John O'Hart.

Irish pedigrees; or, The origin and stem of the Irish nation (Volume 1) online

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teristic of their race and country, never refused hospitality to the disjjossessed owne
but maintained them as gentlemen ; allowing them to ' cosher' upon them as the Ik
called the giving their lord a certain number of days' board and lodging."

Archbishop King (see King's "State of the Protestants of Irela:
under the Government of King James the Second." Dublin : 1730.) a
the Cromwellian possessors of the lands of these dispossessed Irish g(
tlemen complained much of their pride and idleness in not becomi
labourers to them (the new possessors) !

"Their sons or nephews," writes King, "brought up in poverty, and matcl
with peasant girls, will become the tenants of the English officers and soldiers ; a

* Adventurers : In sect. 12, of the Paper in the Appendix to Vol. II., headed "1
New Divisions of Ireland, and the New Settlers," see the names of the Adventurers
Land in Ireland, at the time of the Cromwellian Settlement of that unhappy count

^ Bodagh : The correct Irish word is bodach, which means "a churlish, sa

J Tories : The " Tories" of that period, who were more lately known as Rappar
were bands of men who retired to the wilds or moimtains rather than transplant th(
selves from any of the other provinces wherein their confiscated estates were situaix
and headed by some of the dispossessed gentlemen, incessantly attacked the C~'
wellian planters. In those troublous times in Ireland, the Priest and the Tory
classed with the ivolf, as the three burdensome " beasts" on whose heads were
rewards ; for, according to " Burton's Parliamentary Diary," of the 10th June, "
Major Morgan, I^Iember for the county Wicklow, in the first United Parliament
Three Kingdoms, at Westminster, a.d. 1657, deprecated the taxation proposed
Ireland, by° showing that the country was then in ruins, and said : "We have
beasts to destroy, that lay burdens upon us. The first is the wolf, on whom we f
live pounds a head if a dog, and ten pounds if a bitch. The second beast is a pri( '
on whose head we lay ten pounds ; if he be eminent, more. The third beast is aTc
on whose head if he be a public Tory we lay twenty pounds ; and forty shillings
private Tory. Your army cannot catch them ; the Irish bring them in ; brothers 2
cousins cut one another's throats."


thence reduced to labourers, will be found the turf-cutters and potato-diggers of the
next generation."

The dispossessed Irish proprietors, or their sons, who remained in
Ireland, were the gentlemen, who, in 1707, were described in the (Irish)
Act, 6 Anne, c. 2, "For the more effectual suppression of Tories;" and
who were, on presentment of any Grand Jury of the counties which they
frequented, to be seized and sent on board the Queen's fleet, or as slaves
to Barbadoes, or to some of the English Plantations in America :

"One of the first steps towards the Cromwell ian Settlement of Ireland," writes
the learned Prendergast, " was to get rid of the disbanded Irish soldiery. Foreign
nations were apprised by the Articles of Kilkenny, that the Irish were to be allowed
to engage in the service of any state in amity with the Commonwealth. The valour
of the Irish soldier was well known abroad. From the time of the Munster Planta-
tion by Queen Elizabeth, numerous Irish exiles had taken service in the Spanish Army.
There were Irish regiments serving in the Low Countries . . . Agents from the King
of Spain, the King of Poland, and the Prince de Cond^, were contending for the
services of Irish troops . . . The thirteen years' war,* from 1641 to 1654, followed
by the departure from Ireland to Spain of 40,000 Irish soldiers, with most of the chief
nobility and gentry, had left behind a mass of widows and deserted wives with des-
titute families. There were plenty of other persons too, who, as their ancient properties
had been confiscated, had * no visible means of livelihood. Just as the King of Spain
sent over his agents to 'treat with the Government for the Irish swordsmen, the
merchants of Bristol had agents treating with it for men, women, boys, and girls, to
be sent to the sugar plantations in the West Indies. The Commissioners for Ireland
gave to those agents orders upon the governors of garrisons, to deliver to them
prisoners of war ; upon the keepers of gaols, for offenders in custody ; upon masters
of workhouses, for the destitute in their care * who were of an age to labour, or, if
women, were marriageable and not past breeding;' and gave directions to all in
authority to seize those who had no visible means of livelihood, and to deliver them
to the agents of the Bristol sugar merchants ; in the execution of which direction
Ireland must have exhibited scenes in every part like the slave hunts in Africa. How
many girlsf of gentle birth must have been caught and hurried to the private prisons of
these men-catchers none can tell : . . Ireland, in the language of Scripture, now lay
void as a wilderness. Five-sixths of her people had perished. Women and children
were found daily perishing in ditches, starved. The bodies of many wandering
orphans, whose fathers had embarked for Spain, and whose mothers had died ot
famine, were preyed upon by wolves. In the years 1652 and 1653, the plague and
famine had swept away whole countries, that a man might travel twenty or thirty
miles and not see a living creature. Man, beast, and bird, were all dead, or had quit
;hose desolate places."

At that gloomy period in Irish history, the Irish people, it may be
said, had realized the fate foretold (Leviticus xxvi. 31, 32,) for the Jews;
ior, like that nation, the ancient Irish Proprietors and their children, who
jurvived the Cromwellian devastation in Ireland, were, alas ! scattered
imong all people, from one end of the earth unto the other.

By industry and education, however, many of the descendants of those

* War : See Note (t) under No. 116, p. 324.

t Girls : Morison, in his Threnodia Hiherno CaUiolka (Innsbruck : 1659), relates
hat, in his presence, Daniel Connery, a gentleman in the county Clare, was, in 1657,
entenced to banishment by Colonel Henry Ingoldsby, for harbouring a priest. Mr.
k)niiery had a wife and twelve children. His wife fell sick and died in poverty.
' Three of his daughters, beautiful girls, were transported to the West Indies, to an
land called the Barbadoes ; and there, if still alive," he says, " they are miserable



Irish exiles, and of others who more lately were driven to seek homes i
foreign lands, have, in those lands, attained to positions of social eminence
and, in England, Scotland, Canada, Australia, the great Western Eepublic
etc., possess considerable political influence. It is calculated that, in th
United States of America, alone, the Irish race now constitutes an " Iris
Nation," in population at least twice that at present in Ireland :

" Long, long be my heart with such memories fill'd. "

Like the vase, in which roses have once been distill'd —
You may break, you may shatter the vase if you will,
But the scent of the roses will hang round it still."

— Moore.



The following is a brief summary of the Irish families in Manster, beginning with
the three branches of the race of Heber : namely, the Dalcassians, the Eageniana,
and the Clan Cian.

I. The Dcdcassians : According to Connellan, the chief families of this sept were — >
Lysacht, MacArthar, MacBraodin, MacClancy, MacConry, MacCurtin, MacDonnell,
MacEniry, MacGrrath, AlacMahon, MacNamara, O'Ahern, O'Brien, O'Brody, O'Casey,
O'Cashin, O'Considine, O'Davoran, O'Daa, O'Duhig, O'Grady, O'Hanraghan, O'Harti-
gan, O'Hea, O'Healy (modernized Haley and Hayley), O'Heap, O'Hefferuan, O'Hehir,
O'Hickey, O'Hogan, O'Hiirly (modernized Harley), 0' Kearney, 0' Kennedy, O'Liddy,
O'Lonergan, O'Meara, O'Molony, O'Noonan (or O'JS'unan), O'Q'iinn, O'Shanahan (or
O'Shannon), O'Sheehan, O'Slattery, O'Spillane, O'Twomey, etc.

The following were also of the Dalcassian race : the families of MacCoghlau,
chiefs in the King's County; O'Finuelan (or O'Fenelon), and O'SkuUy, chiefs in
leffia, or Westmeath.

II. The Eugenians : Of these the chief families were-r-MacAuliflfe, MacOarthy,
MacDonagh, MacEUigot, MacFinneen, MacGillicuddy, O'Callaghan, O'Cullen,

'Donohoe, O'Finnegan, O'Flannery, O'Fogarty, O'Keeffe, O'Kerwick (anglicised
Berwick" and "Kirby"), O'Lechan (or Lyons), O'Mahony, O'Meehan, O'Moriarty,
D'Sullivan, O'Treacy, etc.

III. The Clan Cian were, as already stated, located in Ormond or the present
ounty of Tipperary ; and the heads of the Clan were O'Carroll, princes of Ely. The
ther families were — MacKeogh (or Kehoe), O'Corcoran, O'Diiliiunty (anglicised
)'Delahunty), O'Meagher. O'Connor, chiefs of Cianaght (now Keena^ht) in the county
jondonderry ; and O'Gara and O'Hara, lords of Lieny and Coolavin in the county
»ligo, were also branches of the Clan Cian of Manster.

IV. The Ithians, who were also called Darinians, were descended from Ithe, or
thius, uncle of Milesius.

V. The Clan-na-Deagha were also called Degadians and Ernans, from two of their
istinguished ancestors ', they were celebrated chiefs in Munster, but were originally
escended, as already shown, from the Heremonians of Ulster. Of this Clan the

* Irish : According to Connellan, manj^ penal Acts of Parliament were ia the reigns of the Henrj's and
dwards, Kings of England, passed, compelling the ancient Irish to adopt English " surnames," and
le English language, dress, manners, and customs ; and, no doubt, many of the Milesian Irish did take
aglish surnames in those times, to protect their lives and properties, as, otherwise, they forfeited their
)ods and were liable to be punished as Irish enemie-?. Hence, many of the ancient Irish families did
' twist and anglicise their names, that it is often difficult to determine whether those families are of
ish or English extraction ; and hence, many of them of Irish origin are considered of English or French
sscent. In modera times, too, many of the Irish families omitted the 0' and Mac in their surnames ;
it such names lose much of their euphonious sound by the omission, and, besides, are neither English
it Irish,

Some of the Danish families who settled in Ireland were those of_Da)Kiall, Dromgoole, Sweetman
d Palmer, in Dublin, Meath, and Louth ; Gould, Coppingef;S1acray, aihd Trant, in Cork ; and Haroid
lOdernized Harold), of Limerick and Clare. Of those Danish families, some took Irish sirnames, and
Jre of them prefixed " Mac" to their names, as did many of the Anglo-Norman and English families
early times. The following families adopted Irish surnames : — De Burgo, of Connaught, took the
me of MacWilliam, and some of them that of MacPhilip ; De Angulo or Nangle, of Meath and Mayo,
anged the name to MacCostello ; De Exeter of Mayo, to MacJordan ; Barrett, of Ma3'o, to MacWattin ; •
wmton of Mayo, to MacAveely (mileadk: Irish, a hero), signifying " The son of a hero ;" De Ber-
ham of Connaught and other places, to MacFeorais or MacPeoruis (signifj-ing " The son of Pearse"
rcy, and a quo Pearse, Pearce, Peirs, Piers, Pearson, Pierson, Peterson), from one of their chiefs ;
mon of the Kings County, to MicKuddery (ridire : Irish, a kni<jht), signifying •' The son of the
it ;" Le Poer (anglicised " Power") of Kilkenny and Waterford, to MacShere ; Butler, to MacPierce ;
raid to MacThomas and MacMaurice ; De Courcy of Cork, to MacPatrick ; Barry of Cork, to Mac-
etc. But it does not appear that any of those families adopted the prefix " O," which, according
Four Masters, was confined chiefly to the Milesian farailiea of the highest rank.— Co.\ne;llax.


principal families in Munster were— O'Falvey, hereditary admirals of Desmond;
O'Connell, of Kerry, Limerick, and Clare ; O'Donegan, .OTihilly, O'Flynn, O'Shee or
O'Shea, O'Baisan or O'Basken, and O'Donnell of the county Clare, etc.

vi. The Irians (or " Clau-na-Rory") of Ulster also settled several families of
note in Munster, as early as the first and second centuries ; of whom were the folio-w-
ing: O'Connor, lords or princes of Kerry ; O'Connor, lords of Corcomroe in Clare ; and
O'Loghlin, lords of Burren, also in Clare. Of this race were also O'Farrell, lords oi
princes of'Annaly ; MacRannal (anglicised "Reynolds"), jords of Muintir Eoluis, in
the county Leitrim, etc. , . ^ ,

VII. Of the Leinster Milesians of the race of Heremon, were some chiefs and
clans of note in Munster, as O'Felan, princes of Desies in Waterford ; and O'Bric,
chiefs in Waterford; O'Dwyer and 0!Ryan, chiefs in Tipperary ; and O'Gorman,
chiefs in Clare.

King Henry the Second, A.D. 1180, granted part of the kingdom of Thomond tc
Herbert Fitzherbert ; but he having resigned his claims, it was granted by King Johi
to William and Philip de Braosa. In the thirteenth century, King Henry the Thirc
gave to Thomas de Clare, son of the earl of Gloucester, a grant of the whole kingdon
of Thomond or " O'Brien's Country," as it was called ; but the O'Briens and othei
chiefs in Thomond maintained for centuries fierce contests with the Anglo-Normai
and En^-lish settlers, in defence of their national independence.


The Ancient Thomond.

(a) The Irish Chiefs and Clans.

The following were the Irish chiefs and clans of ancient Thomond, or the counties c

Limerick and Clare : 1. O'Dea, chief of Dysart-O'Dea, now the parish of Dysart, baron

of Inchiquin, county Clare. 2. O'Quinn, chief of Muintir Ifemain, a territory abou

Corofin in the county Clare. The O'Heffernans were the tribe who possessed thi

territory ; over whom O'Quinn was chief. These O'Quinns had also possessions i;

Limerick, where they became earls of Dunraven. 3. O'Flattery, and O'CaMl, chief

of Fianchora. 4. O'Mulmea (or Mulmy), chief of Breintire, now Brentry, near Calla:

hill, in the county Clare. 5. O'Haichir (or O'HeMr), chief of Hy-FJancha and Hj

Cormac, districts in the barony of Islands ; and (according to O'Halloran) of Callar

in the county Clare. 6. O'Duibhgin, O'Dugan, (or O'Deegan), chief of Muintir Cor

lochta, a district in the parish of Tumgrauey, in the barony of TuUagh, county Clar(

7. 0' Grady, chief of Cineal Dongally, a large territory comprising the present baron;

of Lower Tullagh, county Clare. The O'Gradys had also large possessions in th

county Limerick ; and, in modern times, the Right Hon. Staudish O'Grady, Chii

Baron of the Exchequer in Ireland, was a.d. 1831, created Viscount Guillamore. i

MacConmara or MacNamara (literally a xvarrior of the sea) was chief of the territory (

Clan Caisin, now the barony of Tullagh, in the county Clare. The Macnamaras wei

also sometimes styled chiefs of Clan Cuilean, which was the tribe name of the family

derived from Cuilean, one of their chiefs in the eighth century. This ancient famU;

held the high and honourable office of hereditary marshals of Thomond. 9. O'Conno:

chief of the territory of Fear Arda and of Corcomroe, at present a barony in th

county Clare. 10. O'Loughlin, chief of Burren, now the barony of Burren, county Clar

which was sometimes called Eastern Corcomroe. The O'Loghlins and O'Connors hei

mentioned were of the same descent : namely, a branch of the Clan na Rory, descende

from the ancient kings of Ulster of the race of Ir. 11. O'Connell, chief of Hy-CuileM

a territory south-east of Abbeyfeale, in the barony of Upper Connello, on the ver^

of the county Limerick, towards the river Feale, and the borders of Cork and Kerr

According to O'Halloran, the O'Connells had their chief residence in Castle Connel

in the county Limerick. In the twelfth century the O'Connells settled in Kerr;

where they had a large territory on the borders of their ancient possessions. Accon

ing to O'Halloran, the O'Falvies, admirals of Desmond ; the O'Connells, of Kerry

O'Sheas, chiefs of Muskerry, in Cork ; and several other chiefs, were descended froi


the Clan na Deaga, celebrated chiefs of Munster, originally a branch of the Here-
monians of Ulster. Of the Clan na Deaga, was Conaire the Second, Monarch of
I Ireland, who was married to Sarad (daughter of his predecessor, Conn of the Hundred
Battles, Monarch of Ireland in the second century), by whom he had a son, named
Cairbre Riada, from whom were descended the Dalriediaas of Ulster, and of Scotland.
A son of Cairbre JRiada got large possessions in South Munster, in the present counties
of Cork and Kerry. 12. MacEneiry, chiefs of Corca Muiceadha, also called Conaill
IJachtarach, now the barony of Upper Conello, in the county Limerick. The Mac-
Eneirys were descended from Mahoun, king of Munster, and brother of Brian Boru ;
and had their chief residence at Castletown MacEneiry. 13. O'Billry, a chief of Hy
Conall Guara, now the baronies of Upper and Lower Conello, in the county Limerick.
14. O'Cullen, O'Kenealy, and O'Sheehan, were chiefs in the baronies of Conello, county
Limerick. 15. O'Macassa (Macassey, and Maxey), chief of Corca Oiche : and O'Bergin,
chief of HyRossa, districts in the county Limerick. 16. O'Mulcallen, a chief of
Conriada, now the barony of Kenry, county Limerick. 17. O'Clerkin and O'Flannery,
chiefs of Dal Cairbre Eva, in the barony of Kenry, county Limerick. 18. O'Donovan,
chief of Cairbre Eva, now the barony of Keury, which was the ancient territory of
O'Donovan, O'Cleircin, and O'Flannery. The O'Donovana had their chief castle at
Bruree, county Limerick. 19. O'Ciarrahaie (or O'Kerwick), chief of Eoganacht Aine,
now the parish of Knockaney, in the barony of Small County, county Limerick. 20
O'Muldoon, also a chief of Eoganacht Aine, same as O'Kerwick. 21. O'Kenealy, chief
of Eoganacht Grian Guara, a district comprising parts of the baronies of Coshma and
Small County in Limerick. 22. O'Gunning, chief of Crioch Saingil and Aosgreine :
Crioch Saingil, according to O'Halloran, is now ''Single Land," and is situated near
Limerick ; and both the territories here mentioned are, according to O'Brien, com-
prised in the barony of Small County, in Limerick. 23. O'Caolidh or O'Keely, and
O'Malley are given as chiefs of Tua Luimnidh or " the district about Limerick." 24.
O'KeeflFe, chief of Triocha-Cead-au-Chaliadh, called Cala Luimne, that is the " port or
ferry of Limerick." 25. O'Hea, chief of Muscry Luachra, a territory lying between
Kilmallock and Ardpatrick, in the barony of Coshlea, in the county Limerick. 26.
MacDonnell and O'Baskin, chiefs of the territories of Corca Baisgin or Baiscind, now
the barony of Moyarta, in the county Clare. O'Mulcorcra was chief of Hy-Bracaln,
now the barony of Ibracken ; and O'Keely — probably the O'Keely above named — was
another chief of the same place. One of the Corca Baiscinds here mentioned was the
present barony of Clonderlaw. 27. MacMahon. The MacMahons succeeded the
ibove chiefs, as lords of Corca Baisgin ; and possessed the greater part of the baronies
3f Moyarta and Clonderlaw, in the county Clare. In O'Brien's Dictionary these Mac-
Mahons and MacDonnells are given as branches of the O'Briens, the posterity of Brian
Boru ; and, therefore, of quite a different descent from the MacMahons, princes and
lords of Monaghan, and the MacDonnells, earls of Antrim, and the MacDonnells of
Slilkee, county Clare, who were of the race of Clan Colla. 28. O'Gorman, chief of
Tullichrin, a territory comprising parts of the baronies of Moyarta and Ibrackan, in
;he county Clare. 29. O'Diocliolla and O'Mulletliy or Multhy, were chiefs in
^orcomroe. 30, O'Drennan, chief of Slieve Kise, Finn, and of Cinel-Seudna, a district
)n the borders of Clare and Galway. 31. O'Neill, chief of Clan Dalvy and of Tradree,
V district in the barony of Inchiquinn, county Clare. A branch of this family went in
he tenth century to Limerick, to assist in the expulsion of the Danes, over whom they
;ained several victories ; and on one occasion, having worn green boughs in their
lelmets and on their horses' heads, they, from this circumstance, got the epithet
raebhach (i.e. Ramifer), signifying of the branches : a name which has been anglicised
'Creagh." Of these Mac Gilla Craeibhe or " Creagh" family there are still many
espectable families in the counties of Clare, Cork, and Tipperary. Some of those
)'Neills, who were of the Ui-Bloid, of the race of Heber, changed their name to Nihel,
nd some to Newell ; but they were all of the same stock as the O'Briens of Thomond.
2. O'Davoran, chief of Muintir Lidheagha (or O'Liddy), the tribe name of this clan ;
■rhose territory was situated in the barony of Corcomroe, and at Bally nalaken, near
ijiisdoonvarna, county Clare. 33. O'Moloney, were chiefs of Cuiltenan, now the parish
Mi Kiltonanlea, in the barony of TuUa, county Clare. 34. O'Kearney, as chiefs of
•Lvon-Ui-Cearney or O'Kearney's River, a district about Six-Mile-Bridge, in the
■Baronies of Tulla and Bunratty, county Clare. 35. O'Casey, chiefs of Rathconan, in
■ le barony of Pubblebrien, county Limerick. 36. O'Dinan or Downing, chiefs of


chiefs of BallyhalliEan, in the haroiiy of Pubblebrien, county Limerick. O'Halloran,
chiefs of Fay Ui-Hallurain, a district between Tulla and Clare, in the county Clare
38. Lysaght, placed in a district about Enuistymon ; MacConsidine, in the barony o;
Ibrackan ; O'Daly of Leath Mogha or JNIunster, in the barony of Burren ; MacGillereagl
(MacGilroj'', MacGilrea, Gilroy, Kilroy) in the barony of Clonderlaw ; MacClancy, h
the barony of Tulla ; and MacBruodm, in the barony of Inchiquin : all in the count}
Clare. MacArthur and O'Scanlan, in the barony of Pubblebrien ; and O'Morny, u
the barony of Lower Conello : all in the county Limerick ; etc.

(h) The New Settlees in Limebick and Claee,
Or Thcmond

The foUcwing were the chief families of early settlers, in the counties of Limericl
and Clare : De Burgo, Fitzgerald, Fitzgibbon — a branch of the Fitzgeralds, De Clare
De Lacey, Brown Barrett, Pioche, Russell, Sarsfield, Stritch, Purcell, Hussey, Harold
Tracey, Trant, Comyn, White, Walsh, Wolfe, Dongan, Pvice, Aylmer, Xash, Monsel!
Massy, etc. The Fitzgeralds, earls of Desmond, had vast possessions in Limerick
and of the estates of Gerald, the sixteenth earl of Desmond, in the reign of Elizabeth
about one hundred thousand acres were confiscated in the county Limerick, ant
divided amongst the following families : — Annesley, Barkley, Billingsley, Bouchiei
Carter, Courtenay, Fitton, Mannering, Stroude, Trenchard, Thornton, and Uthered.
Limerick was formed into a county as early as the reign of King John, a.d. 1210
and Clare, in the reign of Elizabeth, a.d. 1565, by the Lord Deputy Sir Henr


(c) The Modern Ncbility of Limerick and Clare,
Or Thomond]

Quoting from Connellan, the following have been the noble families in Limerick an
Clare, since the reign of Henry the Eighth : — O'Brien, earls and marquises c
Thomond, earls of Inchiquin, barons of Ibrackan, and barons of Burren, also viscount
of Clare, and barons of Moyarta ; Eourke, barors of Castleconnell ; Roche, barons (
Tarbert; and Fitzgerald, knights of Glin, in the county of Limerick; Sarsfieic
viscounts of Kilmallcck, in the county of Limerick ; Dongan, earls of Limerick
Hamilton, viscounts of Limerick ; Fane^ viscounts Fane and barons of Loughguire, i
Limerick ; J^^outhwell, barons Southwell of Castlematross in Limerick ; Fitzgibboi
earls of Clare ; Perry, earls of Limerick ; Quinn, earls of Dunraven and barons of Adar<^-
in Limerick ; O'Giady, viscounts Guillamore in Limerick ; the lords Fitzgerald, a^r
Vesey or Vesci, in the county of Clare; Massey, barons of Clarina in Limerick t^
Monsell, barons of Emly.



The Ancient Desmond,
(a) The Irish Chiefs and Clans.

CoBK (in Latin "Corcagia," and also " Coracium") got its name from Core (No. 89, j
69), a prince of the Eugenian race, who was King of Munster, in the fifth century
Kerry (in Latin "Kerrigia") got its name from Ciar, son of Fergus Mac Roy, b ■
Meava or Maud, the celebrated Queen of Connaught, a short time before the Christiai
era. This Ciar, in the first century, got a large territory in Munster, called from bin
Ciar Rioghact, signifying Ciar's Kingdom', hence, the word " Ciaraidhe," anglicise(
*' Kerry."

The Eugenians, we saw, ruled as kings over Desmond or South Munster, whicl


comprised the whole of the present county Cork, and the greater part of Kerry,
together with a portion of Waterford, and a small part of the south of Tipperary,

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