John O'Hart.

Irish pedigrees; or, The origin and stem of the Irish nation (Volume 1) online

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portion, Leix and the manor of Dunamase or "O'Moore's Country," comprising the 5
greater part of the present Queen's County ; and having married William de Bruse, i
lord of Gower and Brecknock in Wales, he became, in right of his wife, lord of Leix ; i
and one of his daughters being married to Roger IMortimer, lord of Wigmore in Wales, jl
Leix passed to the family of Mortimer, who were earls of ]\Iarch in England. The i
King's Connty, as already stated, was formed out of parts of Offaley, Ely O'Carroll, ;
and the kingdom of iMeath ; and in the grant of Meath given by King Henry the ;:
Second to Hugh de Lacy, a great part of the present King's County was possessed by ?i
De Lacy, who built in that county the castle of Durrow, where he was slain by one of
the Irish galloglasses, as mentioned in the Annals of the Four Masters, at A.d. 1186.
The Fitzgeralds, earls of Kildare and barons of Offaley, became possessed of a great
part of the King's County ; and the family of De Hose or Hussey had part of Ely
O'Carroll, and the country about Birr.

The following have been the chief families since the English invasion in Kilkenny,
King's, and Queen's Counties.

In Kilkenny : Butler, Grace, Walsh, Fitzgerald, Roth, Archer, Cantwell,
Shortall, Purcell, Power, Morris, Dalton or D'Alton, Stapleton, Wandesford, Lawless,
Langrish. Bryan, Ponsonby, etc. The Butlers became the chief possessors of the
county Kilkenny, as earls of Ormond and Ossory, dukes of Ormond, earls of Kilkenny
and Gowran, viscounts of Galmoy, and various other titles derived from their exten-
sive estates in this county and in Tipperary. " The Graces :" An account has already
been given of Maurice Fitzgerald, a celebrated Anglo-Norman Chief who came over
with Strongbow, and was ancestor of the earls of Kildare and Desmond. William
Fitzgerald, brother of Maurice, was lord of Carew in Wales ; and the descendants of
one of his sons took the name of De Carew, and from them, it is said, are descended
the Carewsof Ireland — great families in Cork, Wexford, and Carlow. From another
of the sons of William Fitzgerald, were descended the Gerards, families of note in
Ireland. The eldest son of William Fitzgerald, called Raymond Fitzwilliam, got the
name of " Raymond le Gros," from his gi-eat s/'zeaud strength ; he was one of the most
valiant of the Anglo-Norman commanders ; was married to Basilia de Clare, sister of
Strongbow ; held the ofiSce of standard bearer of Leinster ; and was for some time
chief Governor of Ireland. Raymond died about a.d. 1184, and was buried in the
Abbey of JMolana, on the island of Darinis, on the river Blackwater, in the bay of
Youghal. Maurice, the eldest son of Raymond le Gros, was ancestor of the great j
family of the Fitzmaurices, earls of Kerry. Raymond had another son called Hamon i
le Gros, and his descendants took the name of "le Gros," or "le Gras," afterwards 1
changed to Grace. The Graces were created barons of Courtown, and held an exten-
sive territory in the county Kilkenny, called " Graces' Country ;" but, in the wars of
the Revolution, the Graces lost their hereditary estates : John Grace, the last baron
of Courtown, having forfeited thirty thousand acres of land in Kilkenny for hia
adherence to King James the Second. " The Walshes :" This family was, by the
Irish, called Branaghs, from " Breatnach," which signifies a ^n^o»; as they originally
came from Wales with Strongbow and his followers. They therefore got extensive
possessions in Waterford, Kilkenny, Wexford, and Carlow ; and held the office of
seneschals of Leinster, under the successors of Strongbow. The Butlers, viscounts of
Galmoy ; the Graces, Walshes, Roths, and Shees, lost their extensive estates in Kil-
kenny, in the war of the Revolution. The Bourkes, a branch of the Bourkes of Con-
naught, settled in Kilkenny and Tipperary ; and some of them in Kilkenny took the
name of Gaul, from " Gall," the name by which the Irish then called Englishmen ; and
from them *' Gaulstown" got its name. The Purcells were also numerous and respect-
able in Kilkenny and Tipperary ; and, in the latter county, had the title of barons <rf
Loughmoe.

In the Queen's County : The following were the chief families of English descent :
After Leix had been formed into a county, the following seven families were the chief



I



ANCIENT KINGDOM OF CONNAUGHT. 845

English settlers in the reigns of Queen Mary and Elizabeth, and were called the seven
tribes ; namely, Cosby, Barrington, Bowen, Rush, Hartpole, Hetherington, and
Hovendon ; and in the reign of Charles the First, Villiers, Duke of Buckingham, having
got extensive grants of land in the Queen's County, his lands were formed into the
"Manor of Villiers," and passed to the present dukes of Buckingham ; and after the
Cromwellian wars and the Revolution, the families of Parnell, Pole, Pigot,* Prior,
Coote, Cowley, Dawson, Despard, Vesey, Staples, Brown, Johnson, Trench, Weldon,
and Walpole, got extensive possessions.

In King's County ; Fitzgerald, Digby, Hussey, and Fitzsimon, were the chief
families before the reign of Elizabeth ; and some of the Fitzimons took the Irish name
of " MacJRuddery," from the Irish MacRidire, which signifies the Son of the Knight.
In aftertimes, the families of Armstrong, Drought, Bury, Parsons, Molesworth,
Lestrange, and Westenra, were the chief new settlers.



(c) The Modern Nobility in Ossory, Offaley and Leix.

The following have been the noble families in Kilkenny, King's and Queen'a
Counties, since the reign of King John : —

In Kilkenny : Marshall, earls of Pembroke ; De Clare, earls of Gloucester and
Hertford ; and De Spencer, as above mentioned, were all lords of Kilkenny ; Butler,
earls of Ormond and Ossory, and marquises and dukes of Ormond, earls of Kilkenny,
earls of Gowran, earls of Glengall, earls of Carrick, viscounts of Galmoy, viscounts
Mountgarrett, and barons of Kells ; Butler, earls of Ossory ; Fitzpatrick, barons of
Gowran and earls of Ossory ; Grace, barons of Courtown ; Fitzgerald, barons of
Burntchurch ; Wandesford, earls of Castlecomer ; De Montmorency, t viscounts
Montmorres and viscounts Frankfort ; Flower, barons of Castle Durrow and viscounts
Ashbrook ; Ponsonby, earls of Besborough, and viscounts Duncannon ; Agar, barons
of Callan, viscounts of Clifden, and barons of Dover ; Cufife, viscounts Castlecuffe, and
barons of Desart.

In Queen^s County : Marshall, earls of Pembroke ; De Bruce and Mortimer, as
above mentioned, were lords of Leix ; Fitzpatrick, barons of Castletown, barons of
Gowran, and earls of Upper Ossory ; Butler, barons of Cloughgrennan ; Coote, earls
of Mountrath ; Moylneux, viscounts of Maryborough and earls of Sefton, in England ;
Dawson, earls of Portarlington ; De Vesey, barons of Knapton and viscounts De Vesey
or De Vesci.

In King's County : Fitzgerald, barons of Offaley and earls of Kildare ; Digby,
barons of Geashill, and earls Digby, in England ; O'CarroU, barons of Ely ; O'Sionnagh
or Fox, barons of Kilcourcey ; O'Dempsey, barons of Philipstown and viscounts of
Clanmaliere ; Lambert, barons of Kilcourcey and earls of Cavan ; Blundell, barons of
Edenderry ; the family of Parsons, at Birr or Parsonstown, earls of Boss and barons
of Oxmantown ; Molesworth, barons of Philipstown ; Moore, barons of Tullamore ;
Bury, barons of Tullamore and earls of Charleville; Toler, earls of Norbury and
viscounts Glandine ; Westenra, barons of Rossmore.



VI.— TITE ANCIENT KINGDOM OF CONNAUGHT.J

Roderick O'Connor, the last Milesian Monarch of Ireland, after having reigned
twenty years, abdicated the throne, a.d. 1186, and, after a religious seclusion of thirteen

* Pigot : According to some authorities, it was in the reign of Queen Elizabeth that the " Pigott"
family came to the Queen's County.

t Montmorency: In p. 135, Vol. I., of the "De la Ponce MSS.," are given twenty-seven generations
of this family : commencing with Bouchard I., who d. a.u. 984, and ending with Hervey, who d. 1840.

t Connaught : According to Keating and O'Flaherty, Connaught derived its name either from
" Con," one of the chief Druids of the Tua-de-Danans, or from Conn Ceadcatha (Conn of the Hundred
Battles), Monarch of Ireland, in the second century, and of the line of Heremon (see No. 80, page 358),
whose posterity possessed the country ; the word iacht or iocht, signifying children or posterity, and



846 IRISH PEDIGREES.

years in the monastery of Cong, in the county Mayo, died, a.d. 119S, in the 82nd year
of his age ; and was buried in Clonmacnoise, in the same sepulchre with his father,
Torlogh O'Connor, the 181st Monarch of Ireland. In the chronological poem on the
Christian Kings of Ireland, written in the twelfth century, is the following stanza: —

" Ocht m-Bliadhna agus deich Ruadri an Ei,

Mac Toirdhealbhaidh an t-Ard Ri,
Flaith na n-Eirend : gan fhell,

Ei deighneach deig Eirenn."

Anglicised —

" Eighteen years the IMonarch Roderick,

Son of Torlogh, supreme sovereign,
Ireland's undisputed ruler.
Was fair Erin's latest king."

— CONNELLAN.

According to the Four Masters, Eoierick O'Connor, reigned as Monarch for F
twenty years : from a.d. 1166 to a.d. 1186.



l.-MAYO AND SLIGO.

{a) The Irish Chiefs and Clans.

The following chiefs and clans and the territories they possessed in the twelfth
century, in the present counties of Sligo and Mayo, have been collected from O'Dugan

hence *' Coniacht," the ancient name of Connaught, means the territory possessed by the posterity of
Conn.

The ancient kingdom of Connaught comprised the present counties of Galway, Mayo, Sligo, Roscom-
mon, and Leitrim, together with Clare, now in Munster, and Cavan, now a part of Ulster ; and was
divided into Tuaisceart Conacht or Xorth Connaught, Deisceart Coaacht or South Connaught, and lar
Conacht or West Connaught. North Connaught was also called lachtar Conacht or Lower Connaught ;
as was South Connaught called Uachtar Conacht or Upper Connaught.

North Connaught is connected with some of the earliest events in Irish history. According to our
ancient annalists, it was in the time of Partholan or Bartholinus, who planted the first colony in Ireland,
that the lakes called Lough Conn and Lough Mask in Mayo, and Lough Gara in Sligo, on the borders of
Roscommon, suddenly burst forth ; and in South Connaught, according to O'Flaherty, the lakes called
Lough Cime (now Lough Hackett), LoughjRiadh or Loughrea, and some other lakes in the county Galway,
and also the river Suck between Roscommon and Galway, first began to flow in the time of Heremon,
Monarch of Ireland, No. 37, page 351 ; and Lough Key in Moj^lurg, near Boyle in the county Roscommon,
first sprang out in the reisn of the Monarch Tiernmas, No. 41, page 352. On the arrival of the colony
of the Firvolgians in Ireland, a division of them landed on the north-western coast of Connaught, in one
of the bays, now called Blacksod or the Broadhaven. These Firvolgians were named Fir-D)mhnan or
Damnonians: and the country where they landed was called larras, or larras Domhnan, (from " iar,"
the west, and " ros," a, promontory ox peninsula, signifying the western promontory or peninsula of the
Damnonians) : a term exactly corresponding with the topographical features of the country ; and to the
present day the name has been retained in that of the half barony of " Erris," in the county Mayo.
When the Tua-de-Danans, who conquered the Firvolgians, first invaded Ireland, they landed in Lister,
and proceeded thence to Slkve-an- Larain (or the Iron Mountain], in Brefney, and thenceforward into
the territory of Connaught. The Firvolgians having collected their forces to oppose their progress, a
desperate battle was fought between them at a place" called Magh Tuireadh or the Plain of the Tower,
in which the Firvolgians were totally defeated— ten thousand of them being slain, together with
Eochad, son of Eire their king, who was buried, on the sea-shore : a cairn of large stones being erected
over him as a sepulchral monument, which remains to this day. This place is on the strand, near BaUy-
sodare in the county of Sligo, and was called Traigh-an-Chairn or the Strand of the Cairn. After a
few more battles, the De-Danans became possessors of Ireland, which they ruled until the arrival of
the Milesians, who conquered them ; and in their turn became masters of Ireland. The Firvolgians,
having assisted the Milesians in the conquest of the Tua-de-Danans, were, in consequence, restored by
the Milesians to a great part of their former possessions, particularly in Connaught ; in which province
they were ruled by their own kings of the Firvolgian race down to the third century, when the Monarch
Cormac Mac Art, of the Heremon line, brought them under subjection, and annexed Connaught to his
kingdom. The Firvolgians appear to have been an athletic race ; and the " Clan-na-Moma" of Connaught,
under their Firvolgian chief, GoU, son of Morna, are celebrated in the Ossianic poems and ancient annals
as famous warriors in the third century. Many of the Firvolgian race are still to be found in Connaught,
but blended by blood and intermarriages with the Milesians. The Tua-de-Danans were originally
Scythians, who had settled some time in Greece, and afterwards migrated to Scandinavia or the coun-
tries now forming Norway, Sweden, and Denmark. From Scandinavia (the " Fomoria" of the ancient
Irish) the De-Danans came to North Britain where thev settled colonies, and thence passed into Ireland.
It appears that the Danans were a highly civilized people, skilled in the arts and sciences : hence they



ANCIENT KINGDOM OF CONNAUGHT. 847

and other authorities : — 1. O'Maolcluiclie or Mulcloliy {doch : Irish, a stone), chief of
Cairbre, now the barony of Carbery, in the county Sligo. This name has been angli-
cised "Stone" and " Stoney." 2. MacDiarmada or MacDermott, chief of Tir Oliolla,
now the barony of Tirerill, in the county Sligo. The MacDermotts were also princes
of Moylurg, in the county Roscommon, in South Connaught. They afterwards
became princes of Coolavin, as successors to the O'Garas, lords of Coolavin ;
and to the present day, as the only family of the Milesian Clans who have
preserved their ancient titles, retain the title of " Prince of Coolavin." (See
the "MacDermott" pedigree.) 3. MacDoncliaidh or MacDonogli, a branch of the
MacDermotts, afterwards chiefs of Tirerill and of Corran, now the barony of
*' Corran" in Sligo. O'Donchathaigh is given by O'Dugan as a chief in Corran ;
this name has been anglicised O'Donogh. 4. O'Dubhalen or O'Devlin, another chief
in Corran. 5. O'Headhra or O'Hara, chief of Luighne, now the barony of "Lieney"
in the county Sligo ; but Lieney anciently comprised part of the baronies of Costello and
Gallen in Mayo. The O'Haras were descended from Olioll Glum, King of Munster in
the third century. In the reigns of Queen Anne and George the First, the O'Haras
were created " Barons of Tirawley and Kilmain," in the county Mayo. 6. O'Gadhraor
O'Gara, given by O'Dugan as chief of Lieney, but io aftertimes Lord of Cuil-O^hh-fionn,
now the barony of "Coolavin," was of the same stock as the O'Haras and O'Briens,
kings of Thomond. 7. O'Ciernacliain or Kernlghan and O'Huathmharain (O'Horan or
O'Haran), other chiefs in Lieney. 8. O'Muiredhaigh or O'Murray, chief of Ceara, now
the barony of " Carra," in the county Mayo ; and also chief of the Lagan, a district
in the northern part of the barony of Tirawley, in Mayo. 9. O'Tighearnaigh or
O'Tlerney, a chief in Carra. 10. O'Gormog (modernized O'Gorman), another chief in
Carra. 11. O'Maille or O'Malley, chief of Umhall, which O'Dugan states was divided
into two territories. This territory, whose name is sometimes mentioned as Umalia
and Hy-Malia, comprised the present baronies of Murrisk and ''Burrishoole," in the

were considered as magicians. O'Brien, in his learned work on the "Round Towers of Ireland," con-
siders that these beautiful structures were built by the Tua-de-Danans, for purposes connected with pagan
worship and astronomical observations : an opinion very probable when it is considered that they were
highly skilled in architecture and other arts, from their long residence in Greece and intercourse viith
the Phoenicians. It is stated that Orbsen, a chief descended from the Danans and Fomorians, was a
famous merchant, and carried on a commercial intercouse between Ireland and Britain ; and that he
was killed by Uillinn of the Red Brows, another De-Danan chief, in a battle called, from that circum-
stance, Magh Uillinn or the Plain of Uillinn, now the barony of " Moycullen," (in the county Galway.
In South Connaught, the territory which forms the present county Clare was taken from Connaught in
the latter part of the third century, and added to part of Limerick, under the name of Tuadh-Mumhain
or North Munster (a word anglicised " Thomond") ; of which the O'Briens, of the Dalcassian race, became
Kings.

Cormac Mac Art, the celebrated Monarch of Ireland in the second century, was born in Corran at
the place called Ath-Cormac or the Ford of Cormac, near Keis-Corran (now " Keash") in the county Sligo ;
and hence he was called " Cormac of Corran."

The territory of North Connaught is connected in a remarkable manner with the mission of St.
Patrick to Ireland ; Mullagh Farry (in Irish Forrach-mhac-nAmhailgaidh\ now " Mullafarry," near
Killala, in the barony of Tyrawley, and county Mayo, is the place where St. Patrick converted to
Christianity the king or prince of that territory (Enda Crom) and his seven sons ; and baptized twelve
thousand persons in the water of a well called Tobar Enadharc. And Croagh Patrick mountain also in
Mayo, was long celebrated for the miracles it is said the saint performed there. The See of Killala waa
founded by St. Patrick.

At Cam Amhalgaidh or " Carnawley," supposed to be the hill of Mullaghcarn (where King Awley
was buried), the chiefs of the O'Dowds were inaugurated as princes of Hy-Fiachra ; while, according to
other accounts they were inaugurated on the hill of Ardnaree, nearjBallina. This principality of Northern
Hy-Fiachra comprised the present counties of Mayo and Sligo, and a portion of Galway ; while the
territory of Hy-Fiachra, in the county Galway was called the Southern Hy-Fiachra or Hy-Fiachra
Aidhne : so named after Eogan Aidhne, son of Dathi, the last pagan Monarch of Ireland, who was
killed by lightning at the foot of the Alps. a.d. 429. This territory of Hy-Fiachra Aidhne was
co-extensive \vith the present diocese of Kilmacduagh ; and was possessed by the descendants of Eoghan
Aidhne, the principal of whom were— O'Heyne or Hynes, O'Clery, and O'Shaughnessy. According to
O'Dugan and MacFirbis, fourteen of the race of Hy-Fiachra were kings of Connaught : some of whom
had their chief residence in Aidhne, in Galway ; others at Ceara, now the barony of " Carra" in Maj'o ;
and some on the plain of the Muaidhe or the (river) Moy, in Sligo. O'Dubhda or O'Dowd were head chiefs
of the northern Hy-Fiachra, and their territory comprised nearly the whole of the present county Sligo,
with the greater part of Mayo. Many of the O'Dowds, even down to modern times, were remarkable for
their great strength and stature. (See the " O'Dowd" pedigree.)

Cruaghan orCroa^han, near Eiphin in the county Roscommon, became the capital of Connaught
and the residence of its ancient kings ; and the estates of Connaught held conventions there to make
laws and inaugurate their kings. At Cruaghan was the burial place of the pagan kings of Connaught,
called Reilig na Riogh or The Cemetery of the kings ; here Dathi, the last pagan Monarch of Ireland, was
buried ; and a large red pillar-stone erected over his grave remains to this day. A poem, giving an account
Of the kings and queens buried at Cruaghan, waa composed byToma Eigeaa or Torna, the learned, chief



848 IRISH PEDIGREES.

county Mayo. The O'Malleys are of the same descent as the O'Connors, Kings of
Connaught ; and seem to have been great mariners. Of them O'Dugan says : —

" A good man yet there never was
Of the O'Malleys, who was not a mariner ;
Of every weather ye are prophets ;
A tribute of brotherly affection and of friendship."

Of this family was the celebrated heroine Graine-Ni-Mhaille [Grana Wale] or Grace
O'Malley, widow of O'Flaherty, wife of Rickard an larain Bourke, and daughter of
the chief " O'Malley" (see the "Bom^kes," Lords Viscounts Mayo, pedigree) ; who,
in the reign of Elizabeth, commanded her fleet in person, performed many remarkable
exploits against the English. 12. O'Talcharain, chief of Conmaicne Guile, now the
barony of Kilmain, co. Mayo. The following chiefs and clans, not given in O'Dugan,
have been collected from other sources : — 1. O'Caithniadh (or O'Catney), chief of
lorras, now the barony of '' Erris," in ]Mayo. 2, Q'Ceallachain or O'Callaghan, chiefs
in Erris ; this family was not of the O'Callaghans of Munster. 3. O'Caomhain (see
the "Cowan" pedigree), a senior branch of the O'Dowd family, and chiefs of some
districts on the borders of Sligo and Maj^o, in the baronies of Tireragb, Corran, and
Uostello. 4. Q'Gaibhtheacliain or O'Gaughan ; and O'MaoilfMona or O'Molina, chiefs
of Calraighe Moy Heleog — a district comprising the parish of "Crossmolina," in the
barony of Tyrawley, and county Mayo. 5. O'Gairmiallaigli or O'Garvaly, and
O'Dorchaidhe or O'Dorchy, chiefs of Partraigh or Partry ; an ancient territory at the
Partry Mountains in Mayo, the situation of which the present parish of "Party"
determines (see the " Darcy" pedigree). 6. O'Lachtnain or Loughnan (by some of the
family anglicised " Loftus"), chiefs of the territory called " The Two Bacs," now the
parish of ^BaclzB, situated between Lough Conn and the river Moy, in Mayo. 7. O'Maol-

bard to the Monarch Niall of the Nine Hostages, in the fourth century, of the commencement of which
the following is a translation :

•* Under thee lies the fair king of the men of Fail,

Dathi, son of Fiachra, man of fame :

O ! Cruacha (Cruaghan), thou hast this concealed

From the Galls and the Gaels."

The " Gaels" here mean the Irish themselves ; and the " Galls" mean all foreigners, as the Danes,
the Britons, etc. In the first line of the quotation Ireland is called Fail, as Inis Fail (signifying Insula
Fatalis or the Island of Destiny) : a name given to Ireland by the Tua-de-Danans, from a remarkable i
stone called the Lia Fail (signifying Lapis Fatalis, Saxum Fatale)or Stone of Destiny, which they brought )
with them into Ireland. This Lia Fail is believed to be the stone or pillar on which Jacob rested ; and 1
sitting on which the ancient kings, both of the De Danan and Milesian race in Ireland, were crowned at
Tara. This stone was sent to Scotland in the sixth century by the Monarch Murcheartach Mor Mac-
Earca, for the coronation purpose of his brother Fergus Mor MacEarca, the founder of the Scottish Mon-
archy in Scotland ; and was used for many centuries at the coronation of the Scottish kings^ and kept
at the Abbey of Scone. When King Edward the First in^■aded Scotland, he brought with him that Lia
Fail to England, and placed it under the coronation chair in Westminster Abbey, where it stUl remains ;
though it has been erroneously stated in some modern publications, that the large pillar stone which
stands on the mound or rath at Tara is the Stone of Destiny : an assertion at variance with the state-
ments of O'Flaherty, the O'Connors, and all other learned antiquarians. Three of the De Danan queens,
who gave their names to Ireland, namely, Eire (from which the name "Eirin" or " Erin" is derived), |
Fodhla, and Banba, together with their husbands, Mac Colli, Mac Cecht, and Mac Greine, the three i
Tua-de-Danan Kings slain at the time of the Milesian conquest of Ireland, were buried at Cruachan in i
Connaught. Among the Milesian kings and queens interred there, were Hugony the Great, Monarch \
of Ireland CNo. 59, p. 354) ; his daughter, the princess Muireasc ; and his son, Cobthach Caolbhreagh; ■
Bresnar Lothar (No. 73, p. 356) ; Maud (the famous queen of Connaught), Deirbhre, and Clothra— ^
sisters of Bresnar Lothar, and daughters of Eochy Feidlioch ; Conn of the Hundred Battles and the ;
other sons of Felim Kachtmar, the lOSth Monarch of Ireland ; and other kings, descendants of Conn of '
the Hundred Battles, with the exception of his son Art, the 112th Monarch (who directed that he shouW
be buried at Trevet in Meath) , and of Art's son Cormac, the famous Monarch of Ireland in the 3rd century,
who was buried at PvOS-na-Eiogh (now Pvosnaree or Rosnari), near Slane in the county Meath. Accord-
ing to the "Book of Ballymote," this King Cormac, who had some knowledge of Christianity, gave