct. Stat.

Galashiels {Inns : Commercial ;
Maxwell's ; Abbotsford Arms), cele-
brated for its woollen manufacture
of tweeds and tartans, is a rapidly
increasing place (Pop. 9678) and has
drawn to itself all the trade of the
district. There are now 20 large
factories, and the yearly turnover of
manufactured goods at Galashiels is
considered to be worth 600, OOOZ. The
town is prettily situated on both
sides the Gala Water, which is the
boundary between the counties of
Roxburgh and Selkirk. Gala House
is the seat of Hugh Scott, Esq.

About 1 m. to the S. the anti-
quary will find traces of the Catrail
or Picts' Work Ditch, which runs
from Mossilee S. to Rink Hill
(638 ft.) and the Tweed. On this
hill is a fort, strongly defended, and
commanding the valley of the Tweed
to its junction with the Gala. There
are also a number of fortifications on
Cauldshiels Hill above Abbotsford.

Abbotsford is 2 m. distant.

Rail to Selkirk, 6^ m. (Rte. 6) ;
do. to Melrose, 4 m. ; to Innerleithen,
Peebles, and Symington Stats, of
Caledonian Rly. (Glasgow to Car-
lisle), Rte. 16.

The line now runs up the valley of
the Gala, celebrated in an old ballad
versified by Burns —

" Braw, braw lads of Gala Water."

The hills on either side rise to the
heights of 1000 to 1400 ft.

67 m. left Torwoodlee (Jas. Pringle,
Esq.), soon after which the tra-
veller enters the county of Edin-
burgh. The family of Pringle suf-
fered for their adhesion to the Cove-
nant in the time of Charles II.

69 m. Bowland' Stat., near to which
on left is Bowland, the seat of W. S.
Walker, Esq. On the banks of the
Lugate, which flows into the Gala
from the Moorfoot Hills on the left
are the remains of two border towers.

72 m. Stow Stat., [distant from
Lauder 6 m., to which there is a
coach, an uninteresting little town.
Lauder was the scene of one of those
deeds of ferocity which abound in
Scotch history. In 1482, James III.
halted here with his army, on his
way to the Borders. His nobles,
disgusted w^ith the favour shown to
Cochrane, the king's architect and
minister, seized him, and without
trial or process, hung him over the
bridge in the king's sight. Archibald
Douglas, who was the first to lay


Route 1. — Carlisle to Edinburgh.

Sect. I.

hands on him, was called from this
"Bell the Cat." Adjoining Lauder
is Thirlestane Castle, the residence of
the Earl of Lauderdale, a spacious
house of the date of Charles IL
1672, including a tower built by
Edward L, in a fine park. The ch.
was removed to make way for it.
It contains family portraits of Secre-
tary Maitland, of the Duke of L.,
Charles II. 's Minister, etc. 1 m. S.
is Torsonce (H. Inglis, Esq.)]

76 m. Fountain Rail Stat., near
are Burnhouse and Crookston (J.
Borthwick, Esq.)

On the banks of the Heriot Water,
which flows in near Heriot Stat.,
79 m. is Borthwick Hall, and a camp,
in good preservation, overlooking
Corsehope Burn.

82 m. at Tyne Head Stat, the rly.
attains the summit-level and crosses
the westerly flanks of the Lammer-
muir Hills, which extend hence to
the E. coast.

About 1^ m. from the stat., on
right, and the same from

Fushie Bridge Stat, is the shell of
CricMon Castle, built at diff'erent
times :—

" That castle rises on the steep

Of the green vale of Tyne ;
And far beneath, where slow they creep.
From pool to eddy, dark and deep.
Where alders moist, and willows weep,

You hear her streams repine."

The oldest part is a narrow keep^ or
tower, such as formed the mansion
of a lesser Scotch baron, and belongs
to the 14th centy. The E. Avail of
the court is raised upon a very
peculiar open Venetian arcade,
decorated with entablatures bear-
ing anchors. All the stones of this
front are cut into diamond facets,
the angular projections of which
have an uncommonly rich appear-
ance. The mouldings of the win-
dows and other parts are profusely
decorated with a variety of carvings.
The property belonged originally to
the Chancellor Sir William Crichton,

' ' who had a struggle for supremacy
with the Douglases in the reign of
James IL," from whom it was taken
and dismantled by John Forrester,
of Corstorphine. The ornamental
part of the castle is evidently of a
date subsequent to this. In 1483
it was garrisoned by Lord Crich-
ton against King James III., whose
displeasure he had incurred by
seducing his sister Margaret (to
whom he was afterwards married),
in revenge, it is said, for the monarch
having dishonoured his bed. At the
forfeiture of the last and worst of
that family it fell to the share of the
Earl of Buccleuch. Here ]\Larmion
is supposed to have been detained
by Sir David Lindesay before he was
allowed to see the Scottish host en-
camped on the Borough Moor. In
the 4th canto of " Marmion " there is
a good description of the castle : —

" Crichton ! though now thy miry court
But pens the lazy steer and sheep,
Thy turrets rude and totter'd Keep

Have been the minstrel's loved resort.

Oft have I traced within thy fort
Of mouldering shields the mystic sense,
Scutcheons of honour or pretence,

Quarter'd in old armorial sort.
Remains of rude magnificence.

Nor wholly yet had time defaced
Thy lordly gallery fair ;

Nor yet the stony cord unbraced,

"Whose twisted knots, with roses laced.
Adorn thy ruin'd stair.

Still rises unimpair'd below.

The courtyard's graceful portico ;

Above its cornice, row and row

Of fair-hewn facets richly show
Thy pointed diamond form."

On the other side of the line,
14 m. W. of Crichton, equidistant
between Tyne Head and Fushie
Bridge Stats., is the ruined Castle
of Borthwick, a massive gloomy
double tower, 90 ft. high, 74 ft. by
68 ft. broad, and encompassed by a
strongly fortified court, remarkable
for the excellence of its masonry
and the thickness of its walls. Built
in the 15th cent., in form it is no-
thing more than the old border keep,
though on a larger scale than usual.
' ' The object of the Lord of Borthwick

S. Scotland. Route 1. — Carlisle to Edinhurgh.


seems to have been to have all the
space and accommodation of these
cluster of edifices within the 4 walls
of his simple square block, and thus
this building is believed to be the
largest specimen of that class of
architecture in Scotland." — ■Billings.
The great hall is remarkable for some
very fine carving, particularly over
the fireplace, and a canopied niche in
the side wall. Hither fled Queen
Mary and Bothwell, June 7, 1567,
about a month after their marriage,
on the alarm of the Confederate
Lords gathering their force against
them. But they were scarce safe
within the walls when Lords Morton
and Hume, with a hostile array, ap-
peared before them. Lender these
circumstances Bothwell first got
clear away, and afterwards Mary (in
the disguise of a page) to Dunbar.
One of the rooms is still traditionally
called the Queen's Eoom, In No-
vember 1650 Cromwell, annoyed
by a horde of moss -trooping marau-
ders, who had taken post in Borth-
wick, sent a missive to Lord Borth-
wick, that if he did not "walk
away, and deliver his house," he
would " bend his cannon against
him," a threat which proved eff"ec-
tual, and prevented a bombardment.
The parish ch., which was rebuilt
in 1865, is dedicated to St. Kenti-
gern, and has an apsidal chancel.
The manse of Borthwick was the
birthplace of Robertson the historian.
85 m. Fushie Bridge Stat. The
Hills hereabout add much to the
beauty of the view. 1 m. beyond is
Gorebridge, to left of which, at 2 m. ,
is Arniston (Robert Dundas, Esq.),
ancestors of whom were highly dis-
tinguished in the 17th and 18th cents.
A little farther S., on the banks of
the South Esk, is the small ruined
ch. of Temple, once a possession of
the Knights Templars. About the
same distance to the right of the
stat. is a Roman Camp, and close to
it are the ruins of Netvhyres Castle
and the powder-mills of Stobbs.

The rly., which has for some little
distance been traversing the lime-
stone strata, now enters the Midlo-
thian coalfield, as is evident by the
appearance of collieiies. Following
the valley of the South Esk, we pass
Dalhousie Castle (the Earl of Dal-
housie), an old Scotch castle, changed
into a mansion of no great beauty,
but situated in the midst of lovely
scenery ; and Cockpen, the ownership
of which conferred on the possessor
of Dalhousie the title of " The Laird
of Cockpen, " whose wooing has been
made famous by the song of that

89 m. Dalhousie Stat. On left 2
m. are the villages of Bonnyrigg and
Lasswade (Rte. 16), and on right is
Newbattle village, from whence a
fine entrance, called King David's
Gate, leads into Ncivbattle Ahhey, the
beautiful seat of the Marquis of Lo-
thian. The drive up to the house
passes through a park with noble
trees. At the bottom of the flower
garden is a Beech tree, the finest in
Britain, 100 ft. high, 120 yds. round.
The bole measures 33 ft. The N.
Esk runs close in front of the house.
The abbey was originally founded by
David L for a colony of Cistercian
monks, the abbot at the time of the
Reformation being one Mark Kerr,
who, by opportunely changing his
religion, secured the abbey lands to
himself and his famil3^ The house
has a very choice library, a collection
of MSS. and paintings, including a
Murillo and some Vandyks.

90 m. at EsKBANK a Junction is
formed with a short branch to Dal-
keith, and another with the Edin-
burgh and Peebles line. The re-
maining 8 miles between Eskbank

Edinbukgh Terminus, Rte. 4.


Route 2. — Neidown St. BosiveUs to Bemnck Sect. I.


Newtown St. Boswells Junction
to Berwick-on-Tweed, by Jed-
burgli, Kelso (Flodden), and

114 m. to Kelso, 28 m. thence to
Berwick ; 5 trains daily.

A branch of the North British
Ely. runs to Kelso, where it meets
one of the North-Eastern Company
to Berwick. There is a troublesome
break at Kelso, as the trains thence
do not agree.

Although the line follows the
course of the Tweed (right bank)
pretty closely, it is but seldom that
any of its beauties are visible, the
river for the most part flowing in a
deep vale, while tlie rly. keeps the
high ground. The Tweed, which in
importance is the fourth river in Scot-
land, is generally supposed to be the
boundary between the two kingdoms.
It only does duty, however, in this
respect for about 20 m. The country
through Avhich the Tweed flows is
called the " Merse, " perhaps a cor-
ruption of " The Meres," in allusion
to the times when, like the Carses
of Gov

Quitting the stat. at Newtown St.
Boswells (Rte. 1), the rly. makes
a considerable curve, leaving the
Jedburgh Road, through Ancrum, to
the right, and St. Boswells village,
with Lessuddeu and Dryburgh
Abbey to the left.

3 m. Maxton Stat. On left is the
village overlooking a sweep of the
Tweed. On the opposite bank,
occupying a good portion of the
peninsula, are the noble groves of
Mertoun, the seat of Lord Polwarth.
On left, between Maxton and Ruther-
ford Stat., 5 m., is Littlcdean Toiver,
a fortress belonging to the Keri-s of

Nenthorn ; and in the far distance,
conspicuous for very many miles, is
Smailholm Tower (Rte. 1). A little
beyond Rutherford, on the opposite
bank of the Tweed, is Makerston
House, the beautiful seat of the late
Sir Thomas Macdougal Brisbane,
who died in 1861, and now of Miss

The scenery hereabout is highly
romantic, especially at a spot called
Troio Crags, where the trap rocks
bordering each side of the river
approach so closely that the visitor
might jump across. In consequence
of accidents, however. Sir T. Bris-
bane caused one of the steps to be
blown up, so as to deter any but the
most daring.

As the train approaches

RoxBUKGH JuNCT. Stat., 9 m.,
beautiful glimpses are caught of the
valley below, backed in the dis-
tance by the woods and grounds of
Floors Castle (Duke of Roxburghe).
(See below.)

A branch is here given oiT to Jed-
burgh, while the main line crosses
the Teviot by a viaduct of 14 arches,
and proceeds to

12 m. Kelso Junct. Stat. (See

[To Jedburgh 7 ni., the line run-
ning on the left bank of the Teviot.
The village of Roxburgh, though
prettily placed, contains no me-
morials of its ancient importance,
save the few mouldering shapeless
walls of its castle, which can be
visited with more convenience from

i m. left, on the opposite bank of
the Teviot is Sunla^us, the Eliza-
bethan residence of W. Scott Kerr,

The banks of the river here are
steep and rocky, and are perforated
with caverns. Others are to be
found in the neighbourhood at Gra-
hamslaw, on the banks of the Kale

S. Scotland.

Route 2. — Jedburgh.


2 m. KirkhanTc Stat, near which
is a ruined tower. At Kalemouth,
near this point, the Teviot is crossed
by a chain bridge. The ch. at EcTc-
ford near this, contains an iron collar
known as the "jougs," which was
fastened round the neck of offenders,
who were sentenced to stand as in a
sort of pillory. (See Index.)

5 m. Nishet Stat. To the right is
the Waterloo Monument on Peniel-
heiujh, erected by the Marquis of
Lothian in 1815. In the course of
another mile the line quits the vale
of Teviot to ascend the tributary one
of Jed.

Very prettily situated, in a glen
suri'ounded by wooded hills lies,
7 m. Jedburgh Stat., the county town
of Roxburghshire. {Inns : Harrow ;
Spread Eagle.) It stands in a well-
sheltered valley, watered by the Jed,
and has an air of antiquity. The
royal castle stood upon the site of the
present jail. It was surrendered to
England as security for the ransom
of William the Lion, and after its
restoration became a favourite resi-
dence of the Scottish monarchs till
the English wars, when it was found
to be too close to the border.

In an old bastel-house still stand-
ing in Queen Street, Queen Mary
lived for some time, but not of her
own accord. She had come hither
to hold the assizes, when she heard
that Eothwell had been wounded
iu a personal encounter with John
Elliott, of Park, a notorious border
freebooter, and that he was lying sick
at Hermitage Castle, 20 m. distant.
She immediately set off on horseback
to see him, and returned the same
day, and was, in consequence of the
fatigue, seized with a fever. A
morass is still called " The Queen's
Moss," into which her horse sank,
and from which she was with diffi-
culty extricated.

The Court of Justiciary for the
Borders Avas held here from early
times. Its process must have been

summary: hence the phrase "Jed-
dart justice, " equivalent to what is
now called "Lynch law" — hanging
a man fii'st and trjing him after.

In modern times the most memor-
able achievement of its inhabitants
(the scum of them, it is to be hoped,
aided by the mob from Hawick) was
to hoot, stone, and spit upon Sir
AValter Scott in his old age, 1831.
He records in his journal that he
heard the cry, " Burk Sir Walter ! "
raised against him.

The giand old Abbey was founded
by David I., for Canons Regular,
brought from the Abbey of St. Quen-
tin at Beauvais. The Abbey C/uirch,
in general character, resembles Kelso,
especially in its W. front, but is of
rather later date. In plan it is
different : it has a very long nave of
9 bays with aisles, one of the finest
examples of the Romanesque in
Scotland. The main arches are
pointed, supporting a semicircular
triforium arch inclosing 2 pointed
arches, above which, in each bay,
are 4 clerestory arches pointed, the
middle ones open. The tower, 100
ft. high, is supported on circular
arches. The choir consists of only
2 bays ; its massive cylinder piers
are carried up to include the trifo-
rium in a semicircular arch, em-
bracing 2 pointed arches.

The visitor should notice the
Norm, mouldings of the great W.
door, and also the doorway forming
the S. entrance from the cloisters,
which is elaborately decorated. Near
this door is the grave of Lord Chan-
cellor Campbell, and his amiable
Lady, Stratheden. The N. tran-
sept, which is the burying-place of
the Kerrs, is a fine specimen of
Dec, and the window contains geo-
metrical tracery.

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