the death of Christ, and " its fruits,
whereof the apostle treats . . 750
3. That religion hath no relation unto the
cross of Christ, which doth not incline
and dispose men unto benignity and the
exercise of lovingkindness towards all ib.
4. Much less hath that religion any rela-
tion to the cross of Christ, which guides
and disposeth its professors unto rage,
cruelty, and oppression of others, on
the account of an interest of its own . ib.
5. We ought always to admire the glory
of divine wisdom, which hath so dis-
posed the state of the church in this
world, that there should be continual
occasion for the exercise of every grace
mutually among ourselves . . ib.
6. Beneficence and communication are
the only outward evidences and demon-
strations of the renovation of the image
of God in us . . . . . ib.
7. God hath laid up provision for the
poor in the grace and duty of the rich,
not in their coffers and their barns,
wherein they have no interest . . ib.
8. The will of God revealed concerning
his acceptance of any duties, is the
most effectual motive unto our dili-
gence in them .... 751
9. The works and duties which are pecu-
liarly useful unto men, are peculiarly
acceptable to God . . . . ib.
1. The due obedience of the church, in
all its members, unto the rulers of it,
in the discharge of their office and
duty, is the best means of its edifica-
tion, and the chief cause of order and
peace in the whole body . . . 754
2. An assumption of right and power by
any to rule over the church, without
evidencing their design and work to be
a watching for the good of their souls,
is pernicious unto themselves, and
ruinous unto the church itself . . ib.
3. They who do attend with conscience
and diligence unto the discharge of the
work of the ministry towards their
flocks, committed in an especial man-
ner unto their charge, have no greater
joy or sorrow in this world, than what
accompanies the daily account which
they give unto Christ, of the discharge
of their duty amongst them, as their
success falls out to be . . . 756
4. Much of the life of the ministry and
benefit of the church depends on the
continual account given unto Christ,
by prayer and thanksgiving, of the
state of the church and success of the
word therein ib.
Doctrine. ,. Page.
Verses 20, 21.
1. When we make application to God for
any especial grace or mercy, it is our
duty to direct and fix our faith on such
names, titles, or properties of God, as
whereunto that grace doth particularly
relate, and from whence it doth imme-
diately proceed .... 760
2. If this be the title of God, if this be
his glory, that he is the God of peace,
how excellent and glorious is that
peace from whence he is so denomina-
ted, which is principally the peace
which we have with himself by Jesus
Christ ...... ib.
3. As every thing that is evil to mankind,
within them, amongst them, both with
reference to things temporal and eter-
nal, proceeds from our original loss of
peace with God by sin, and by the
enmity which ensued thereon ; so
peace, oh the other side, is compre-
hensive of all kinds of good both here
and hereafter; and God being styled
the God of peace, declares him to be
the only fountain and cause of all that
is good to*us in every kind . .761
4. All the work of God towards Jesus
Christ, respected him as the head of
the church, as our Lord and Saviour ib.
5. The safety, security, and consolation
of the church, much depend on this
greatness of their Shepherd . . 762
6. On this relation of Christ to the church
it lives, and is preserved in the world ib.
7. The bringing back of our Lord Jesus
Christ, as the Shepherd of the sheep,
from the state of the dead, through the
blood of the covenant, is the great
pledge and assurance of peace with
God, or the effecting of that peace,
which the God of peace had designed
for the church .... 764
8. The reduction of Christ from the dead
by the God of peace, is the spring and
foundation of all dispensations and
communications of grace to the church,
or of all the effects of the atonement,
and purchase made by his blood . ib.
9. All legal sacrifices issued in blood and
death ; there was no recovery of any
of them from that state . . . ib.
10. There is then a blessed foundation
laid of the communication of grace and
mercy to the church, to the eternal
glory of God ib.
1. When ministers take care that the
word which they deliver is a word
tending unto the edification and conso-
lation of the church, they may with
confidence press the entertainment of
it by the people, though it should con-
tain things, by reason of their weak-
ness or prejudices, some way grievous
to them 768
The general design of the apostle in these discourses, is to manifest
and prove, that the old covenant made with the church at Sinai, with all
the ordinances of worship and privileges thereunto belonging, was taken
away, or ceased to be of any force in the church. Hereon did a total
alteration of the whole present church state of the Hebrews depend ;
which, it is easy to think how difficult it was with them to forego. For
they both looked on it to be of God's own appointment, as it was, and
expected all their happiness by a strict adherence unto it. Wherefore,
that they might with the more readiness embrace the truth, he not only
declares that de facto that covenant had ceased, but evinceth by all
sorts of reasons, that it was necessary that so it should do ; and that
unspeakable advantages did accrue unto the church thereby.
In the pursuit of this design, he unfolds unto them the greatest mys-
teries of the wisdom and counsel of God, that ever were revealed unto
the church, before he spake unto us by the Son. For,
1. On this occasion he takes off the veil from the face of Moses, de-
claring the nature and end of the old covenant, the use, signification,
and efficacy of all the institutions and ordinances of worship, thereunto
belonging. They were all prescribed unto the diligent observance of
the church of the Old Testament ; and their adherence unto them, was
the great trial of their obedience unto God, whilst that church-state
continued, Mai. iv. 4, 5. Howbeit, the best among them were much
in the dark as to their proper use and signification. For the veil was
so on the face of Moses, that the children of Israel could not look
steadfastly to the end of that which was to be abolished, 2 Cor. iii. 13.
This he now doctrinally removes ; and the sole reason why the Hebrews
did not hereon behold the glory of God in the face of Jesus Christ,
nor yet do unto this day, is, because there was and is a veil of blind-
ness on their minds, as well as there was a veil of darkness on the face
of Moses ; and it is only converting grace that can remove it. ' When
they shall turn to the Lord, the vail shall be taken away,' ver. 16.
2. He takes occasion from hence, to declare the great mystery of the
redemption of the church by Christ; of the office that he bare, and
of the work that he performed therein. This was that which he princi-
VOL. IV. r
2 AN EXPOSITION OF THE [cH. IX.
pally designed, as being indeed the sole foundation of Christian
religion. Wherefore, we have in this Epistle, a clear exposition of the
first promise, with all those which were given in the explication or con-
firmation of it ; and also of the law and of its worship, which were
afterwards introduced ; that is in general of the whole Old Testament
or of the instruction which God gave to the church under it. Hence
that blessed light which now shines forth in the promises and legal
institutions of the Old Testament, is derived unto us, through the ex-
position of them given unto us, by the Holy Ghost, in this Epistle.
We are, therefore, to remember, that in our inquiries into these things,
we are conversant in the deepest mysteries of the wisdom and counsel
of God ; those which animated the faith and obedience of both
churches ; which calls not only for our utmost diligence but for con-
tinual reverence and godly fear.
Unto the general end mentioned, the apostle makes use of all sorts of
arguments, taken from the constitution, nature, use, efficacy, officers, and
ordinances of the one covenant and the other ; comparing them
together. And in all his arguings, he openly designs the demonstration
of these two things; 1. That the old covenant, with all its administra-
tions, was to cease. 2. That it was not only to the advantage of the
church, that they should so do, but absolutely necessary, that it might
be brought unto that perfect state, which it was designed unto.
In order unto the first of these, he hath done two things in the pre-
ceding chapters. 1. He hath declared, that there were prefigurations
and predictions of the cessation of the first covenant, and of all its
administrations. As also, that God had so ordered all things in and
under that covenant, as that they must necessarily expire and cease at
a certain appointed time. 2. He hath evinced the necessity hereof,
because that covenant could not consummate the state of the church,
nor give assured rest and peace unto the consciences of them, that ap-
proached unto God in and by its services. And both these he confirms,
by the consideration of the typical nature of all its ordinances and in-
stitutions. For whereas there was in and by them a representation
made of heavenly things, those heavenly things themselves could not be
introduced without their removal.
It is the second thing mentioned, or the advantage of the church by
the taking away of the first covenant, and all its sacred administrations,
that he principally insists upon. For herein he designed (as was before
observed) to declare the glorious mystery of the counsel of God, con-
cerning the redemption and salvation of the church by Jesus Christ.
But whereas this in general is the substance of the gospel, and the sub-
ject of all his other Epistles, he doth not here consider and declare it
absolutely, but as it was prefigured and typified by those institutions of
worship, whereby God both instructed the church, and exercised the
faith and obedience of his people, under the Old Testament.
Three things there were, which were the glory of those administra-
tions, and which the Hebrews so rested in, as that they refused the
gospel out of an adherence unto them. 1. The priestly office. 2. The
tabernacle, with all its furniture, wherein that office was exercised. 3.
The duties and worship of the priests in that tabernacle by sacrifices ;
VER. 1.] EPISTLE TO THE HEBREWS. 3
especially those wherein there was a solemn expiation of the sins of the
In reference unto these, the apostle proves three things.
1. That neither any, nor all of them, could consummate or make per-
fect the state of the church ; nor yet really effect assured peace and con-
fidence between God and the worshippers.
2. That they were all typical and figurative, ordained to represent
things that were far more sublime, glorious, and excellent than them-
3. That indeed the Lord Christ, in his person and mediation, was
really and substantially all that they did but adumbrate and pre-
figure ; that he was and did what they could only direct unto an
1. These things hedeclareth and evinceth fully, with respect unto the
priestly office, in the seventh chapter ; in our exposition whereof, we
have endeavoured to declare the sense and force of his arguings unto
2. He doth the same as unto the tabernacle in general, in the eighth
chapter, confirming his discourse with that great collateral argument,
taken from the nature and excellency of that covenant, whereof the Lord
Christ was the surety and mediator. Wherefore,
3. There remains only the consideration of the services and sacrifices,
which belonged unto the priestly office in that tabernacle. Herein the
Hebrews placed their greatest confidence for reconciliation with God,
and with respect unto them, boasted of the excellency of their church-
state and worship. This the apostle knew to be the great point in dif-
ference between him and them, and that whereon the whole doctrine of
the justification of sinners before God did depend. This, therefore,
was exactly to be discussed, from the nature of the things themselves,
and from the testimonies of the Holy Ghost in the Scripture : on which
principles alone, he deals with these Hebrews. This is that which he
now in particular engageth into, handling it at large in this and the next
chapter, unto ver. 23, where he returns unto his first exhortation, in an
use of the truth which he had evinced.
Two things unto this purpose he designs in general. 1. To declare
the nature, use, and efficacy of the rites, services, and sacrifices of the
law. 2. To manifest the nature, glory, and efficacy of the sacrifice of
Christ whereby those other had an end put unto them, and so were to
be taken away. And in comparing these things together, he wonder-
fully sets out the wisdom and grace of God in dealing with the church,
so as to manifest that all his counsels, from the beginning, did aim at,
and centre in the person and mediation of Christ. And those things
are duly to be considered by all who desire to understand the mind of
the Holy Ghost in this Epistle.
This chapter hath two general parts.
1. A proposition and declaration of the fabric of the tabernacle, its
furniture, and the services performed therein, ver. 1 â€” 10.
2. A declaration of the nature of the tabernacle and sacrifices of the
Lord Christ, with the end and efficacy thereof, ver. 1 1 â€” 28.
Of the first general, there are four parts.
4 AN EXPOSITION OF THE [CH. IX.
1. A proposition of the constitution of the tabernacle of old, with all
its utensils and furniture, as it was prepared for the service of the priests,
ver. 1 â€” 5.
2. The use of that tabernacle and the things in it, in and unto the
sacred duties and services of the priests, ver. 6, 7.
3. The judgment of the apostle upon the whole, both of the fabric
and its use, ver. 8.
4. The reasons of that judgment, ver. 9, 10.
In the first part there is, 1. A general proposition of the whole, ver.
1. 2. A particular explanation of it, ver. 2 â€” 5.
Ver. 1. â€” Et^t fiev ovv kcu i} irpu)Tr\ aKH]vr\ SticattiÂ»juara Xarguag, to
TÂ£ IIJIOV KOCT/J.IKOV.
Some things must be premised to the reading of these words. 'H
irpioTt), ' the first,' doth in the original, answer in gender to ' all things'
which the apostle treats of; namely, the priesthood, the tabernacle, and
the covenant. But many Greek copies do expressly read aKr\vr], ' the
tabernacle.' So is the text expressed in Stephen's edition, wherein he
followed sixteen ancient manuscripts, adhering generally to the con-
current agreement of the greatest number ; and the word is retained in
the most common edition. But there are ancient copies also where it is
omitted. And they are attested to by all ancient translations, as the
Syriac and Vulgar Latin, the Arabic supplying - covenant,' in the room
of it. Wherefore Beza left it out, and is followed by the generality of
expositors, as he is by our translators. Camero contends for retaining
of it. But the reasons for its rejection, are cogent and undeniable. As,
1. In the last verse of the preceding chapter, whereunjto this imme-
diately succeeds, the apostle, mentioning the old covenant, calleth it
absolutely tt)v irpiorriv, â– the first,' without the addition of SmS-jjKjjv, and
immediately repeating ?j 7rpwrrj, that is, ' that first,' it is irrational to
think that he refers it to another subject.
2. His design requires that the first covenant be intended. For he
is not engaged in a comparison between the tabernacle and the new
testament ; but between the old covenant and the new. And the words
of the text, with those that follow, contain a concession of what be-
longed to the old covenant, particularly in the administration of divine
worship, as it is observed by Photius and CEcumenius.
3. The expression in the close of the verse, ' a worldly sanztuary,' is
no more nor less, but the tabernacle : for it is that which the apostle
immediately describes in its parts and furniture, which are the parts of
the tabernacle, and no other. And if the word cncyvi), 'the tabernacle,'
be here retained, the sense must be, 'and verily the first tabernacle had
ordinances of worship and the tabernacle.'
4. In the next verse, adding an account of what he had affirmed, he
saith, ' For there was a tabernacle prepared ; the first,' which would
render the sense of this verse, in connexion with the context, ' For the
first tabernacle had a tabernacle, for there was a tabernacle prepared.'
Wherefore I shall adhere to the supplement made by our translators,
' the first covenant.'
VER. 1.] EPISTLE TO THE HEBREWS. 5
AiKanvfiara Xarptiag. Some read these words by an acrvvderov, and
not in construction, from the ambiguity of the case and number of
Xarptiag, which may be either of the genitive singular or accusative
plural, ' ordinances, services.' This it is supposed that the following
phrase doth intimate, to re uyiov kovhikov, ' and also a worldly sanc-
tuary ;' which requires that the preceding words should be construed
by apposition. And a difference there is between diKaiiv/ua and Xarpua ;
but whereas it is evident, that the apostle intends no Xarpeia, or service,
here but what was performed ev <$iKaiu)iuia
institutions,' the word ought to be read in construction, ' ordinances of
Et^Â£ uÂ£v ow kcii. Syr. ' But in the first there were in it.' As the
Arab. ' In the first covenant there was contained.' Vul. Lat. ' Habuit
quidem et prius,' the comparative for the positive, to the sense of the
apostle ; ' And the first truly had also.' Beza, ' Habuit igitur prius
faedus et ;' transferring kcii, to the words following, ' Wherefore the first
covenant had also ;' as we after him. Others, ' Habuit igitur etiam prius/
Most, in rendering the particles fitv ow kcu, have principal respect to
the note of inference ow, and include the assertory particle /j.ev in it.
I think the principal respect is to be had thereunto, as it is in the Vulgar
Latin, ' And verily that first also had,' SiKano/iaTa Xarpuag, Syr. ' com-
mands of ministry or precepts ;' which gives us the plain sense and true
meaning of the apostle, as we shall see afterwards. ' Ordinances con-
cerning the administration of divine worship.' Vul. Lat. Justificationes
culturae- Rhem. ' justifications of service,' most obscurely, and in
words leading from the sense of the Holy Ghost. Others, Ritus cultus :
constitutes ritus cultuum, ' appointed rites of worship or service.' All
agree what it is that the apostle intends, namely, the ordinances of
Levitical worship, which are expressed in the Vulgate by 'justificationes
culturae,' both barbarously and beside the mind of the apostle.
'Ayiov Koa/jiiKov. Syr. ' A worldly holy house.' The tabernacle was
frequently called the house of God, and the house of the sanctuary.
Vul. Sanctum seculare. Rhem. ' A secular sanctuary,' which the in-
terlinear changeth into mundanum : seculare, denotes ' duration,' but it
is not the design of the apostle to speak of the duration of that, which
he is proving to have ceased. Beza, ' Sanctuarium mundanum;' some
respect the particles to re, and render them 'illudque.'
Ver. 1. â€” Then verily even that first covenant had ordinances of wor-
ship and also a worldly sanctuary.
Proceeding to the comparison designed between the old covenant and
the new, as to the services and sacrifices wherewith the one and the
other was established and confirmed, he introduceth the Trporacng of the
first by way of concession, as to what really belonged thereunto. And
this is the constant method of the apostle in all the comparisons he
makes. He still allows full weight and measure, to that comparate
which he prefers the other above. And as this, on the one hand, taketh
away all cause of complaint, as though the worth and value of what he
determineth against were concealed, so it tends to the real exaltation of
6 AN EXPOSITION OF THE [CH. IX.
that which he gives the preference to. It is an honour to the priest-
hood and sacrifice of Christ that they are so much more glorious and
excellent than those of the old covenant, which yet were excellent and
There is in this verse,
1. An introduction of the concession intended, juev oi/v nai. The
contexture of these particles is somewhat unusual. Hence some would
have kcu, to be redundant : some join it in construction with SticcHw/xara
that follows. This was the judgment of Beza, whom our translators
follow, for the word ' also,' (had also ordinances,) is the translation of
kcu, in the original ; and thereon they omit it in the first place, not saying
'and then verily,' but ' then verily,' that is, psv ovv. If this be so the
assertion of the apostle seems to be built on a tacit supposition that the
latter covenant hath ordinances of worship. Hence he grants the first
had such also. Even that had also ordinances of worship, as the new
hath. But I see not at all, that any such supposition is here made by
the apostle ; yea, he doth rather oppose those ordinances of divine wor-
ship, to the privileges of the new covenant, than allow the same things
to be under both. And this is evident in the worldly sanctuary, which
he ascribes to the first covenant, for he had expressly denied that there
was any such under the new, Heb. viii. 2. Wherefore, although Km,
' and,' seems to be redundant, yet it is emphatical and increaseth the
signification of the other particles, as it is often used in the Scripture.
And the introduction of the concession, intimated by this contexture of
of the notes of it, ' then verily even that,' shows both the reality of it,
and the weight that he lays on it. Ouv, we render ' then ;' most do it
by igitur, ' therefore.' But the connexion to the foregoing discourse,
is rather real than verbal. It is not an inference made from what was
before declared, but a continuation of the same design. ' And yet
moreover it is granted,' or 'therefore it is granted,' verily so it was.
And so fiev, serves to the protasis of the comparison, whereunto $t an-
swereth, ver. 11, ' But, Christ being come.'
2. The subject spoken of is 17 -irpwrri, 'the first,' that is, StaS^jcrj, that
first covenant whereof we treat. The covenant made with the fathers
at Sinai, to which, as to the administrations of it, the Hebrews as yet
adhered. The nature of this covenant, we have spoken to at large on
the foregoing chapter, and thither refer the reader. Of this covenant, it is
affirmed in general, that it had two things, 1. Ordinances of worship. 2. A
worldly sanctuary ; and the relation of them to it, is, that it had them.
1. It 'had' them, six*' It refers to the time past. The apostle
saith not it ' hath them,' but it ' had them.' That is, say some, it had
so while that tabernacle was standing, and while these things were in
force ; but now the covenant is abolished, and it hath none of them.
But this answers not the apostle's intention. For he acknowledgeth
that covenant, and all its ordinances, de facto, to have been yet in being,
in the patience and forbearance of God. Only he affirms that it was
tyyvc lujxxvHjfxov, Heb. viii. 13, 'ready to disappear.' Nor was he to
take for granted, what was the principal Kpivopzvov between him and
the Hebrews, but to prove it, which he doth accordingly. Hence he
VER. 1.] EPISTLE TO THE HEBREWS. 7
grants that there were ' priests that offered gifts according to the law,'
Heb. viii. 4, and some ' who served at the tabernacle,' Heb. iii. 10.
But the apostle hath respect to the time wherein that covenant was first
made. Then it had these things annexed to it, which were the privileges
and glory of it. For the apostle hath in the whole discourse, continual
respect to the first making of the covenant, and the first institution of
its administrations. It ' had them,' that is they belonged to it, as those
wherein its administration did consist.
Obs. I. Every covenant of God had its proper privileges and advan-
tages. â€” Even the first covenant had so, and those such as were excellent
in themselves, though not comparable with them of the new. For to
make any covenant with men, is an eminent fruit of goodness, grace, and
condescension in God, whereon he will annex such privileges thereunto
as may evince it so to be.
2dly. This first covenant had two things in general. 1. SiKaiuyfiara