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sion may arrange, if he can, for a younger brother or
even a stranger to take the widow or widows off his
hand. Otherwise, if a widow return to her own origmal
household, a debt to her family becomes payable
in money or in blood. When the parents belong to
different tribes or septs the children, whether born in
wedlock or not, take the surname of the father's tribe.
Slavery is prevalent, and even refractory children are
sold into slavery. But, of course, most of the slaves
were in past times obtained in raids made on the plains.
The marriage ceremony combines the idea of purchase
from the parents along with forcible abduction. In the
case of the chiefs the abduction of the bride is only so
formal as to be hardly recognizable, but among the
common clansmen it is more than half real. In the latter
case, when the Dumsa of the village in which the intend-
ing bridegroom resides gives an auspicious opinion
regarding the proposed match, communications are entered
into with one of the elders of the hamlet in which the
bride-elect lives. This go-between is called the Chang
Timg. The presents sent are displayed before the latter,

439



BURMA UNDER BRITISH RULE

and when they are on a scale acknowledged by him to be
adequate to the social status of the girl, the plan of action
is fixed on. The damsel is decoyed after dark to the
house of the Chang Tung, and is seized and carried off.
Next morning- the Chang Tung breaks the news to the
girl's parents, and shows the presents received. These
are usually accepted, though sometimes the parents, not
being satisfied, start in pursuit of their daughter. Should
they reach her before the ritual ceremony has been per-
formed, they can take her back with them, but otherwise
the marriage is binding and they have to give their
consent to it.

Among the chiefs and the more influential of the
tribesmen a wooer sends two friends with beer and a
piece of cloth to a Chang Tung of the village where his
beloved lives. These messengers are then taken to the
parents for discussion of the amount to be paid for the girl.
This being fixed, it is the equivalent of a betrothal.
Later on the friends again appear before the Chang
Tung with the stipulated presents, which are then taken to
the girl's parents' house. Here the bride is dressed in
fine attire and loaded with silver ornaments, while the
village Dtinisa divines which two women are best suited
to accompany her as bridesmaids. On selection being
made each carries on her back a basket containino^
clothes, spears, bills {^Da), and such things, as a dowry on
starting a separate household. Accompanied by her two
bridesmaids, but not by her parents, the bride is con-
ducted by the bridegroom's friends to the house of one of
the oriorinal messengers of the bridegroom ; and when
the Dtunsa indicates that an auspicious moment has
arrived, she is made to sit near the bridegroom's house.
Here the household spirits are invoked, and a libation is
poured into a bamboo cup and placed before their shrine.
Fowls and pigs are then sacrificed, their blood being
sprinkled on the bride and on the path trodden by her
and her bridesmaids. These three only pass the thres-
hold into the bridegroom's house, where they make
offerings of boiled eggs, ginger, and dried fish to the
tutelary spirits. This concludes the marriage ritual, in
which the bridegroom takes no personal part. He does

440



KACHIN CUSTOMS

not even speak to the bride. She is conducted to the
room of her parents-in-law till the time of the evening
meal, when she is brought out again, and then she and
the bridegroom are made to feed each other with a few
mouthfuls of food before the assembled friends. The
marriage feast then begins, which always ends in a
drunken orgy, and often in a free fight.

The tribal Sawbwa {Ditwa) have all their several
recognized hill tracts, within which each is regarded as
chief. The Sazubwa-sWi^^ is hereditary, and descends to
the youngest son. The elder sons can stay on in the
village if they like, though they usually prefer moving
off with a small personal following to found a hamlet
and a chiefship of their own. Unless the Sawbwa has
a ready tongue and a shrewd wit he is often overruled
by the elders of the village (Pawmaing, Salang), of
whom every Sazvbiva is bound to appoint two or three
to form a council under his presidency. Except in the
case of a Sawbwa of great personal influence, the virtual
authority in the village consequently rests with the
Pawmaing possessing most power in the tribal council.
They, and not the Saivbiva, are usually the judges in
village disputes ; and they are often called upon to
arbitrate concerning the quarrels in other hamlets. But
when quarrels against other communities or tribes have
to be settled by reprisals, the Sawbwa of course takes
the lead in exacting^ venoreance. He also acts as the
representative of the whole community in offering sacri-
fices at the annual feast of the "earth spirit," each
member assisting him with a contribution to this great
festival. The spirit being propitiated, the rest of the
ceremonies consist chiefly of dancing and drunkenness.

Although the Pawmaing are appealed to as judges
and arbitrators, each tribesman is ultimately the avenger
of his own quarrel. Compensation for injuries is allowed
on a customary scale of blood money. The murder of a
Sawbzva can only be condoned by cession of half the
village lands of the murderer, together with many slaves
and guns ; while for less influential men it may perhaps
amount to one slave, eight or ten bullocks, and some
gongs and clothes, the number varying according to the

441



BURMA UNDER BRITISH RULE

social position of the victim. If ample satisfaction be
not thus given, a " debt " is formed, which is sure to
be wiped out in violence later on.

Two curious instances of thus paying off old debts on
a large scale occurred in 1890, when a party of peaceful
Chinese traders returning from Bhamo to Yunnan was
suddenly attacked and two of them were killed by the
Sazubiua of Kasankon, a villaofe to the east of Bhamo.
Twenty-two years previously, in 1868, when the mission
under Captain (afterwards Sir Edward) Sladen went to
Momein, the father of the attacking Sazuhua had been
of use to the party. In returning Captain Sladen invited
him to accompany the mission to Bhamo, intending prob-
ably to make presents to him there. Unfortunately the
Sawbiva died there, apparently from some natural cause.
This loss was, however, earmarked as a debt against
Bhamo, though it was not till 1890 that it occurred to
the then Sawbwa to wipe off the score. And when the
time of desiring revenge came, any one (even, as in this
present instance only indirectly), in touch with Bhamo,
became liable for payment of the blood debt. Again,
about that same time, an inter-village skirmish, resulting
in the burning of the hamlet of Naungmo and the shoot-
ing of villagers, took place because a Kachin who had
visited that village six years before had then lost a cook-
ingpot which he had failed to recover.

Such are the wild Kachin tribes through whose
country pass the existing trade routes from Bhamo and
Myitkyina into Yunnan. It is easy to understand how
expansion of trade from Bhamo eastwards was thus
paralysed under the impotence of Burmese rule. But
now, under British administration, good caravan tracks
have been cleared to the frontier and are controlled by
military police under European officers, while much has
been done to subdue and pacify the wild, lawless spirit
of the several Kachin clansmen.



442



Ind



ex



A



Accounts Department, i. 260
Acolytes, ii. 127,147, 195
Acts, i. 139, 140
Administrative divisions, i. 222
Afghanwar, i. 45, 51, 53
Agriculture, i. 303
Agricultural Department, i. 281

Holdings, size of, i. 336

Stock, i. 305
Akmddawye, i. 157
Aitchison, Sir Charles, i. 44, 220 ;

ii. 61
Akaukwun, i. 154
Akaungkun,\. 189
Akunwun, i. 154
Aki'tthala, ii. 114, 195
Alaung Paya, i. 5, 6, 7, 161

Career of, ii. 235
Allanmyo, i. 36
Alompra, sec Alaung Paya
Alphabet, Burmese, i. 253, ii.193,

311
Amarapura, i.12, 16, 20, 26

Antiquities at, ii. 404
Amat, i. 167 ; ii. 237
Ameindawyc,i. 157
Amusements, national, ii. 257
Anavvratazaw, king, i. 3; ii. 112,

393
Anglo-Chinese Convention, 1897,

ii. 41
Anglo-French Convention, 1896,

ii. 15
Anglo-German x'\greement, 1900,

ii. 13
Annexation of Arakan and Tenas-

serim, 1826, i. 20
Pegu, 1852,1. 24,419
Upper Burma, 1886, i. loi ;

ii. 27
Applique wfork, ii. 307
Arakan, i. i, 2, 13, 16, 20, 35, -^y
" Arakan pagoda," Mandalay, i. 96 ;

ii. 300, 404, 405
Arbitrators, ofificial, i. 176
Archaeology, ii. 375



Archbishop, Buddhist, i. ^2,^ 98 ;

ii. 125, 253
Art, Burmese, ii. 280, 290
Asiatic Steam Navigation Company,

i. 425
Assam, i. 4, 14, 17, 20
Assembly of religious, ii. 116, 128
Assessment of land, i. 285, 290
Astrologers, ii. 187, 259, 285
Atankdaw, i. 161
At /ton Saye/i. 157
Attasankhepa Vannan^j i. 190,

454 ; ii- 319
Atiimashi , i. 96 ; ii. 407
Atwinwun, i. 56, 159
Auckland, Lord, i. 20
Auspices, ii. 169
Austerities, religious, ii. 134
Ava, 5, 8, 12, 18, 20, 26, 88

Antiquities at, ii. 402
Aweyauk, i. 157
Ayddaw, i. 165
Ayodya, i. 7, 10



B



Backgammon, Burmese, ii. 277
Badun Min; i, 1 1
Bagyidaw, king, i. 7, 14, 20
Bangkok, i. 10, 66 ; ii. 2, 6

Trade of, ii. 6
Bandula, i. 15, 17, 19
Bank of Burma, projected French,

i-73
Barrenness, ii. 183
Bassein, i. 6, 22, 35, 50
Bayin Naung, i. 4, 8
Bazaar trade, i. 450 ; ii. 204
Bedin Sayd, ii. 187, 211, 285
Bcindaiv Sayd, ii. 173, 281, 283
Beliefs and superstitions, ii. 155
Bells, casting of, ii. 301

Celebrated, ii. 302,- 405^ 408
Benson, Colonel, i. 20
Bernard, Sir Charles, i. 71, 8^, 98,

io8j no, 112, 121, 126,

220 ; ii. 27
Bibby line of steamers, i. 425



443



INDEX



Binya Dala, i. 5

Birth customs, ii. 184

" Birth-stories" of Gaudama, ii. 316,

321
Bhamo, i. 9, 49, 69, 79, 99, 173 ;

ii- 3^S
Blacksmiths, i. 384
Bo, i. 173

Boat-racing, ii. 268
Boats, i. 379
Bobabaing lands, i. 275
Bodaw Paydj i. \-, 7 ^ 12, 14, 16, 17,

155 ; ii- 392,404,408
Bohmu AiwinwuH, i. 88
Bombay Burma Trading Corpo-
ration, i. 76, 79, 424, 429 ;
ii. 79, 81
Boshu, i. 159
Bo Shwe, i. no, 128
Boxing matches, ii. 274
Brandis, Sir Dietrich, ii. 50
Brass images, ii. 299
Browne, Colonel Horace, i. 48
Britain in Western China, ii. i
British consular ports, ii. 1 1
British India Steam Navigation

Company, i. 424
British residency, i. 202
British resident withdrawn, i. 48
Brokers, i. 29, 432
Buddha, ii. 93
Buddha Ketti, i. 5
Buddha Yaza, i. 1 10, 136, 142
Buddhism, Burmese, ii. 89

Introduction of, ii. 111^ 379
Buddhist bishops, ii. 126

Nuns, ii. 121, 129

Priesthood, ii. 123

Synods, ii. 109, 118
Burial customs, ii. 217, 268
Burma Railways Company, ii. 29, 45
Burma- Yunnan railway scheme, ii.

44
Burma's forest wealth ii.47
Burmese children, i. 3^)7
Folklore, ii. 356
Love song, ii. 320
Officials, i. 152
War, first, i. 18, 20, 26
Second, i. 23, 24, 26
Third, i. 80, 82, 125, 149
Causes of third, i. 76
Burney, Major, i. 20
Byldaik, i. 151, 157, 159
Officials of the, i. 161



Cadastral Survey, i. 281, 287
Campl)ell, Sir Archibald, i. 18
Canning, Captain, i. 17
Carts, i. 377
Cart racing, ii. 273
Caoutchouc^ i. 439 ; ii. 77 , 87
Caravan routes, i. 447 ; ii- 38
Cardinal sins, ii. 131

virtues, ii. 99
Cattle, damage by^ i. 327
Diseases of, i. 309
Treatment of, i. 307
Census of 1891,- i. 218; ii. 128;

1901,1.434; ii. 128
" Centre of the Universe," i. 119, 158
Chamyc, i. 166
Chandra Kanta, i. 1 5
Change of name, ii. 191
Character, traits of, ii. 221
Charms, belief in, ii. 163
Cheroots, i. 387
Chess, Burmese, ii. 276
Chief Commissioners of Burma,

i. 220
Children, naming of, ii. 189
China, i. 3, 7, 8, 9, 10

Britain and France in South-
western, ii. I
Chin Hills, administration of, i. 232
Chin customs, ii. 431
Chindwin river, i. 86, 99
Chinlon, ii. 275
C hint he, i. 161
Chin tribes, i. 135, 138, 142, 148,

215 ; ii. 430
Chittagong, i. 17

Chronicles, Burmese royal, i. \, 3,
9, 16; ii. 317
Mon, i. 4
Chronology, Burmese, ii. 287
Civilization, effects of, ii. 242, 245
Coal, i. 389
Cockfighting, ii. 273
Collett, Brigadier-General, i. 138
Commerce and trade, i. 41 3
Commission, the Burma, i. 227
Commissioners of divisions, i. 226
Confession among monks, ii. 132,

Confidential circulars, ii. 251
Coup d'etat of 1878, i. 94, 172
Costume, national, ii. 247
Cotton, i. 441



444



INDEX



Courts, civil and criminal, i. 179
Cox, Captain Hiram, i. 16
Crematory rites, ii. 219, 267
Crimes, i. 235
Criminal classes, i. 237
Crosthwaite, Sir Charles, i. 122,

126, 143, 148, 220
Cultivation, cost of, i. 341
Methods of, i. 304, 313
Curzon of Keddleston, Lord, i. 412
Customs Department, i. 251
Customs, national habits and, ii. 181
Cutch, i. 439
Cutch boiling, i. 374

D

Da, various kinds of, i. 384
Dacoityj i. 99, 102, 105, no, 116,

120, I24j 126, 131, 144,

170, 214 ; ii. 279
Dagon, i. 2

Dalhousie, Lord, i. 22, 23, 35, 36
Dmndiigyi, i. 167
Dainmakdn,\. 188
Dammathdt^ i. 177, 179, 190, 454 ;

ii. 319
Dammazedi, king^ ii. 380
Danubyn, i. 18, 50
Dat Sayd/ii. 173,281
Deciduous forests, ii. ^y
Dedication of property, i. 270
Demerit, religious, ii. 114, 195
Deputy commissioners, i. 227
Disafforestation, ii. 69
District and cess funds, i. 263
Divorce, i. 18I5 185, 189
Doctors, Burmese, ii. 281
Domesday Book, Burmese, i. 12,

163
Doyle, Captain, i. 33
Dress, i. 350 ; ii. 247
Dry zone, i. 243 ; ii. 75, 77
Dufferin, fort, i. 1 19

Lord, i. 79, 96, 10 1, 105
Duncan, Colonel, i. 31
Durbars, i. 143 ; ii. 218
Duttiya Min Kaung, i. 2
Dyeing and dye stuffs, i. 351
Dynastic law, Alaung Payd's, i. 8,

II, 13,39



Earboring, ii. 201
Ecclesiastical affairs, i.



266



Eden, Sir Ashley, i. 220
Education, Burmese system of^^

i. 252; ii. 193
Education Department, i. 251
Ein-She Min, i. 7^ 12, 40, 206
Elephants, i. 370
Elephant, royal white, i. 14^ 98, 150,

203
Elias, Mr. Ney, i. 143
Elgin, Lord, i. 229
Embassy to France, i. 57
Etymology, Burmese, ii. 313
Eunuchs, i. 205
Evergreen forests, ii. 76
Evidence, law of, i. 181
Evil spirits, ii. 161
Excommunication, ii. 151
Export of rice, i. 431

Timber, i. 427
Exports and imports, i. 435, 436



Fabulous animals, ii. 176

Face enamelling, ii. 205

Family, average number in, i. 337

Felling timber, i. },6j

Ferry, M. Jules, i. 57, 58, 62, 63, 65,

75
Festivals, national, ii. 257
Financial Commissioner, i. 223
Fire protection of forests, ii. 64
Fishbourne^ Commander, i. 22
Fisheries, i. 224,- 354^ 360
Fishery act, i. 354
Floating of timber, i. 373
Folklore, Burmese, ii. 356
Foord, General H. H., i. 85, 89, 95
Football, Burmese, ii. 275
Foreign competition, i. 444, 45 1
Forest rules, 1856, ii. 50, 53

Act, 1881^ ii. 66, 70
and rules, 1865, ii. 55

Department, i. jj , 146, 246, 250

Plantations, ii. 58

Revenue, i. 248, 250 ; ii. ^j

Settlements, ii. 61^ 68
Forests, ii. 47

Improvement of fellings in, ii. 84

Protection from fire, ii. 64

Reserved or State, i. 249; ii. 59,
67, 84

System of working, ii. 81

Teak, ii. 82
Forest working plans, ii. 72



445



INDEX



Fort Duffcrin, i. 197

Stcdman, i. 134, 138, 143

Forsyth, Sir Douglas, i. 30, 36

Fox, H.M.S., i. 22

France in Further India, ii. i
on tlic Mekong, i. 217 ; ii. 4

French aggression in 1893, '•• 2
Annexations in Further India, ii.

2i 3
Consul at Mandalay, i. 59, 63, 70,

72, 76
Consular agents in China, ii. 23
Indo-China, ii. 6
in Yunnan, ii. 17
Policy in 1883 and 1885, i. 56, 63

in Indo-China, ii. 9
Railways, ii. 8, 16
Fruits, Burmese, i. 343
Fryer, Sir Frederic, i. 218 ; ii. 46
Future punishment, ii. 113
Fusion of races, ii. 249
Fytche, Colonel, i. 27, 220



Gaing 6kj ii. 126

Galena, i. 397

Gambling, ii. 232

Gardens, i. 343

Garrison of Burma, i. 149, 233

Gaudama, ii. 93, 95

Early life of, ii. 97
Gaudama's religious philosophy, ii.
100

" Sermon on the Mount," ii. 103
Genders and generic affixes, ii. 313
Geniolatry, relics of, ii. 107, 119, 196
German merchants in Burma, i. 45 1
Germany and Siam, ii. 6, 8
Girdling of teak trees, ii. 52, 75
Girls, education of, i. 259 ; ii. 204
Gladstone's cabinet, Mr., i. 51, $^,

54, 57,65
Godwin, General, i. 23
Gokteik gorge, ii. 36
Gold, work in, ii. 297

Mining, i. 397

Sifting, i. 347, 398
Gongs, ii. 300
Gonnyinto, ii. 275
Gordon, Sir Benjamin^ i. 129, 140^

144
Government timber depot, Rangoon,

1-429
GranvillCj Lord, i. 158



Guard-houses, village, i. 118, 156,
168



H



Haas, M., consul of France, i. 64, 70,

72, ^6, 81 ; ii. 10
Habits and customs, national, ii. 181
Hall of Audience, i. 200
Hanthawaddi, i. 4, 5 ; ii. 380
Ilartington, Lord, i. 52
Harvey, Colonel J. J., i. 138
Ilastinapura, i. 3 ; ii. 409
Heir apparent, i. 7, 12, 40, 206
Hell, Burmese idea of, ii. 113
Hides and horns, i. 441
High church, Burmese, ii. 117
High court. Lower Burma, i. 229
Hill tribes, i. 214 ; ii. 41 1
Hlethin Atwinwun, i. 87
Hlutdaw or state council, i. "jj , 90,

96, 103, 107, 151, 156, 176,

199
Hodgkinson, Mr. George, i. 108
Horoscope, ii. 187, 281
House tax, i. 162, 224^ 276, 288



Imports, i. 435,436,443
Improprieties in a wife, i. 186
Improvement fellings in forests, ii. 84
Incendiarism at Mandalay^ i. iii,

115
Incidence of land revenue, i. 301
" Incomparable pagoda," i. 96 ; ii.

407
liidaing forests, ii. 78
India-rubber, i. 439 ; ii. jj , 87
Plantations of, i. 441 ; ii. 87
Indawgyi, legend of, ii. 356
Indebtedness of peasantry, i. 296
Inland (transfrontier) trade, i. 447 ;

ii- 39
Institutes of Burmese law, i. 1 90, 454
Insurrections, i. 135, 171, 173, 214,

232
Interest on loans, i. 295
Irrazvaddy, I. M.S. 5 i. 42, 85
Irrawaddy Flotilla Company^ i. 85,-
1145 424; ii. 25
River, i. 18, 26
Irrigation, i. 245 ; ii. 33
by water wheels, i. 329



440



INDEX



J



Jade export, i. 443

Miningj i. 401
Jail administratiorij i. 236
JailSj Burmese, i. 190
Johnstone, Colonel, i. 61
Judgment, acceptance of, i. 193
Judicial administration, Burmese,
i. 192

Commissioners, i. 229
Jungle fires, ii. 6^
Junk Ceylon, i. 14
Jyntia, i. 20



K



Kachar, i. 10, 17, 18, 20
Kachin customs, ii. 437

Hills, policy in, i. 216

Revolt, i. 173

Tribes, i. 66, 135, 137, 142, 148

215 ; ii-43S
Kadaw Five, i. 158, 206
Kakhyin, ii. 435
Kala, i. 83
Kaluga, ii. 307
Kale state, i. 214
Kammawa, i. 206 ; ii. 130, 150
Kan, ii. 93, 167
Karen customs, ii. 427
Karenni, i. ^6, 1 37, 143, 148 ; ii. 429
Karen oracle, i. 323

Tribes, ii. 423
Katha, i. 139
Kazinyo, i. 168
Kemmendine, i. 18
Kengcheng, i. 217 ; ii. 4
Kengtungy i. 217 ; ii. 5
Khyin, ii. 430
Kin, i. 118, 156, 168
Kinwun Mingyi^ i. 42, 47, 90, 107;

156, 190, 198
Knox Gorcy Major General, i. 45, 46
Kow Chow, Kachin, i. 335
Kunlon ferry, i. 147 ; ii. 36, 44
Kun Saing, Saivbwa of Thibaw, i.

121
KutJio, i. 10 ; ii. 1 133 195
Knthodaw of Mandalay, ii. 407
Kyankse, i. 141
Kyaung, ii. 126
Kyinsuy ii. 151



Lacquer work, ii. 297
Lake dwellers, i. 381
Laniaingmyc, i. 166
Lambert, Commodore, i. 22
Land grants, i. 271

Mortgage, i. 301

Revenue, i. 223

Survey system, i. 281

Tenure, i. 167, 268
Language, ii. 309
Lansdowne, Lord, i. 218, 219, 229
Lashio, i. 9, 241 ; ii. 37
Laterite forests, ii. 78
Lead, i. 396
Led aw, i. 165
Legend of Indawgyi, ii. 356

Moulmein, ii. 357

Popa hill, ii. 372

Sagaing, ii. 366

Taungbyon, ii. 371
Legislative council, i. 222
Lent, ii. 257, 261
Let pet, i. 175, 446 ; ii. 191
Letsaungsayc' , i. 158
Levees royal, i. 206
Lieutenant-Governorship of Burmaj

i. 221
Lighthouses, i. 242
Likin exactions, ii. 2\, 23
Limbin prince, i. 134, 175
Linga, ii. 319

Literature, ii. 289, 309, 316, 320
Livings cost of, i. 340

Standard of, i. 339
Loans and interest, i. 295
Lovemaking, ii. 209
Low Church, ii. 117
Lyons, Lord, i. 57, 58, 62, 72
Lytton, Lord, i. 52
Lubyandaw, i. i6r

M

Macgregor and Co.^ Messrs. ^ ii. 80
Mackenzie, Sir Alexander, i. 148,

218, 220
Macleod, Captain, i. 20
Macpherson, Sir Herbert, i. 115,

123
McMorine, Brigadier-General, i. 18
Magwe Mingyi, i. 42
Maha Bandula, i. 15, \7 , 18, 19
Mahagandi, ii. 117
Mana Thambawaj i. 2, 3 ; ii. 368



447



INDEX



Maikha, i. 216
Malikha, i. 216

Mandalay, i, 26, 28, 31, 49, 67, 89,
III, 119, 120, 139, 195

City of, i. 89, 1 19 ; ii. 406

and Kunlon railway, ii. 31

Occupied, i. 89

Pagodas and monasteries at, ii.

405
M and at, i. 200

Manifesto, King Thibavv's, i. 83
Manipur, i. 6, 8, 10, 13, 15, 17, 20,

60
Manu, laws of, i. 177, 179, 190, 268 ;

ii. 319
Marriage, i. 181, 185 ; ii. 213

Customs, ii. 215
Martaban, i. 5, 13, 22, 24
Massacres in Mandalay, i. 43, 47, 50^

66, 67, 209
Mat weaving, i. 383
Maung Aung Zeya, i. 6 ; ii. 235

Maung, i. 7, 11, 13
Mawkme, i. 137, 143
Measurement of distance, ii. 289

Time, ii. 289
Medicine men, ii. 173, 283
Meiktila, i. 131, 136, 141 ; ii. 409
Mica, i. 41 1
Military forces in Burma, i. 149, 233

Officers, i. 173

Police, i. 114, 129, 132, 140, 141,
I45i 149, 234
Minbu, i. 128, 136
Mindat prince, i. 40, 48
Mindon, king, i. 7, 24, 26, 28, 33,

38, 40, 150
Mineral resources, i. 389
Mnigaldtihi, i. 205
Mingun bell, ii. 302, 408
Mingyi, i. 152, 156
Minhla, i. 50, 86, 109, 128
Mining rules, i. 401
Ministers of state, i. 151, 152
Minmyc, i. 166
Min Tayagyi, i. 12, 150
Missionary work, i. 267 ; ii. 153^

253
Mixed forests, ii. 78
Modesty and morality, ii. 227
Mogok, i. 147, 404
Mong Mit, i. 137, 142
Moksdbo, i. 6, 8, 24 ; ii. 231;
Monasteries, ii. 126, 265
Monastic life, ii. 139



Monk, requisites of a, ii. i T^y
Mun, i. 3, 5, 6
Monopolies, royal, i. 29
Morrison, General, i. 18
Moulmein, i. 22, 416, 418

Caves, ii. 377

Legend of, ii. 357
Municipalities, i. 263
Music, Burmese, ii. 303
Myenan, i. 1 19, 158, 200
Myingun prince, i, 43, 56, 66, 98,

106, 126, 206
Myingundaing prince, i. 206
Myingyan, i. 47, 50, 86, 109, 131,

136
Myinzaing prince, i. iio
Myo, i. 153
Myo dk,i. 154, 228
Myosd,i. 153, 155
Myosayc, i. 1 54
Myo Thugyi, i. i54
Myowiiti, i. 42, 176, 178
Myozade, i. 196

N

Ndf river, i. 17, 18

Nakdn, i. 193

Nakdndaiv, i. 154

Nanda Bayin, king, i. 5

Nat, ii. 92, 156

National characteristics, ii. 221

Habits and customs, ii. 181
Natsin, i. 196
Natural bridges, ii. 36, 37
Naungdawgyi, king, i. 7-, 8
Neikban (Nirvana), ii. 92, 114
Ngachank, i. 224
Ngapt, i. 46, 224j 361
Ngawun river, i. 35
Ngok, ii. 2,6, 17
Ningyan, i. 77 , 1 10, 115, 136
Nobility, Burmese, i. 167 ; ii. 237
Norman, General, F. B., i. 85 j 90,

94, 100, 108
Northbrook, Lord, i. 3I5 36
Nyaung Van, king, i. 5

Prince, i. 40, 41, 43, 47> 49; 57;
64, 81, 106, 208
Nyaungok prince, i. 41* 106, 208
Nyaunggwfe, i. 133

O

Oaths, i. 177 ; ii. 179
Oktama, i. 128, 132, 136, 141



448



INDEX



Omens, ii. 169

Opium regulations, i. 225, 448

Revenue, i. 224
Orchards, i. 343
Ordeals, i. 177
Ordination of monks, ii. i 50



Pacification of Upper Burma, i. 105,

117, 144, 149
" Paddy ring " of 1893, i. 437
Pagdn, i. 3, 4, 20, 86, 127
Antiquities of, ii. 390
Min, i. 7, 21, 24, 150
Pagodas and temples, ii. 384, 399
Pahozin, i. 199 ; ii. 288
Pakokku, i. 86, 136, 141
Pali, ii. 31 1
Pandali Thakin, i. 12
Pangyet Wandauk, i. 73
Panjdeh incident, i. 65
Parafftn, i. 443

Partition of property, i. 181, 185
Patama By an, i. 41, 21 1
Patimauk, ii. 130
Pawdyand, ii. 132
Paydgyi or " Great pagoda," i. 96 ;

11.300,404,405
Payd Tak, i. 10, 13
Pearl fisheries, i. 362
Pe, i. 168
Pegu, i. I, 4, 5,21, 23, 24, 35, 100,

103, 154

Antiquities of, ii. 379
Peregrinatory fish, i. 357
Petroleum wells, i. 392
Phayre, Sir Arthur, i. 24, 26, loi,
-219, 254

Mr. Robert, i. 47, 48, 49, 86
Pictorial art, ii. 307
Piece goods, i. 443
Pin Atwinwun, i. 107
Plantations, teak, ii. 58
Planting rice fields, i. 319
Ploughing, royal ceremonial, i. 205

Operations, i. 316
Ploughs, Burmese, i. 315
Plumbago, i. 41 1
Poetry, ii. 319
Police Department, i. 234
Politeness, forms of, ii. 237

Innate, ii. 231
Polygamy, ii. 241
Pongyi,n. 126, 129, 135



Pony racing, ii. 27 I
Popd hill, i. 127

Legend of, ii. 372
Postal Department, i. 265
Pottery, i. 352
Precepts, five great, ii. 115
Prendergast, General Sir Harry,
i- 79,87,91,93,96,99, 108

Instructions to General, i. 81, 84
Priesthood, Burmese, ii. 123

Influence of, ii. 147

Sins of the, ii. 131
Prime minister of Ava, i. 42, 47, 90,

156
Princes, chief Burmese, i. 207
Privy council, Burmese, i. 151, 159