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' ' The Abbey (diurches of Kelso
and Jedburgh, as we now find them,
belong either to the very end of the
12th, or beginning of the 13th cent.
They display all the rude magni-
ficence of the Norm . joeriod, used in

24 Route 2. — St. Bosivells to Berwick. — Jedburgh. Sect. I.

this instance not experimentally, as
was too often the case in England,
but as a well-understood style, whose
features were fully perfected. _ The
whole was used with a Doric simpli-
city and boldness which is very re-
markable. Sometimes, it must be
confessed, this independence of con-
straint is carried a little too far, as
in the pier arches at Jedburgh, where
they are thrown across between the
circular pillars without any subordi-
nate shaft or apparent support. Here
the excessive strength of the arch
in great measure redeems it." — Fcr-
gusson. The visitor should ascend
the tower for the sake of the view.
A Parish CJmrch was built 1873-75
by the Marq. of Lothian, at an ex-
pense of £16,000 (Wyatt archt.) to
free the Abbey Ch. from all incum-
brances of pews, etc.

The other buildings in the town
are the County Hall, the Episcopal
Church, and the School. Sir David
Brewster was born in the Canongate,
and Mrs. Somerville, the learned
elucidator of La Place, and authoress
of various celebrated works, was also
a native of this place. The Rev. Dr.
Somerville, her father-in-law, author
of the " Hist, of Queen Anne," was
fifty years minister of Jedburgh.
Thomson the poet received his early
education here.

Adjoining Jedburgh are Hartrigge,
the seat of the late Lord Chancellor
Campbell, approached by a fine
avenue ; Bonjedward House, Major
Pringle ; Mount Teviot, seat of
the Marquis of Lothian. Bonjed-
ward is honourably mentioned in
"The Raid of the Reidswire,"
a Border ballad, relating to an
affray in 1575 betAveen the Scotch
and English :—

" Bonieddart bauldy made liim boime

Wi' a' the Trumbills, strong and stont ;
The Rutherfords, with grit renowni,

Convoy'd the town of Jedburgh out."

The scenery to the S. of the town,
following up the Jed Water, is very

pretty, rapidly becoming wild and
hilly. The river rises in the recesses
of the Cheviots, near Peel Fell.

Near the town is the hill of
Dunion, concerning which there is
a weather rhyme —

" When Ruberslaw put on its hat.
And Dunion on its hood,
All the old wives of Rule Wate?
May expect a flood."

About 14 ru. is Fernihirst, in the
15th cent, a strong fortress, but now
a farmhouse, a picturesque specimen
of Border architecture. It was for
centuries a stronghold of one branch
of the family of Kei-r, and its history
is full of the varying incidents of
Border warfare. It was taken by
the English 1549, and soon after
stood a siege from the Scotch, aided
by a body of French allies under
M. Desse. The English garrison
had committed horrid atrocities upon
men, women, and children in the
country around, and when the walls
were scaled and they were driven
into the keep and compelled to par-
ley, a Scotchman, who had been out-
raged by the English, crept behind
the commander, and with one blow
cut off" his head, which flew several
yards from the body. Upon this
signal the garrison was massacred
with the utmost ferocity in retalia-
tion for wi'ongs endured. In 1570
the castle was once more ruined by
the English under the Earl of Sussex
in revenge for devastation caused in
Durham by the Scottish moss-
troopers. In the beautifully wooded
grounds are some noble trees.

Between this and Jedburgh is a
famous old oak, known as the Capon
Tree. Linthaitghlee Burn is a ro-
mantic little dell, where the Scotch,
under Sir James Douglas, are said
to have gained a victory over the
English in 1317. It is, at all events,
worth the walk from its beauty.

6 m. is Edgerstone, the seat of W.
Oliver Rutherford, Esq. ; soon after

S. Scotland.

Route 2. — Kelso.


which the road enters the Border at
Carter Fell.

Distances from. Jedburgh. — Kelso,
10 m. ; ISTewtown St. Boswells, 154 ;
Ancnim, 3g ; Hawick, by road, 11.]

Roxburgh Junction Stat, {see

Cross the wooded vale of the Te-viot
on a high viaduct. Left, see Floors

Kelso Station, on the top of a hill,
10 niin. from the town. Omnibus
thither. In crossing the Tweed, a
bright and beautiful view from the
bridge ; Floors is seen to the left.

Kelso {Inns : Cross Keys, very
good ; Queen's Head) is beautifully
situated on the left bank of the
Tweed, opposite the confluence of
the Teviot. It is a busy and in-
creasing town, both in size and pro-
sperity, and has a fine open market-
square, in which a Court-house has
been erected, from whose tower ring
the chimes, and at nightfall the

* The Abbey was one of the earliest
completed by David I. It was
founded in 1128, and in it he buried
his eldest son. Prince Henry, who
died in 1152. The monks, who were
of the Tironensian order, were moved
hither from Selkirk. The abbots of
Kelso -at one time claimed the pre-
cedence in the Scottish hierarchy,
though the abbey itself was never
of any great size. The ruined
Church is a fine example of the
Romanesque style, passing into
Pointed. Of the W. Front only
half renaains, with half of its grand,
deeply -'moulded doorway. The
entrance to the N. transept, sur-
mounted by a reticulated gable, is
also fine. The choir alone has aisles,
and the main circular arches are
surmounted by 2 tiers of triforium
galleries. An elegant intersecting
arcade runs round the wall at the

ground level. The nave and tran-
septs are aisleless, and }>roject only 23
ft. from the central tower. The main
feature is the central tower. It was
supported by 4 magnificent arches
of Early pointed character ; 2 of
these are still standing, and are 45
ft. high. The present state of di-
lapidation of this abbey is due to the
ferocious marauding English army
under the Earl of Hertford, 1545,
who on entering the town found the
abbey garrisoned as a fortress, and
the tower held by 100 men, includ-
ing 12 monks. It was battered with
guns and the breach assaulted, a
party of Spanish mercenaries lead-
ing the way, and all found within it
were put to the sword. After this it
was razed and defaced. During the
18th centy. part of the Ch. was roofed
over to serve for divine service, the
other part being used as a jail !

The property of the abbey was
granted shortly after the Reformation
to the Kerrs of Cessford, and still
remains in that family (now repre-
sented by the Duke of Roxburghe).
No place has suffered more by fire
than Kelso. It was repeatedly burnt
by the English during the Border
wars, once by accident in the latter
part of the 17th centy., and again in
the middle of the 18th.

The Kelso people have a great
reputation for business habits, but
are considered slack in their observ-
ance of the duties of religion and

" The Kelso men slank all away.
They liked not much to hymn nor pray,
Nor like they 't much unto this day."

And a " Kelso convoy" implies that
the host accompanies his parting
guest no farther than the door. It
was one of the first provincial towns
in Scotland to adopt the printing-
press, and Ballantyne here brought
out the earliest edition of Sir W.
Scott's " Border Minstrelsy." The
town possesses a good library, and a
museum open free every second day.


Route 2. — Newtown St. Bosicells to Berwick Sect. I.

Near the abbey the Tweed is
crossed by a very handsome Bridge
(built by Eennie) of 5 arches, each of
72 ft. span. The roadway faces
the gateway and avenue to Spring-
Avoocl, the seat of Sir G. H. Douglas,
Bart. The road to the left leads to
Maxwellheugh and the Ely. stat., 4
m. S., and that to the right soon
brings the tourist to the confluence
of the Teviot with the Tweed, the
former river being crossed a little
higher up by a jiretty bridge. On
the opposite side of the Tweed, with
a terraced garden, is Ednam House,
the residence of Mrs. Robertson ;
while higher up the river appears
the magnificent fa9ade of Floors
Castle, as the most striking feature.

The lodge of Floors Castle (Duke
of Roxburghe) is at the top of Rox-
burgh Street, distant about 1 m.
from the Market-place. Admission
to the grounds every Wednesday to
be obtained by application to the
branch Bank of Scotland in Kelso.
The castle, placed opposite the
junction of the Teviot with the
Tweed, was built by Sir John
Vanbrugh in 1718, but was trans-
formed by the architect Playfair to
its present shape. In the park
James II. was killed in 1460, by the
bursting of a cannon, Avhen besieging
Roxburgh Castle. A yew is said to
mark the spot where the accident
occurred. The Gardens are among
the most beautiful and best kept in
Scotland. The estate comprises
50,000 acres.

For views of the vale the tourist
should go to Chalkheugh Terrace,
or the grounds of Pinnacle Hill
(H. Kelsall, Esq.), which overlook
the S. bank of the river.

There is an Episcopal cJi. at Kelso.

Piosebank, a small house on the
1. bank of Tweed just below the town,
was a favourite sojourn of the boy
Walter Scott. It belonged to his
uncle, at whose death it was be-
queathed to him. He formed a seat

out of the bough of an elm overhang-
ing the river, where he used to sit
with a gun at his side to shoot gulls or
herons, and a book of ballads in his
hand. At Kelso some of his earliest
productions were printed by Ballan-

An unusual number of pleasant
residences are to be found in the
neighbourhood of Kelso, in addition
to those already mentioned : — as
ISTewton Don (C. Balfour, Esq.), in
whose grounds the pretty fall called
Stichell Linn is produced by the
river Eden ; Stichell House, built by
the late G. Baird, Esq., a grand
modern house, with a tower 100 ft.
high ; Nenthorn (F. L. Roy, Esq. ) ;
Hendersyde (J. Waldie Griffith,
Esq.) ; Woodend House (Admiral
Scott), etc.

Distances. — IMelrose, 14 m. ; Dry-
burgh, 13 ; Newtown St. Boswells,
lU ; Norham Castle, 16 ; Smail-
holm, 6 ; Stichell Linn, 3 ; Ednam,
2 ; Yetholm, 10, and Linton, 6 ;
Hume Castle, 5 ; a. Jedburgh, 10 m.

a. Across Teviot Bridge, about .lUi.,
are the scanty remains of Boxburgh
Castle, about 1^ m. from Kelso, on a
ridge between Teviot and Tweed. It
was, down to 1560, a royal residence
and border fortress, but so often in
English hands that it was finally cap-
tured and razed by the Scotch after
the death of James II. before its walls.
There was a large town close by it,
containing a mint and 3 churches ;
but this has long since disappeared.
The fragment of the gateway and
of the S. wall, though of massive
masonry, scarce deserve a visit : —

" Roxburgh ! how fallen, since first in Gothic
Thy frowning battlements the war defied ! "

The present village of Roxburgh
is about 24 m. farther on. In the
churchyard is the gravestone of Edie
Ochiltree, the bedesman of the "An-
tiquary," whose real name was An-
drew Gemmel.

S. Scotland. Route 2. — IVark Castle — Coldstn


h. It is a very pretty walk to
Ednatn, a village lying about 2 m. to
the ]Sr. beyond the race-course. An
obelisk has been erected to the me-
mory of the poet Thomson, author
of the " Seasons," who was born
here, and educated at the Grammar
School at Jedburgh.

c. Few will now be tempted to
make an excursion, Cheviotways, to
Yethohn, a village about 10 ra. to
the S.E., once celebrated for being
the headquarters of the gipsy tribe,
and the residence of their king.
It is a humble village on the banks
of the Northumbrian stream of the
Bowmont, which divides it into Kirk
Yetholm, the gipsy resort, and Town
Yetholm, shut in by the Cheviots,
\\ m. from the Border, here marked
by the Shorton Burn. Modern loco-
motion and supervision of highways
have done much to diminish the im-
portance of the Romany tribes, and
they exist here more in name than
fact. The regal family of the Faas
is extinct.

Those who are fond of romantic
scenery should explore the Bow-
mont to its source. The rocks and
cliffs of Colledge Water, which falls
into the Bowmont, are very grand,
and overhang the glen to the height
of about 300 ft. The return may be
made hj Lintmi, the church of which
is on an eminence. On S. wall is a
carving of a man on horseback,
thrusting a long spear into the mouth
of a dragon.

d. Hume Castle, now in picturesque
ruins, was once the stronghold of
the Earls of Home, now the property
of their descendant Sir H. Hume
Campbell, Bart. It was besieged
by Cromwell, who summoned the
governor, one Cockburn, to sur-
render. The governor bravely re-
sponded in the child's rhyme : —

" I, Willie Wastle,
Stand fast in this castle,
And all the dogs in the town
Shall not drive Willie Wastle down."

but he was very quickly compelled
to submit, notwithstanding.

From Kelso to Berwick runs a
branch of the ISTorth-Eastern Rly.,
which keeps along the S. side of the
Tweed, and for the greater portion of
the distance on the English side of
the border.

A view of Kelso is obtained on left,
passing Pinnacle Hill, and on the
opposite bank the Italian mansion
of Heiulersyde (J. Waldie Griffith,
Esq. ), which contains a library, some
pictures, antiquities, etc. At

2 m. Sproiiston Stat, the rly.
enters England. A conspicuous
object in the distance on left, be-
tween Sprouston and

44 m. Carham Stat, is Hume
Castle {see above).

JVarlc Stat, between the rly. at
Carham and the Tweed is tVark
Castle (Lady Waterford), one of the
strongest and most celebrated of the
Border fortresses. It was given by
Edward III. as a marriage present
to the Earl of Salisbury, and defended
by his handsome and virtuous coun-
tess against King David II. Edward
arrived to relieve it after the Scots
had raised the siege, and fell in
love with its beautiful defender. The
story is told at some length by Frois-
sart. The Church of Wark is well
restored and adorned with paintings
by Lady Waterford.

Before arriving at

10 m. Cornhill Stat., the ti'ain
crosses a viaduct at Learmouth, from
whence there is a passing view of
the town of

Coldstream, I4 m. distant from
Cornhill stat. {Inn : N'ewcastle
Arms.) Here General Monk in 1660
raised a regiment, which has ever
since been known as the " Coldstream
Guards." It is a pleasant, well-built
town, with a monument in memory
of Chas. Marjoribanks, a former
county member, but with very little
to detain the visitor. In conse-
quence of Coldstream being just upon
the border, it was frequently the


Route 2. — Newtown St. Bosivells to Berwick Sect. I.

scene of runawa}^ matches. No less
than 3 lord chancellors of England,
viz. Eldon, Erskine, and Brougham,
resorted hither or to Gretna, to the
blacksmith or schoolmaster to be
married. Close to the town is the
ford, the first of any consequence from
Tweedmouth upward, constantly
passed by English and Scottish armies
on forays and invasions of their neigh-
bours' territory. Here Edward I.
passed in 1296. In the old inn
nobles and princes stayed for days,
waiting the subsidence of the waters
of the Tweed, which is now crossed
by a handsome Bridge of 5 arches,
built by Smeaton 1766.

The field of Flodden is about 4 m.
to the S.E. of Cornhill, on the left
bank of the river Till : the New-
castle road passing through it. The
battle was fought on the 9th Sept.
1513. The English army consisted
of 26,000 men, and the Scottish was
nearly double that number. The
Scotch occupied a naturally strong
position on the hill of Flodden, a low
outlier of the Cheviots, inaccessible
on either flank, and defended in front
by the Till. The loss of this battle
was mainly due to the infatuation of
James IV., who, as a point of hon-
our, allowed the English vanguard to
cross the Till at Ticizdl Bridge, near
its junction with the Tweed, un-
molested, though within range of
his guns, and to marshal their whole
line between him and his own
country. The right wing of the
English was commanded by the 2
sons of Lord Surrey — Thomas
Howard, the High Admiral of Eng-
land, and Sir Edmund the Knight
Ma,rshal ; the centre by Lord Surrey
himself ; and the left by Sir Edward
Stanley, at the head of the men of
Lancashire and Cheshire. The left
wing of the Scots was commanded by
the Earls of Home and Huntly, the
centre by the King, and the right by
Lennox and Arg)de. The left wing
of each side was victorious at first,
but the Scots made use of their suc-

cess to plunder the baggage, while
the Admiral took the opportunity of
rallying his troops. The two centres
were desperately engaged in a con-
flict, the issue of which was still
doubtful, when Stanley returned
from chasing the right wing and
charged the Scots in the rear. This
Avas the moment at which ]\Iarmion
is represented as expiring. The Scots
formed into a solid mass, and fought
on till night, then made their escape
in the darkness, leaving 10,000 dead
on the field, amongst whom were the
King, his illegitimate son the Arch-
bishop of St. Andrews, 2 bishops, 2
abbots, 12 earls, 13 barons, and up-
wards of 50 gentlemen of distinction.
Scarcely a family of note in Scotland
but was in mourning in consequence.
The loss of the English was about
500 of all ranks.

Adjoining Coldstream is Lees (Sir
J. Marjoribanks, Bart.) [A road on
r. leads to Dunse, 9.§ m. (Kte. 3),
passing 1. the Hirsel, the seat of the
Earl of Home, and r. 4 m. Stcinton
Rouse, the property of the family of
the Swintons, justly celebrated in
the military annals of Scotland. One
of them in the French service un-
horsed the Duke of Clarence at the
battle of Beauge : —

" And Swinton laid the lance in rest.
That tamed of yore the sparkling crest
Of Clarence's Plantagenet. "

On left is Lennel House (Earl of
Wemyss). Patrick Brydone, author
of " Travels in Sicily and Malta,"
lived here for many years.

12 m. Ttcizell *S'to^., right, is the
large unfinished mansion of Twizell
Castle, built by the late Sir Francis
Blake, and magnificently situated on
the brow of a steep precipice, over-
looking the deep and sluggish river
Till, which falls into the Tweed
close by, and the bridge of a single
arch which was crossed by the Earl
of Surrey just before the battle of
Flodden, where James ought to have
disputed the passage. A little

S. Scotland. Route 3. — Neivtown St. Bosimlh to Re.ston. 29

lower down, ou the Scotch side of
the Tweed, is the village of Lady-
kirk, the Church of which was built
1500, and dedicated to the Virgin
by James IV. in gratitude for his
rescue from peril Avhile crossing the
swollen waters of the Tweed, at the
Ford near this — one of the usual pas-
sages by which invasions from N. and
S. were made. It consists of nave,
transepts, and chancel, with an apse,
in the Perp. and third Pointed
style, with a simple barrel roof.
Ladykirk House, the seat of the late
David Robertson, who for 2 days pos-
sessed the title of Lord Marjoribanks.

16 m. Norham Stat, left, between
the rail and the river is Norham
Castle (anciently called Abbanford),
the opening scene in "Marmion."

" Day set on Norham's castled steep,
And Tweed's fair river, broad and deep. "

The extent of its remains, as well
as its historical importance, show it
to have been a place of magnificence
as well as strength. The castle
stands on an eminence overhanging
the water, and is built of a soft red
freestone. In 1121 there was a
fortress here. It was repeatedly
taken and retaken during the wars
between England and Scotland. In
1154 it was almost rebuilt by Hugh
Pudsey, Bishop of Durham, who
added the huge keep which still
stands. Henry II., in 1174, took the
castle from the bishop, and com-
mitted it to the keeping of William
de Neville, after which it was gene-
rally garrisoned by the King, and
considered a royal fortress. It was,
with Wark, Etall, and Ford, taken
by the Scots before the battle of
Flodden. After the Reformation it
passed through various hands, in-
cluding Sir Robert Carey (afterwards
Earl of Monmouth), who sold it to
George Home, Earl of Dunbar. The
ruins consist now of a large shattered
kee}), with vaults beneath and frag-
ments of other edifices, enclosed

within an earthen rampart of wide
circuit, and deep ditches.

Norham Ch. is a very interest-
ing Norm, edifice well restored. In
the ch.-yard is the grave and effigy
of the Rev. Dr. Gilly, who devoted
so much attention to the Vaudois,
and was rector here. From Norham
down the bank of the river, a pleasant
footpath extends to the village of
Horncliff, near which a glen strikes
off, terminating at a picturesque mill
and encrusting spring. The pedes-
trian can cross the river near

Velvet Hall Stat., close to the
Union Suspension Bridge, built by
Sir Sam. Brown in 1820, the first of
the sort in the British Ishinds. A
little below is Paxton House, the
seat of D. Milne Home, Esq., which
contains a gallery of good paintings.
Between this and Tweedmouth the
volume of the Tweed is increased by
the tributary waters of the Whit-
adder. As the train approaches

22i m. Tweedmouth Stat., the tra-
veller obtains on the left an attractive
view of Berwick, with the lofty via-
duct, built by Stephenson, connect-
ing it with its suburb, and reaching
right across the valley of the Tweed.
It consists of 28 arches, 126 ft. in
height, and is 2000 ft. in length.

23^ m. Berwick-upon-Tweed /w??o

Online LibraryJohn Murray (Firm)Handbook for travellers in Scotland → online text (page 9 of 73)