John O'Hart.

Irish pedigrees; or, The origin and stem of the Irish nation (Volume 1) online

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the lands of Imaile in Wicklow, and of Castledermot in Kildare ; both of which be-
longed to the ancient principality of O'Toole. The other chief families of Wicklow
were Butler, Talbot, Eustace, and Howard.

{d) The Modern Nobility of Hy-Kixselagh.

The following have been the noble families in Wexford, Wicklow, and Carlow,
since the reign of King John : —

In Wexford, in the thirteenth century, the noble English families of De Mount-
chensey, and De Valence, got large possessions, with the title of lords of Wexford, by
intermarriage with a daughter of Marshall, Earl of Pembroke, above mentioned ; and
by intermarriage with De Valence, Talbot, earls of Shrewsbury, became lords of
Wexford, in Ireland ; the family of Petty, marquises of Lansdowne, in England, and
earls of Shelbourne, in Wexford ; Butler, viscounts Mountgarret ; Keating, barons of
Kilmananan ; Esmond, barons of Limerick ; Stopford, earls of Courtown ; the famdy
of Loftus, earls and marquises of Ely ; the family of Phipps, barons Mulgrave, barons
of New Ross in Wexford, earls of Mulgrave, and marquises of Normandy in England ;
Ponsonby, viscounts of Duncannon ; Aunesley, viscounts Mountmorris ; Carew, barons

In Carlow, De Bigod, Mowbray, and Howard, dukes of Norfolk, were lords of
Carlow ; Butler, barons of Tullyophelim, and viscounts of TuUow ; Carew, barons of
Idrone ; O'Cavanagh, barons of Balian ; Cheever, viscounts Mountleinster ; Fane,
barons of Carlow; Ogle, viscounts of Carlow; and Dawson, viscounts of Carlow;
Knight, earls of Carlow ; the celebrated Duke of Wharton, Lord Lieutenant of Ire-
land in the reign of Queen Anne, was created Marquis of Carlow.

In Wicklow, Howard, earls of Wicklow ; Stuart, earls of Blessington ; and Boyle,
viscounts Blessington; Wingfield, viscounts Powerscourt ; Mayuard, barons May-
nard ; the family of Cole, barons of Ranelagh ; and Jones, viscounts Ranelagh ; Butler,
barons of Arklow ; Eustace, viscounts of Baltinglass ; and the Kor ers, viscounts of
Baltinglass ; Stradford, barons of Baltinglass and earls of Aldborough ; Proby, earls
of Carysfort ; Brabazon, earls of Meath ; Berkeley, barons of Rathdown ; and the


family of Monk, earls of Rathdown ; the earls Fitzwilliam in England have extensive
possessions in Wicklow.

Wexford was formed into a County in the reign of King John, and was, as
already stated, part of the ancient territory of Hy-Cmsellagh ; it was called by the
Irish writers "The County of Lough Carman," as already mentioned. It was also
called Contae Riacach (signifying the grey county), from some peculiar greyish ap-
pearance of the country ; but which Camden incorrectly states to have meant the
*' rough county." It got the name of " Wexford" from the town of Wexford, which
Avas called by the Danes, " Weisford," signifying th.B western haven ; a name given to it
by the Danish colonies who possessed that city in the tenth and eleventh centuries.
The greater part of Wexford was in former times also sometimes called " The County
of Ferns," from (as stated by Spenser) the city of Ferns, which was the capital of the
MacMuiToughs, kings of Leinster. In the tenth century, the Danes of Wexford
worked the silver mines situated at Clonmines, in the county Wexford ; and in that
city had a mint where they struck several coins.

Carlow was formed into a County in the reign of King John ; it was called by
the Irish writers Cathairloch and Ceatharloch, anglicised "Caherlough," now "Car-
low;" and the name is said to have been derived from the Irish "Cathair," a city^
and "loch," a lake : thus signifying the City of the Lake ; as it is stated that there
was in former times a lake adjoining the place where the town of Carlow now stands ;
but there is no lake there at present.

Wicklow was formed into a County in the reign of King James the First ; its
name being derived from the town of Wicklow, which, it is said, was called by the
Danes "Wyhinloia or Wykinlough,''' signiiyin^ the " Harbour of Ships ;" it was called
by the Irish Cilmantan. According to O'Flaherty, the name of " Wicklow" was
derived from the Irish Biddhe Cloch, signifying the yellow stone or rock; and probably
so called from the yellow colour of its granite rocks. "Wicklow was in ancient times
covered with extensive forests ; and the oak woods of Shillelagh, on the borders of
Wicklow and Wexford, were celebrated in former times. The gold mines of Wicklow,
celebrated in history, were situated in the mountain of Croghan Kinselagh, near
Arklow ; and pieces of solid golden ore of various sizes were found in the rivulets : one
of which pieces was twenty-three ounces in weight.


Or, KilTcenny, King's, and Queen's Counties.

(a) The Irish Chiefs axd Claxs.

The following accounts of the Irish chiefs and clans of Ossory, Offaley, and Leix,
have been collected from the Topographies of O'Heeran, O'Dugan, O'Brien,

* Ossory, Offaley, and Leix : An account of the ancient history and inhabitants of what constituted
ancient Leinster has been given in the Chapter on " Hy Kinselagh ;" in this chapter is given the history
and topography of the territories comprised in Kilkenny, Bang's and Queen's Counties, with their
chiefs and clans, and the possessions of each in ancient and modem times.

Ossory comprised almost the whole of the present county of Kilkenny, with a small part of the south
of Tipperary, and also that portion of the Queen's County now called the barony of Upper Ossory ;
and the name of this ancient principality, which was also called the " Kingdom of Ossor}-," is still re-
tained in that of the diocese of Ossory. Ancient Ossory, according to some accounts, extended through
the whole country between the riversNore and Suir ; being bounded on the north and east by the Nore,
and on the west and south by the Suir ; and was sometimes subject to the kings of Leinster, but mostly
to the kings of Munster. It is stated by O'Halloran, MacGeoghagan, and others, that Conaire Mor or
Conary the Great, who was Monarch of Ireland at the commencement of the Christian era (of the race
of the Clan-na-Deaga of Munster, a branch of the Heremonians of Ulster), having made war on the
people of Leinster, to punish them for having killed his father, Edersceol, Monarch of Ireland, im-
posed on them a tribute called Eric-ui-Edersceoil or the Fine of Edersceol ; to be paid annually every first
daj' of November, and consisting of three hundred cows, three hundred steeds, three hundred gold-
handled swords, and three hundred purple cloaks. This tribute was sometimes paid to the Monarchs
of Ireland, and sometimes to the kings of Munster ; and its levying led to many fierce battles for a
long period. Conary the Great separated Ossory from Leinster ; and, having added it to Munster, gave
it to a prince of his own race, named Aongus, and freed it from all dues to the King of Munster, except
the honour of composing their body guards : hence, Aongus was called Amhas Righ, signifying the
king's guard ; and from this circunistance, according to O'Halloran, the territory got the name of
•• Amhas-Righ," afterwards changed to Osraighe, and anglicised "Ossorj-."

Offaley or Ophaley, in Irish, " Hy-Failge," derived its name from Ross Failge or Ross of. the


O'Halloran, and others :— 1. Mac Giolla Padruig* or MacGillpatrick, anglicised " Fitz-
patrick," princes of Ossory. From the reign of Henry the Eighth down to that of
George the Second, the Fitzpatricks were created barons of Castletown, barons of
Gowran, and earls of Upper Ossory. 2. O'Cearbhaill or O'CarroU, and O'Donchadha or
O'Donoghoe, chiefs of the barony of Gowran and Sliogh Liag, which is probably the
barony of " Shillelogher, " both in Kilkenny. These O'CarroUs, it is thought, were a
branch of the O'Carrolls, princes of Ely ; and the O'Donoghoes, a branch of the
O'Donoghoes, princes of Cashel. 3. O'Conchobhair or O'Coimor, princes of Hy-Failge
or Offaley, had a fortress at the green mound of Cruachan or Croghan, a beautiful hill
situated in the parish of Croghan, within a few miles of Philipstown, on the borders of
the King's County and Westmeath. The O'Connors, princes of Oflfaley, usually
denominated " O'Connors Failey," took their name from Conchobhar, prince of Hy-
Failge, who is mentioned in the Annals of the Four Masters, at a.d. 1014 ; and had
their chief fortress at Dangan (now called Philipstown, in the King's County), and
several castles in other parts of that county and in Kildare. They maintained their
independence and large possessions down to the reigu of Elizabeth, after which their
estates were confiscated. 4. CMordha or O'Moore, princes of Laoighis or Leix, were

Rings, King of Leinster, son of Cahir Mor, Monarch of Ireland in the second century. The territory of
Hy-Failgre possessed by the posterity of Ross Fail<,'e, comprised almost the whole of the present King's
County, with some adjoining parts of Kildare and Queen's County; and afterwards, under the
C'Connors (who were the head family of the descendants of Ross Failge, and styled princes of Offaley),
this territorj' appears to have comprised the present baronies of Warrenstown and Coolestovvn, and the
jnreater pirt of Philipstown, and part of Geashill, all in the King's County, with the barony of Tine-
hinch, in the Queen's County, and those of East and West " Offaley," in Kildare ; in which the ancient
name of this principality is still retained.

Leix.— In the latter end of the first century, the people of Jlunster made war on Cucorb, King of
Leinster, and conquered that province as far as the hill of Maistean, now Mullaghmast, in the county
Kildare ; but Cucorb having appointed as commander-in-chief of his forces, Lugaid Laighis, a famous
warrior, who was grandson to the renowned hero Conall Cearnach or Conall the Victorious, chief of the
Red Branch Knights of Ulster, both armies fought two terrific battles, about a.d. 90 : one at Athrodan,
now Athy, iu Kildare, and the other at Cainthine on Magh Riada, now the plain or heath of Mary-
borough, in the Queen's Countv ; in which the men of Leinster were victorious, having routed the
Munster troops from the hill of "Maistean across the river Bearbha (now the " Barrow"), and pursued
the remnant of their forces as far as Slieve Dala mountain or Ballach Mdr, in Ossory, near Borris in
Ossory, on the borders of Tipperary and Queen's County. Being thus reinstated in his Kingdom of
Leinster, chiefly through the valour of Luguid Laighis, Cucorb conferred on him a territory, which he
named Lanifjhise or the "Seven districts of Laighis :" a name anglicised " Lei<e" or " Leix," and still
retained in the name " Abbeyleix." This territory was possessed by Lugaid Laighis and his posterity,
who were stjled princes of Leix; and his descendants, on the introduction of sirnames, took the name
O'Mordha or O'Morra (anglicised " O'Moore"), and for many centuries held their rank as princes of
Leix. The territory of Leix, under the O'Moores, comprised the present baronies of Maryboro',
Cullinagh, Ballj-adams, Stradbally, and part of t'ortnehinch, In the Queen's County ; together with Athy,
and the adjoining country in Kildare, now the baronies of Narragh and Rheban. The other parts of the
Queen's County, as already shown, formed parts of other principalities ; the barony of Upper Ossory
belonged to Ossory; Tinehinch, to Offaley ; part of Portnehinch, to O'Dempsey of Clan Maliere ; and
the baronj' of Slievemarg}^ was part of Hy-Kinselagh.

The territories of Ossory, Offaley, and Leix, are connected with many of the earliest events recorded
in Irish history: according to our ancient annalists a great battle was fought between the Nemedians
and Fomorians at Sliabh Bladhma, now the " Slievebloom" mountains, on the borders of the King's and
Queen's Counties. Heremon and Heber Fionn, sons of Milesius, having contended for the sovereignty
of Ireland, fought a great battle at Geisiol, now " Geashill," in the King's County ; in which the forces
of Heber were defeated, and he himself slain ; by which Heremon became the first sole Milesian Monarch
of Ireland. Heremon had his chief residence and fortress at Airgiodros, near the river Feoir, now the
" Nore ;" and this royal residence was also called Rath Beathach, and is now known as " Rathbeagh," near
Freshford, in the county Kilkenny. Heremon died at Rathbeagh, and was buried in a sepulchral mound
which still remains. It appears that other kings of Ireland in eariy times also resided there ; for it is
recorded that Ruraighe Mor, who was the 86th Monarch of Ireland, died at Airgiodros. Conmaol or
Jonmalius (No. 38. page 63), son of Heber Fionn, was the first Monarch of Ireland of the race of Heber ;
10 fought many great battles for the crown with the race of Heremon, particularly a great battle at
3}ea8hill, where Palpa, a son of Heremon, was slain.

Kilkenny was, out of the greater part of Ossory, formed into a county, in the reigp of King John ;
ind 80 called from its chief town ; the name of which, in Irish Cill Chainnigh (signifying the Church of
;!anice or Kenny), was derived from Cainneach, a celebrated saint who founded the first church there in
ixe latter end of the sixth century.

King's and Queen's Counties.— The greater part of the principality of Leix, with parts of Ossory

Offaiey, were formed into the Queen's County ; and the greater viart of the principality of Hy-Falgia
>r Ofifaley, with parts of Ely O'Carroll and of the ancient Kingdom of Meath, was formed into the
Cing's County— both in the sixteenth century, a.d. 1557, by the i:arl of Sussex, lord deputy in the reign
•f Philip and Mary, after whom they were called the King's and Queen's Counties ; and hence the chief
own of the King's County got the name of " Philipstown," and that of the Queen's County

* Giolla Padruig : Some of the descendants of this Giolla Padruig (or Padraig) have anglicised their
uue Stapleton.


marshals and treasurers of^ Leinster ; and had their chief fortress at Dunamase, a few-
miles from Maryboro', erected on a rock situated on a hill : a place of almost impreg-
nable strength, of which some massive ruins still remain. Like other independent
princes, as the O'Reillys of Brefney, the O'Tooles of Wicklow, etc,, the O'Moores
coined their own money ; and it is stated in Sir Charles Coote's *' Survey of the
Queen's Covmty," that some of the silver coins of the O'Moores were in his time extant.
5. O'Diomosaigli or O'Dempsey, lords of Clan Maoilughra or "Clanmaliere," were a
branch of the race of Cahir Mor, and of the same descent as the O'Connors Failej' ; and
were sometimes styled princes and lords of Clanmaliere and Offaley. The O'Dempseys
had their chief castle at Geashill in the King's County, and, among many others in that
county, had one in the barony of Offaley in Kildare, and one at Ballybrittas, in the
barony of Portnehinch, in the Queen's County. 6. Q"Duinn, Q'Dunn, or O'Dunne,
chiefs of Hy-Riagain [O'Regan], now the barony of Tinehinch in the Queen's County ;
some of the O'Dunns have changed the name to Doyne. 7. Q'Riagain or O'Regan were,
it appears, the ancient chiefs of Hy-Riagain, and who gave its name to that territory ;
which is still retained in the name of the parish of " Oregon" or Rosenallis, in the
barony of Tinehinch. Of the ancient clan of the O'Regans was Maurice Regan,
secretary to Dermod MacMorrough, king of Leinster ; and who wrote an account of
the Anglo-Norman invasion under Strongbow and his followers, which is published in
Harris's Hihernica. 8. Q'Brogliarain (anglicised Broghan, and Brougham) are given by
O'Dugan as chiefs of the same territory as O'Dunn and O'Dempsey. 9. O'Haongusa or
O'Hennesy, chiefs of Clar Colgan ; and O'Haimirgin, chiefs of Tuath Geisille : the
districts of these two chiefs appear from O'Dugan to have been situated about Geashill
and Croghan, in the baronies of Geashill and Philipstown, in the King's County.
Another O'Hennessy is mentioned by O'Dugan as chief of Galinga Beag [Beg], now the
parish of Gallon, in the barony of Garrycastle. 10. CMaolchein (anglicised Whitehead),
chiefs of Tuath Damhuighe, signifying the Land of the Oxen, or of the two plains : a
district which appears to have adjoined that of O'Hennesy. 11. O'Maolmuaidli or
O'Molloy, princes of Fear Ceall or the territory comprised in the present baronies of
Eglish or "Fearcall," Ballycowan, and Ballyboy, in the King's County ; and formed
originall)' a part of the ancient kingdom of Meath. The O'Molloys were of the southern
Hy-Niall race or Clan Colman. 12, The O'Carrolls, princes of Ely O'Carroll, possessed,
as already mentioned, the barony of Lower Ormond in Tipperary, and those of Clonlisk
and Bally britt in the King's County ; and had their chief castle at Birr or Parsonstown.
13. MacCochlain or CogMan, princes of Dealbhna Earthra [Delvin Ahra], or the present
barony of Garrycastle in the King's County ; and O'IMaollughach, chiefs of the Brogha,
a district which appears to have adjoined MacCoghlan's territory, and was probably
part of the barony of Garrycastle, in the King's County, and of Clonlonan in West-
meath. The MacCoghlans were of the race of the Dalcassians, same as the O'Briens,
kings of Munster. 14. O'Sionnaigh or Fox, a lord of Teffia or Westmeath. O'Dugan in
his Topography gives O'Catharnaigh as head prince of Teffia : hence the name
Sionnaigh has been rendered " Catharnaigh" [Kearney]. The chief branch of this
family took the name of Sionnach O'Catharnaigh, and, the word " sionnach" signifying
a fox, the family name became " Fox ;" and the head chief was generally designated An
Sionnach or The Fox. They were of the race of the southern Hy-Niall ; and their
territory was called Muintir Tadhgain, which contained parts of the baronies of Rath-
conrath and Clonlonan in Westmeath, with part of the barony of Kilcourcy in the
King's County. In the reign of Queen Elizabeth the Foxes got the title of lords of
Kilcourcy. 15. MacAmhalgaidli (MacAuley, Magauley, or MacGawley), chiefs ol
Calraidhe-an-Chala or Calry of the Ports : a territory which comprised the present
parish of Ballyloughloe, in the barony of Clonlonan in Westmeath. The " ports" here
alluded to were those of the Shannon, to which this ]'arish extends. 16. O'Gormain
(anglicised MacGorman, O'Gorman, and Gorman), chiefs of Crioch mBairce, now the
barony of Slievemargue in the Queen's County. The O' Germans were of the race ol
Daire Barach, son of Cahir Mor, Monarch of Ireland in the second century ; and some
of them settled in the county Clare, where they had large possessions. 17. O'Dnibh or
O'DufF, chiefs of Hy-Criomthan : a district about Dun Masc or "Dunamase," which
comprised the greater part of the two baronies of Maryboro' in the Queen's County.
18. MacFiodhbliuidlie, MacAodhbhuidhe [mac-ee-boy], or " MacEvoy," chiefs of Tuath-
Fiodhbhuidhe : a district or territory which appears to have been situated in the barony
of Stradbally, in the Queen's Coimty. The MacEvoys were of the Oian CoUa ol
Ulster; and also possessed a territory in Teffia, called* f7j Mac Uais (signifying the



descendants of King Colla Uais), now the barony of "Moygoish" in the county West-
ineath. Some of this family have anglicised the name *' MacVeigh" and " MacVeagh."
19. O'Ceallaigh or O'Kelly, chiefs of Magh Druchtain and of Gailine : territories situated
in the baronies of Stradbally and Ballyadams, in the Queen's County, along the river
Barrow. 20. O'CaoUaidhe or Kee]y, chief of Crioch O'Muighe, situated along the
Barrow, now probably the parish of "Tullowmoy," in the barony of Ballyadams,
Queen's County. 21. O'Leathlabhair (O'Lawlor, or Lalor) took their name from
" Lethlobbar," No. 104 on the "Lawlor" of Monaghan pedigree, who was their
ancestor. The Lawlors are therefore of the Clan Colla ; and in ancient times had
extensive possessions in Leix, chiefly in the barony of Stradbally, Queen's County. 22.
Q'Bubhlaine (or Delany, Delaune, Delane), chiefs of Tuath-an-Toraidh ; and a clan of
note in the barony of Upper Ossory, Queen's County, and also in Kilkenny. 23.
O'Bracnain or O'Brenan, chiefs of Hy-Duachor Idoagh, now the barony of Fassadining,
in Kilkenny. 24. MacEraoin (Bruen or Breen), and O'Broith (O'Brit or O'Berth),
chiefs of Magh-Seadna. 25. O'Caibhdeanaicli, chiefs of Magh Arbh [Moy Arve] and
Clar Coin. The plain of Moy Arve comprised the present barony of Cranagh, in Kil-
kenny. 26. O'Gloiairn or Mac Gloiairn, anglicised MacLairn or MacLaren, chiefs of
Cullain: the name of which territory is still retained in that of the parish of " Cullan,"
barony of Kells, county Kilkenny. 27. O'Calloaidhe or Keely, chiefs of Hy-Bearchon
[Ibercon], an ancient barony (according to Seward) now joined to that of Ida in the
ccunty Kilkenny ; and the name is partially preserved in that of the parish of
"Eosbercon," in the barony of Ida. 28. O'Bruadair (O'Broderick or O'Broder), chiefs
of Ily-n-Eirc, now the barony of "Iverk," in the county Kilkenny. 29. O'Shee of
Kilkenny were some of the O'Seaghdhas, chiefs in Munster. 30. O'Byan and O'Felan
were ancient families of note in Kilkenny, as well as in Carlow, Tipperary, and Water-
ford. 31. Tighe of Kilkenny were of the ancient Irish clan of the O'Teiges, who were
chiefs of note in Wicklow and Wexford. 32. Flood of Kilkenny are of Irish descent,
though supposed to be of English origin ; as many of the ancient clans of the Maoltuiles
and of the MacThellighs (MacTuUys or Tullys) changed the name to " Flood" — thus
translating the name from the Irish "Tuile," which signifies a flood. 33. MacCoscry
or Cosgrave, ancient clans in Wicklow and Queen's County, changed their name to
" Lestrange" or *' L'Estrange." On the map of Ortelius, the O'Mooneys are placed in
the Queen's County ; and the O'Dowlings and O'Niochals or Nicholls are mentioned
by some writers as cians in the Queen's County. O'Beehan or Behan were a clan in
the King's and Queen's Counties,

(b) The New Settlej?s in Ossory, OrPALEY, A^^D Leix.

As abeady explained, the daughter of Dermod MacMurrough, King of Leinster,
having been married to Richard de Clare, earl of Pembroke, commonly called Strong-
Low, the kingdom of Leinster was conferred on Strongbow by Kiug Dermod ; and
William Marshall, earl of Pembroke, having married Isabella, daughter of Strongbow,
by his wife Eva, the inheritance of the kingdom of Leinster passed to the family of
the Marshalls, earls of Pembroke, and was possessed by the five sons of William
Marshall, who became in succession earls of Pembroke and lords of Leinster ; and on
the extinction of the male line of the Marshalls, the counties of Leinster were divided
amongst the five daughters of the said William Marshall, earl of Pembroke ; and their
descendants in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries (see Hanmer's " Chronicle,"
Baron Finglas's "Breviate of Ireland," and Harris's " Hibernica") : Joanna, the
eldest daughter of the said William Marshall, had, on the partition of Leinster, Wex-
ford allotted to her as her portion ; and being married to Warren de Montchensey,
an English baron, he, in right of his wife, became lord of Wexford, which afterwards
passed by intermarriage to the De Valences, earls of Pembroke, and lords of Wexford ;
and, in succession, to the family of Hastings, earls of Abergavenny ; and to the
TallDOts, earls of Shrewsbury, Waterford, and Wexford. Matilda or Maud, another
daughter of William Marshall, earl of Pembroke, had the county Carlow allotted to
her ; and she married Hugh Bigod, earl of Norfolk : this family became lords of
Carlow, which title, together with the county Carlow, afterwards j)assed in succession,
hy intermarriages, to the Mowbrays and Howards, earls of Norfolk. Sibilla, another
oi the daughters, got the county Kildare, and was married to William Ferrars, earl of


Ferrers and Derby, who became lord of Kildare ; a title which passed by inter-
marriage to the De Veseys. The family of the Fitzgeralds afterwards became earls of
Kildare. Isabel, another daughter of William Marshall, earl of Pembroke, had for her
portion the county Kilkenny, and was married to Gilbert de Clare, earl of Gloucester
and Hereford ; and, leaving no issue, the county Kilkenny, after his decease, fell to
his three sisters, and passed by intermarriage chiefly to the family of De Spencers,
barons De Spencer, in England, and afterwards became possessed mostly by the
Butlers, earls of Ormond. Eva, the fifth daughter of William Marshall, had, as her

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