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The desolation, but a Christian King ;
While nothing but the name of Zeal appears
'Twixt our best actions and the worst of theirs,
What must he think, our sacrilege would spare,
When such the effects of our devotion are."



CHAP. I.] ENGLISH INVASION OF IRELAND. 793

i And the next entry asserts that in 432 Saint Patrick came from Eome to
Ireland :

"A.D. 432. S. Patricius venit ad Hiberniam a Roma."

Later on in those Annals it is stated that, in 1142, the Abbey of Mellifont,
in the county Louth, then known as the Kingdom of Uriel, was founded :

"A.D. 1142. Mellifons fundatur."

In page 48 of E. 3. 10, the following passage occurs :

"Apud Johannem Rossum Warricensem, De Terris Coronse Anglicae Annexis,
sxtat Declaratio quomodo Dominum Hibernise ad Coronam Anglicse devotutum, P.
Adrianus (inquit.) Anno Dom. 1150 (1155, legend, ex. Mart*^. Paris, et Rob^. de Monte)
. . concessit Regi Anglicse Henrico Secundo Conquisitionem Hibernise ....
Dujus . . . potestatem, causamet modum in Bulla sua ad Regem directa exprimit
n his verbis : Adrianus, Servus Servorum Dei, Legibur Papale hoc Diploma, apud
Jirald. Cambr. De Expng. Hiberniae, Lib. 2. Cap. 6. (pa2;.787, Edit. Camden) . . .
5t a Vernaculis Annalib. Johannis Stowe, ubi ex MS", quo ille usus, ut Girald.
IJambrensis exemplari .... Diplomati huic subjiciuntur, Orabo Dominica et
iymbolum Apostolicum Anglicana lingua descripta, et Adrianus (ut videtur) populares
uos transmissa."

And we have it on the authority of Mathew Parker, Archbishop of
Canterbury, that Cardinal Pole, in a speech delivered by him in the
Parliament of Westminster, announced that Pope Adrian, " led by his
ove of country," granted the Sovereignty (Imperium) of Ireland to Henry
lL, King of England :

'*Hlnc Cardinalis Polus in Oratione quam in patria lingua Westmonsterii in
Parliamento habuit, dixit : Hadrianum Quartum Papam fuisse Angln. qui Noriegiam
)rimus Christiana fide imbuit, amore que patriae ductus, Imperium Hibernise, quae
Pontificise ditionis fuerat, Henrico Secundo Anglorum Rege concessit." ( Ut est apud
^at. Farker, in Cant. Archiep. Hisfor., pag. 415. Lib. 33.)

Acting, however, under the advice of his Mother, the Princess Maude,
Senry II. did not for many years advance any pretensions to the sovereignty
)f Ireland, under the Papal grant. But, a.d. 1167, occurred a plausible
)pportunity for realizing the dream of his life — the Annexation of Ireland
io England ; when, unhappily, Celt was pitted against Celt, on account of
ihe abduction* of the unfortunate Dearvorgal (" dear :" Irish, a daughter ;
'forgil," purely /air), the wife of Tiernan O'Kourke (No. 112 on the

* Abduction : The Dearvorgal here mentioned was daughter of Murcha, the last
Jing of Meath. In his Irish Melodies, in " The Song of O'Ruarc," Thomas Moore
ommemorates that event of melancholy importance to Ireland ; of that song the
ollowing is a stanza :

" There was a time, falsest of women !

When Breflfni's good sword would have sought
That man, through a million of foemen,

Who dared but to doubt thee in thought t
While now O degenerate daughter

Of Erin, how fallen is thy fame !
And through ages of bondage and slaughter,

Our country shall bleed for tby shame."



i



794 IRISH PEDIGREES. [PART V.

'* O'Rourke" pedigree, Prince of "West Brefney, by Dermod MacMorough
King of Leinster, which led in that year to the invasion of Dermod's
Kingdom by the Irish Monarch, Eoderick O'Connor, King of Connaught,
who espoused the cause of O'Eourke. Defeated by the Irish Monarch
King Dermod fled to England, to invoke the aid of Henry II. ; offering
to become his liegeman if Henry would assist him :

"A.D. 11G7. Diarmicius, Rex Laginise (Leinster), transfretavit in Anglia ad
adducendos Angliccs."

On receiving Dermod's Oath of Allegiance, Henry II. granted a general
licence to all his English subjects to aid King Dermod in the recovery of
his Kingdom. Dermod then eniraged in his cause Eichard de Clare, com-
monly known as " Stron»bow,"t through whose influence an army was
raised, headed by Eobert Fitzstephen, Myler Fitzhenry, Harvey de Monte
Marisco, Maurice Prendergast, Maurice Fitzgerald, and others; who
in May, 1168, landed in Ireland, in Bannow, in the county Wexford (a
portion of Dermod's Kingdom) :

"A.D. 1168. Circa Kal. Mali appiircerunt Anglici primoapud Bannam."

When, to relieve Fitzstephen, Strongbow was marching to the town
of Wexford, through the barony of Idroue, he was confronted and briskly
assaulted by O'Eian, Chief of that territory ; but O'Eian being slain by
an arrow, shot at him by Nichol the Monk, O'Eian's troops were scattered
and many of them slain. It was there that Strongbow's only son, a
youth about seventeen years old, frighted with the numbers, ululations,
and prowess of the Irish troops, ran away from the battle and made
towards Dublin ; but, being informed of his father's victory, the son came
back to congratulate him. Strongbow, however, having first reproached
his son with cowardice, caused liim to be immediately executed, by cutting
him ofi" in the middle with a sword. The epitaph on Strongbow and his
son in Christ Church Dublin, is as follows :

"Nate ingrate mihi pugnauti terga dedisti ; Non mihi sed genti Regno qucque-
terga dedisti."

St. Thomas a-Beckett, Archbishop of Canterbury, was, in 1170,.
assassinated ; at the instance, it was said, of King Henry II., who, tol
divert public attention in England from that crime, then prepared to^
advance his claim to Ireland, under the Papal grant :

" A.D. 1170. "Martyr, est B. Thomas, Cant. Archiep."

Accordingly, King Henry lost no time in conveying through his friends to |
the Irish people the knowledge of the Papal grant with respect to Ireland
conferred on him by Adrian lY. ; for, Henry by that time knew how-^
hopeless it was for him to expect the conquest of Ireland Y^y force of arms,"
and he well knew that, in their deep veneration for the Pope, the Irish
would consider it a grievous crime to combat Papal Authority, on the
subject, even though that authority had unjustly deprived them of their
country and their liberty. However, Henry, in 1171, sent over Strongbow
with two thousand soldiers and other warriors ; to assist, so far as the

t Strongbow : See Paper, headed " Strongbow," in the Appendix to Vol. II.



flAP. I.] ENGLISH INVASION OF IRELAND. 795

isplay of a military force could do so, in the promulgation in Ireland
: Pope Adrian's Bull :

"A.D. 1171. Eichardus StrongLow Comes Pembrochi^ intravit Hiberniam in

000 militib. et aliis bellatoribus."

nd afterwards, in the same year, King Henry II., himself, with great
Dmp and ceremony, came into Ireland :

*' A.D. 1171. Henricus Rex Anglise in Hiberniam venit."

The promulgation in Ireland of Pope Adrian's Bull acted as a Spell

1 the Irish people ; for, says Prendergast* —

" The English coming in the name of the Pope, with the aid of the bishops . . .
ere accepted by the Irish. Xeilher King Henry the Second nor King John ever
ught a battle in Ireland."

In obedience to the Bullf of Pope Adrian IV. (and believing the
romises of King Henry II., that he only desired the annexation of Ireland
England, but in no instance to disturb or dispossess any of the Irish
:ings. Chiefs, or people), the States (Ordines) of Ireland; Eoderick
'Connor, Monarch of Ireland: Dermod MacCarthy, King of Cork;
onal O'Brien, King of Limerick ; O'Carroll, King of Uriel ; MacShaghlin,
ing of Offaley ; O'Rouike, King of West Brefney ; O'NeilhJ King of
Ister, and all their Nobles, did, in 1172, under their Signs Manual,
ansfer to King Henry the Second of England all their Authority
mperium) and Power :

"Recitato P. Adriani Diplomate, subdit Johannes Rossus : Eex ergo Henricus
rca Festum S. MichaeHs, Winton Parhamento de conquirenda Hiberuia cum suis
)timatibus tractavit . . . Sed ex consilio Matris ejus Matildis Imperatricis res m
iud tempus dilata . . . Anno postea 1172=. omne imperium suum et potestatem in
enricum Secundum transtulerunt Eibernise Ordines; Pvothericus O'Conor Dun,
iberniae Monarcba; Dermot Mac Cartye, Rex Corcagii ; Donald O'Bren, Rex
Imerici ; O'Carol, Rex Urielre ; MaclShaghlin, Rex Ophalite ; O'Rork, Rex Brefnise ;
'Neal, Rex Ultonise ; proceres que reliqui et populns ipsorum, Chartis subsignatis,
•aditis, ad Romam transmissis." {Camden pag. 731, ex Girald. Camb. etMS.^ pere
vronem Houth.)

''Johannes Hardingus in Chronicis suis, Cap. 132=, hac de re in hunc modum
dbit :"

** The King Henry then conquered all Ireland

By Papal dome, there of his royaltee

The Profytes and revenues of tbe lande

The Dominacion and the Soverayntee
Jm . For ewour which against the spirituallee

B They held full long, and would not be connecte

■ "With heresyes, with which they were infacte."

B* Prendergast : See Prendergast's " Cromwellian Settlement of Ireland" (Dublin ;
Pllashan and Gill, 1875).

t Bull: That such a Bull ever existed is sometimes disputed ; but, unfortunately,
1 is but too true that Adrian IV., in the exercise of his temporal power as Pope, did
iBtie a Bull annexing the Kingdom of Ireland to the Crown of England. (See the
•oper headed " The Invasion of Ireland by Bruce," in the Appendix to Vol. II.)

X O'Neill : It is right to mention that this statement relating to O'Neill, King of
later, is disputed. We, however, give the statement as we found it in the MS. Volume
'oUectanea Bibernice, marked E. 3.10 in the Library of T.C.D., Dublin.



796 IRISH PEDIGREES. [PART V

Et Cap. 241°. Rego Edwardi jus ad dominia sua breviter explicans :

" To Ireland also, by^ King Henry le Fytz of Maude, daughter of firste Kinj
Henry that conquered it, for theyr great heresye."

Harding, in the two foregoing Extracts, says that (1) Henry " conquere(
all Ireland by Papal dome ;" and (2) that he " conquered it, for theyr grea
heresye." But, in Ireland, there was no " heresye" (in the religious sens(
of the term) then known ; unless indeed that the refusal of some o
the Irish Kings and Princes to acknowledge the right of Pop'
Adrian IV. to transfer their sovereignty to King Henry II., may have beei
considered a '• heresy !" In the military sense of the term, ther<
never was a conquest of Ireland by King Henry the Second of England.

It will be seen that the name of Murcha O'Melaghlin, the last Kinj
of Meath, was not amongst the signatures above mentioned as sent t(
Rome (Chartis subsignatis, oraditis, ad Romam transmissis), notifyinc
Pope Adrian IV. of their assent to his transfer of their respective
sovereignties to King Henry II. ; for, while second to none in thei
veneration for the Pontiff, and their zeal for the advancement of th'
Christian religion, Murcha* and his Xobility could not recognize in Pop
Adrian IV. any authority to transfer to King Henry II., or to any othe
foreign potentate, the sovereignty of their kingdom, and, with thei:
sovereignty, the power of dispossessing themselves and their people o
their ancient patrimonies.

But Henry II. had his revenge ; for one of his first public acts ir
Ireland was to depose King Murcha, confiscate his and most of his nobles
patrimonies, and confer on Hugh de Lacy the Kingdom of Meath : as
nucleus for an English Plantation of Ireland. That kingdom afterward
formed the principal portion of the English Pale.f In 1172, King Henn
II. landed at Waterford with five hundred horsemen, to enter intu
possession of the Kingdom of Ireland, under the Papal grant ; and, in tha
year also, Murcha (called in State Papers Murchard), the last King o
Meath, died of a broken heart •.%

" A.D. 1172. Henricus Rex cum 500 equitibus Waterfordia. Fraiectis tot
Middia Hugoni De Lacii donavit. Et (ut aiunt) hoc anno Murchardus obit."



* Murcha: Giraldus Cambrensis and other English writers, of his anti-lvi&.
stamp have grossly libelled the Irish people; to justify their subjugation by KId
Henry II., of England. Yet, among the many other Irish Kings and Princes wh
founded and endowed the Abbeys of Ireland before its annexation to England, it wa
this Irish King, who, in his great piety, founded and endowed the Abbey of Bective
in the county Meath.

t English Pale : This was the portion of Ireland which was subject to the regulai "
jurisdiction of the King of England and his laws ; while that portion of Ireland whicl
was outside the English Pale was called the •' Irish Country." In 1603, however, th
distinction between the "English Pale" and "Irish Country" terminated, by th
submission of Hugh O'Xeill, Earl of Tirowen ; for it was in that year, and by that sub
mission, that the English conquest of Ireland was first effected.

t Broken Heart : This Murcha, as already mentioned, was the father of th
unfortunate Dearvorgil, who was the ostensible cause of the invasion of Ireland h] i
Henry II. Unhappily, Murcha insisted that she should marry O'Rourke, Prince ;
Brefney, in preference to Dermod MacMorough, King of Leinster, with whom sb
afterwards eloped; for Dearvorgil loved MacMorough " not wisely but too well."



CHAP. I.] ENGLISH INVASION OF IRELAND. 797

The Irish Monarch, Roderick O'Connor, finding that King Henry II.
had thus so soon violated his solemn promise, that he would not dis-
possess any of the Irish people of their ancient patrimonies, sincerely
regretted having given his assent to the Papal grant of Ireland by
Adrian IV. to Henry II. ; for O'Connor saw that Henry w^ould act towards
the Kings and Princes of other parts of Ireland as he had done to the
King and Nobles of the Kingdom of Meath. Accordingly the 'Irish
Monarch assembled an Army to resist Hugh de Lacy's possession of that
Kingdom.

We read in page 16 of the MS. Vol. F. 3. 16, in the Lib. of Trin.
Joll., Dub., that:

" Hugh de Lacy had built a strong castle at Tryme [Trim], surrounded with a'
ieep and large ditch ; which being furnished and competently garnished, he departed
•'or England, leaving the same in the custody of Hugh Tirrell. The kiug of Connaught,
30 destroy it, assembled all the forces he could make ; the principal of his Armie who
jrere Commanders and Chieftains were— O'fiiahertie, M'Dermond, M'Ghorathie ;
3'Kelly, King of O'Many; O'Harthiee, O'Himathie, O'Carbry, O'fflanogan,
)'Manethan, O'Dude ; O'Shaghnes of Foltiloban ; the King O'Malachlin, the King
)'Rory {alias O'Eourke) ; O'Noil of Kinell ; O'Malory ; M'Donleve, King of Ulster ;
;he King O'Carvill ; M'Tarvene, M'Skilling, M'Cartan, M'Garraga, M'Kelan ;
)'Neale, King of Kinelogmh, and manie others whose names are omitted that put
hemselves into O'Connor's Armie, with purpose to destroye ye castle of Trym."*

" Hugh Tirrell being advertised of their comeiuge dispatched messengers unto the
arle, beseeching him to come to his aid. The Earle presently assembled his forces
nd marched towarde Trim ; but Hugh Tirrell seeing the Enemie at hand, and
indinge himselfe too weak to make resistance against their multitude, abandoned the
astle and burned it. The Irish Kings perceiving that done to their hande which
hey intended to have done by force, returned towards their own countries. The
]arle upon his way meeting with intelligence that Trim was burned, marched on, and
Then he came thither he neyther found castle nor house to lodge in, wherefore he
lade noe stale but pursued the Enemie and fell upon the reare, of whom 150 were
lain ; which done he returned to Dublin, and Bugh Tirrell to the ruined castle of
'rim, to reedifie the same before Hugh de Lacy his return out of England."

King Henry's emissaries throughout Ireland continued unceasing in
roclaiming to the Irish people the Bull of Pope Adrian IV. conferring
a Henry II. the sovereignty of Ireland. In their simplicity the people
elieved that the said Bull was Heaven-inspired, and that it would be
lasphemy or worse to gainsay it. They therefore relaxed (and most of
lem ceased) their resistance to King Henry's pretensions to the
)vereignty of Ireland, under the Papal grant ; but some of the Irish
hiefs,! while bowing in matters spiritual to the authority of the Pope,
laintained their national independence, down to a.d. 1603.

* Tt-ym : The present anglicised forms of the names of the Commanders and
bieftains in the Irish Monarch's Army on that occasion were— O'Flaherty,
AcDermott, MacGeraghty, O'Kelly, O'Hart, O'Hughes, O'Carbery, O'Flanagan,
Monaghan, O'Dowde, O'Shaughnessy ; Murcha O'Melaghlin, the King of Meath;
Neill, O'Mulroy, MacDonleavy ; 'Carroll, king of Uriel ; . . . . MacGarry,
acKilleen, O'Neill, etc.

^ Irish Chiefs: —
Oh ! to have lived like an Ieish Chief when hearts were fresh and true,
And a manly thought, like a pealing Bell, would quicken them through and through ;



»AR^



798 IRISH PEDIGREES. [PA

Thus, by virtue of the Papal grant, King Henry 11. obtained possessi
of the Kingdom of Ireland ; and Hugh de Lacy and his barons obtaia(
and held possession of the Province of Meath.

In the Charter granting the Kingdom of Meath* to Hugh de Laj
and dated at Wexford, A,D. 1172, King Henry II. says:

" Henry, by the grace of God, king of England, duke of Normandy and Aquifc
and earl of Aujou, to the archbishops, bishops, abbots, earls, barons, justices, anc
all his ministers, and faithful subjects, French, English, and Irish, of all his dominie
greeting : Know ye that I have given and granted, and, by this my Charter, confim
unto Hu<?h de Lacy, in consideration of his services, the land of Meath, with
appurtenances ; to have and to hold of me and my heirs, to him and his heirs, by
service of fifty knights, in as fall and ample manner as Murchard Hu-Melaghlin h
it, or any other person before him or after him ; and, as an addition, I give to him
fees which he owes or shall owe to me about Duvelia [Dublin], while he is my baij
to do me service in my city of Davelin. Wherefore I will and strictly commit
that the said Hugh and his heirs shall enjoy the said land, and shall hold all 1
liberties and free customs which I have or may have therein, by the aforesaid servi
from me and my heirs, well and peaceably, freely, quietly and honourably, in w«
and plain, in meadows and pastures, in water and mills, in warren and ponds, in St
ings and himtings, in ways and paths, in sea-ports and all other places appertain!
to the said land, with all liberties which I have therein, or can grant or confirm
him by this my Charter.

"Witness, earl Pdchard (Strongbow), son of Gilbert; William de Brosa (a
many others), at Weisford (Wexford)." — Ware.

At the Synod of the bishops and clergy, held atWaterford, A.D. 11
William Fitzadelm de Burgo (who succeeded Strongbow as chief goven
of Ireland) pubUshed the Bull of Pope Alexander III., confirming t
Papal grant of Ireland by Adrian IV., to King Henry II. of England

According to Rymer's Fcedera, Vol. i., p. 31 (Folio. London : 181
Kine Henry II., in 1175, at Windsor, after the publication, at the Syc
of Waterford, of the Bull of Pope Alexander III., entered into a Tre;
with the Irish Monarch, which was signed on O'Connor's behalf, as K
of Connaught and Chief King of Ireland, by two of the Pope's new Ar
bishops of Ireland. By that treaty Roderick O'Connor is made to beco
the King's hegeman, and to be King of Connaught, and Chief King
Ireland under Henry the Second. The Irish Monarch undertakes :

" That the Irish shall yield to the King of England annually one merchanta
bide for every ten cows in Ireland, which Roderick O'Connor is to collect for 1



And the seed of a generous hope right soon to a fiery action grew.
And Men would have scorned to talk and talk, and never a deed to do.

Oh ! the iron grasp
And the kindly clasp
And the laugh so fond and gay ; .
And the roaring board,
And the ready sword,
Were the types of that vanished day. "

Chakles Gavan Dupft,



I



* Meath : The Kingdom of Meath consisted of two great divisions, namely,. JC
Breagh (or Bregia), and Teabhtha (or Teffia). Bregia, which was tbiat magnifict
plain situated in the eastern part of the kingdom, comprised five triocha-ehed»
baronies, and included Fingal, a territory lying aloag the coast between Dahlia a
Drogheda ; and Teffia comprised the present County Westmeath, with parts of Loi
ford and the King's County. Some of the chiefs of that kingdom, particularly A<
• of Teffia, held their estates down to the Cromwellian confiscations.

dtl



CHAP. I.] CROMWELLIAN DEVASTATION OF IKELAND. 799

through every part of Ireland, except that which is already in the possession of King
Henry II. and his barons — namely, Dublin, Meath, and Leinster, with Waterford as
far as Dungarvan. The rest of the Kings and people of Ireland are to enjoy all their
lands and liberties as long as they shall continue faithful to the King of England, and
pay this tribute through the hands of the King of Connaught."— See Prendergast's
Cromwellian Settlement, p. 14.

According to that treaty it appears that King Henry II. never effected
the military conquest of Ireland, and that his authority in that country
was acquired solely through the influence on the Irish people, of Pope
Adrian's Bull in Henry's favour ; for, says Prendergast —

*' Two systems were thus established side by side in Ireland, the Feudal and the
Brehon systems ; for the Irish, as Sir John Davis remarks, merely became tributaries
to the King of England, preserving their ancient Brehon law, and electing their
chiefs and tanists, making war and peace with one another, and ruling all things
between themselves by this law, until the reign of Queen Elizabeth ; and this, as
Spenser remarks, not merely in districts entirely inhabited by Irish, but in the
English parts."— J(5i^. p. 15.

As Ireland had long acknowledged the jurisdiction of the Holy See
{PontificicR ditionis fuerat), it grieves us to find that Adrian IV., as a
Pontiff of the Church to which we belong, was so swayed by his love of
country {amore patrice), as to issue the now famous Bull annexing Ireland
to England ; for, that Bull, it may be said, was the fons et origo of all the
wrongs since inflicted on Ireland by England. But :

"Could the chain for an instant be riven
Which tyranny flung round us then,
Oh ! 'tis not in man nor in Heaven
To let tyranny bind it again."

—Moore.



IL—CROMWELLIAN DEVASTATION OF IRELAND.

A.S one of the ancient Irish families which have drunk to the dregs of the
oitter cup of adversity, consequent on the Cromwellian confiscations in
[reland, we have ventured to introduce this Paper by a few observations
)n our own family :

At the time of the English invasion of Ireland the O'Harts were located
the Kingdom of Meath; and, as Princes of Tara, ranked next to
ilurcha, Meath's last King. For a short history of that invasion, its causes,
ud some of its unhappy consequences to Ireland, the reader is referred to
be "English Invasion of Ireland," next, ante; and, for the patrimony of
ur family, see Note (*), p. 672.

Dispossessed of that patrimony by King Henry II., Shane O'Hart, No.
06, p. 672, who was the last Prince of Tara, settled in the territory now
nown as the barony of Carbury, in co. Sligo,* which 0'Mulroy,the Prince of

* Sligo : "Carbury," in the county Sligo, where the last Prince of Tara settled
fber he was dispossessed of his patrimony in the kingdom of Meath, then belonged to
lie principality of Tirconnell.



800 IRISH PEDIGREES. [PART

Tirconnell, of that period, granted to him. The Prince of Tara's desc
dants acquired and held other landed property in the barony of Leyni
in the said county ; down to the middle of the seventeenth century, whe
as they were "Papist Proprietors" (see No. 120, p. 676), their estat
were, a.d. 1652, confiscated, under the Cromwellian settlement of Irelan^
At the Restoration, some of the Irish gentry, who had good intere
at court, got back their estates, which had been confiscated under
"Protectorate" of Cromwell; others obtained decrees of the Court
Claims, to be restored to their ancient inheritances ; but as the Cromwellij
adventurers,* officers, and soldiers in possession were not to be remove
without being first reprised (that is, provided with other lands of equ
value, which were not to be had, so large was the number of Cromwellii
claimants for whom provision had to be made in Ireland), the dispossessj
owners, especially the ancient Irish, were not restored.

"The master's bawn, the master's land, a surly bodagh\ fills ;
The master's son, and outlaw'd man, is riding on the hills."

Driven from their homes and lands, these dispossessed Irish ownc
wandered, many of them, about their ancient inheritances, living upon
bounty of their former tenants, or joined some band of Tories :\

"The poor Irish peasantry," writes Prendergast, "with a generosity char



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