John Owen.

Travels into different parts of Europe, in the years 1791 and 1792. With familiar remarks on places--men--and manners (Volume 1) online

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I



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA
AT LOS ANGELES







i.\V




OWE N's

TRAVELS



INTO



DIFFERENT PART'S OF EUROPE,
In the Years 1791 and 1792.

VOL. I.



TRAVELS

INTO

DIFFERENT P4RTS OF EUROPE, 5

IN THE YEARS 179! AND 1792.
WITH

FAMILIAR REMARKS

ON

PLACES MEN^- AND MANNERS,



BY JOHN OWEN, A.M.

LATE FELLOW OF CORPUS CHRISTI COLLEGE.



Mores, ei Studio, tt Populos Vl RG. Georg. Lib. 4.

IN TWO VOLUMES.
VOL. I.

LONDON:

PRINTED FOR T. CADELL JUN. AND W. DAVIES,
(SUCCESSORS TO MR. CADELL,) IN THE STRAND.

1796.



PREFACE.

1



K^ 1

TT is a fubjedl of equal notoriety and
regret, that prefaces have funk into
general difufe, or loft to a great degree
their jUft and original character. The
abrupt appearance of an author be-
fore the bar of the public is an enter-
prize of moll anxious uncertainty.
He feems to be bound by a fort of re-
fpeci, to prefent fome credentials or

SS fubmit to fome formalities, before he

<r

^ prefume upon the ready difpofition of

fo auguil a judicature to hear and de-
.termine his merits. In addition to
that duty which refpecl: impofes, a
more important claim attaches upon
VOL. r. a him,



275490



ii PREFACE,

him, from the abfolute neceflity of
fome preliminary arrangements, for
the purpofes of a fair and equit-
able decifion. Yet fuch is the impa-
tience of the bulk of readers, that all
which intervenes between the title
and the work is confidered as an ob-
flacle in the way of their progrefs,
and treated as a ilavifti compliance
with an obfolete ceremony. The in-
fluence of this judgment ftops not
with readers. It relaxes the ftridlnefs
of authors themfelves ; and induces a
habit of writing with loofenefs thofe
very preliminaries, which feem to de-
mand the moil cautious precifion an
indolence natural to the human mind,
which is rarely brought to execute
with care, what is not likely to be re-
garded with attention.

It



PREFACE. Hi

It may, however, be affirmed, that
the majority of cafes in which the
merits of writers have been miilaken
by the public, might be fairly referred
to thofe defects in the outfet of their
acquaintance, which a due regard to
fome prefatory fteps would have fuffi-
ciently fupplied. Works of travel
ftand particularly expofed to the dan-
ger of an erroneous judgment. Pre-
fenting in many inftances a picture of
the times, and embracing a variety of
circumftances and events, they may
be conlidered as bearing upon modern
hiftory ; and therefore, like that, en-
countering the jealoufies, fufpicions,
and prejudices of minds varioufly in-
terefted, and affected by different, and
yet exifting, impreflions. Thefe obfta-
cles can only be with any colour of ex-
pectation diminifhed, by the eftablifli-
a 2 merit



iv PREFACE,

ment of fome premifes, which the
reader may adopt, and to which he
may refer, as a rule for interpreting
the author's mind on points of cri-
tical and delicate decifion.

The volumes of travel with which
the public are now prefented profefs
to ftand on more hazardous ground,
in refpect to a fair and equitable judg-
ment, than any fimilar work with
which they might be compared; and
the author is unwilling to commit
them to the world, without anticipat-
ing, in fome premonitory remarks, the
leading objections by which they may
be attacked.

i. It may be urged, that books of
travel have been greatly multiplied,
and that the route which the author
purfues has in it no chance of novelty.
To this the author, with little varia-
i tion,



PREFACE. r

tion, concedes. He is ready to admit,
that the cabinet is already fupplied
with a numerous catalogue of enter-
taining travellers ; he is ready to ad-
mit, that the outline of his tour differs
in very few refpects from the ordinary
track of fafhionable travel ; and that
the places alluded to in the fucceed-
ing volumes are, with few excep-
tions, fuch as have been repeatedly
viewed and repeatedly defcribed. The
attention of the public to travelling
journals has however, he pre fumes,
not yet been fatiated by all that has
been, nor will probably be fatisfied by
all that may be faid, of foreign coun-
tries and foreign manners. The ne-
ceffity of fupplying fome fpecies of
light and unelaborate reading is felt
by all who are acquainted with the
public tafte : and no productions are,
a 3



vi PREFACE,

generally fpeaking, more readily di^
gefted, than thofe which conduct the
fire-fide traveller through an extenfive
tract of country without diflurbing
him from his arm-chair; and intro-
duce him to all the beauties of a
country without expofing him to any
of its ftorms. Relying upon this pa
fion for travelling journals, and the
endlefs variety of an aftive mind, the
author engaged in a correfpondence
for furnifhing exprefsly the materials
of the prefent volumes. Whether he
has rightly judged of the public feel-
ings, and his own powers will be
hereafter decided.

A fecond objection may probably
arife, from the interval which has
been fuffered to pafs between the
clofing of the Letters and the period of
publication. In accounting for this it

is



PREFACE. vii

is necefTary to remark, that a confider-
able portion of the Letters had been
transferred to private hands for the fe-
curity of conveyance, at the time of the
author's proceeding upon his expedi-
tion into Auilria ; and that the non~
arrival of thefe at the period expected
very confiderably delayed the compiU
ation. The publication of Mr. Grey's
tour at nearly the fame period was
alfo a ground of difcouragement. If to
this be added the obftruction occa->
fioned to the procefs of printing by the
author's diftance from the metropolis
and the prefs, the hiflory of this delay
will have been completely given. The
reafons for fpecifying thefe caufes
with fo much minutenefs, will be fuf-
ficiently obvious to thofe who are ac-
quainted with the bufy inlinuations
of calumny and malice. Events of
a 4 late



viii PREFACE,

late occurrence have fplit fociety into
fo many factions, that jealoufies are
now excited, againfl which too much
precaution cannot be employed. The
author expects to hear it infinuated, as
it has been already candidly rumoured,
that the publication was delayed for
the convenience of adapting it to
the humour of the times. If the cir-
cumftances already enumerated had
not fufficiently done away this imput-
ation, the very difficulty itfelf of
effecting fuch a tafk, in the varying
circumftances of the prefent period,
would difcover the folly of the charge.
Tothefe, however if thefe fhould yet
be inefficient- the author is ready to
annex his mod ferious declaration ; that
in no inftance, the moft trivial parti-
culars alone excepted, has he fhaped
or accommodated the original fpirit

and



PREFACE. ix

and train of the journal ; and that a
confiderable number of the Letters
have been printed, with no other al-
teration, than that of a literal or ver-
bal correction.

A third objection may poffibly arife
in the minds of fome, from the inter-
nal character of the Letters them felves,
the cireumftances of which they treat,
and the unreferved rreedom with
which thefe circumftances are treated.
To this it may be replied, that the
author has availed himfelf, in travel-
ling and in writing, of that liberty
which has in fuch cafes ever been
deemed admiffible : and that as he
travelled to fee and report, he con-
ceives that he could only do juftice
to himfelf, the public, and his fub-
ject, by depicting, as he has done,
manners and fentirnents in their na-
tural



x PREFACE,

tural colours; and exprefling, on juft
occafions, the unduTembled feelings
of his own mind. If the reader main-
tains a flrict attention in adjudging
thefe Letters to the particular periods
in which they were written; if he
coniiders the circumftances of the
times and the ftate of public opi-
nion ; the author is convinced that
his enthufiafm will be pronounced to
have been of a venial, if not of a com-*
mendable character. But events of
fuch variety, and in many particulars
of fuch importance, have taken place
during the lapfe of the three laft years,
that the mind will not, without fome
difficulty, acquire that temper with
xvhich ic ought to perufe the reports
of a preceding period. Labouring
under the influence of fome recenc
impreffions, the reader will probably

be



PREFACE. xi

be led to confound thofe dates which
ought to be kept religiouily diftinct ;
and thus condemn, by a reference
to fubfequent tranfa&ions, what in
the then circumftances he might have
been forward to approve. It muft not
be diflembled, that the largeft portion
of the author's anxiety for the fate of
his work is founded in an apprehen-
fion of this dangerous, yet almofl in^
evitable, confufion in the public mind
of dates and feelings. For his own
part, he is free to confefs, that though
his mind has been affected with the
moft fenfible emotion at the horrors
which have deformed the name of
Liberty^ he yet can fee no reafon for
reverling all the maxims of the wifeft
men and the beft times ; he ftill can
contemplate it in its genuine charac-
iters of benignity and order as the
6 friend



xii PREFACE,

friend of man, and the happieft ce-
ment of civil fociety. Not all the
diforders which have deluged Europe
fince the ^era of the French revolution
have induced him to depart from the
principles* which fupported his ori-
ginal admiration of this extraordinary
event. The downfal of limited mo-
narchy, the irruption of Jacobinifm,
BrilTotinifm, and all the modifications
of republican tyranny, have cruelly
inverted the original picture ; buc
the very hoftility which thefe declared
againft the fr-Jl reformers, and which
themfelves have experienced from
the prefent lefs outrageous and de-
mocratic rulers, is an argument in
favour of the firft legiflative aiTembly,
which cannot be defeated by any
fpecies of regular and ingenuous rea-

* Vide Preface to Retrofpe<a.

foning.



PREFACE. xiii

Ibning. The evils which have been
ingrafted upon this convenient ftock,
the factions of diforder and equali-
zation, are indifputably lefTons of in-
ftructive caution againft hafty enthu-
fiafm and rafh experiment. A torrent
of political iicentioufnefs has certainly
poured in upon the peaceful and pru-
dent inftitutions of fociety; and thofe
who occupy refponfible fituations are
loudly called upon to fupport the tot-
tering pillars of civil fubordination.
In the difcharge, however, of this duty,
no compromife ought to be made of
truth and juftice ; nor fliould zeal
tranfport us to criminate, what pru-
dence may have forbidden us to ad-
mire. So much it feemed expedient
to fay for the publication of fenti-
ments, whofe bearings upon prefent
opinion might elfe be expofed to mif-

conftruction.



xiv PREFACE,

confirmation. The author is aware that
expreflions may have been curforily
employed, which the faftidious fcru-
pies of fome might wifh amended or
expunged. But he cannot difcover
any fentiment, with which a candid
mind can, or a Britifli mind ought, to
be offended. His opinions on the
leading political changes are already
before the public ; and thefe will af-
ford a fuificient clue for unravelling
and reconciling what might elfe ap-
pear myfterious and inconfiftent.

After fo much faid by way of anti-
cipation, it may now be neceffary to
fay fomething of the execution. The
Letters are fhort, for the commodiouf-
nefs of detached reading; and as they
were in moft inftances difpofed in
packets containing a number, they
were originally conftructed upon this

concife



PREFACE. xv

concife model, in order to fupport the
analogy of chapters in a regular jour-
nal. Dates are for the mod part fu-
perfcribed; but where this is omitted,
the Letter is to be confidered as form-
ing a part of a packet, and referred to
the date of the preceding. As they
are intended for the amufement of
the dome ft ic traveller, they are not
charged with any fyilematic calcula-
tions of diftance or coin, or any cri-
tical adjuftment of names and hif-
tories. Charts and Itineraries are beft
fuited to the minutenefs of the firft,
and profefled difquifitions to the gravity
of the laft. The ftyle, it is hoped, will
be found not wholly unfuiting the
familiarity of the occafions ; and the
errors and redundancies if fuch
fhould appear will probably be view-
ed with fome portion of indulgence,

when



xvi PREFACE,

.when it is confidered, that the Letters
were written in the warmth of youth-
ful impetuofity and that it would
have been a breach of tacit faith to
introduce any further emendations,
than thofe which are juftified by ufage
and acknowledged licence.. That the
volumes have appeared at all, and
that they have not appeared in a lefs
correct Hate, are owing to the flatter-
ing encouragement and the critical
fervices of W. Belfham Efq. to whom
thefe Letters were originally addreifed^
and whofe judicious revilion they had
the good fortune to receive. In re-
vealing this circumftance, the author
is but difcharging a debt of gratitude
to a man, of whofe character while
the public may reafonably differ his
friends can entertain but one opinion.
The foundnefs of his judgment, and

the



PREFACE. *vii

the accuracy of his tafte,were a fecu-
rity to the author for the juftnefs of
his corrections; and a friendfhip of
long and ftrift familiarity, undifturbed
by the divifions of politics and theo-
logy, have afforded him occafions of
general improvement, which it is
equally his duty and his pride to ac-
knowledge.

In taking leave of the reader the
author has only to requeft, that a can-
did diftinftion may be made in peruf-
ing his volumes, between the caft of
his mind at the period of. his travels,
and that which he now profeffes to
have received. The demands of a
lituation the moft grave and import-
ant have now engaged him in duties
and concerns, which neceflarily oc-
cupy and folemnize his thoughts;
and to the faithful difcharge of which,
VOL. i. b he



xviii P .R E F A C E.

he is delirous of rendering the expe-
rience he has acquired, in every re-
fpeft fubfervient. He cannot there-
fore confign his volumes to the pub-
lic, without cOnfeffing, that the Let-
ters difcover, in particular inftances, a
levity, which in his prefent chara&er
he fliould feel himfelf bound to con-
demn. Amongft thofe errors in the
progrefs of his tour which he has
rao& to regret, and with which the
public have the moft concern, are the
little refpeA for the folemnities of
the Sabbath, and the rare acknow-
ledgment of a beneficent Providence.
Thefe it is judged expedient the ra-
ther to mention; as they are errors of
eafy growth, and which it is of the
firft importance to difcountenance and

deftroy.

The



P R E F AC E.- xix

The cuflom of travelling on the
Sabbath is of great aild notorious
prevalence r but certainly the law,
which devotes it to religious offices,
is broken by fuch abufe. The loo fe-
nefs of Catholic,- forms no juit prece-
dent for an equal licence: in Pfoteftant^
difcipline. Vice is the fame on an
ifland or continent, and cannot alter
its nature by any change of meridian.
The fame rule will with equal ftricl:-
nefs apply, to the general views of
events and circumftances. For if it
be an obligation of Chriftian piety to
afcribe the turns of human felicity to
the wifdom and benevolence of the
Deity, this acknowledgment ought in
juftice to pervade the details of a long
and eccentric tour, befet with hazards,
and interfperfed with adventure.

b 2 With



xx PREFACE.

With thefe preliminaries, the author
is content to meet the public eye.
Convinced that the fentence of the
world, when fairly tolle&ed, is rarely
unjuft, he has endeavoured to furnifh
in the remarks premised, the means of
eftabliihing an equitable judgment.

Speak of me as I am nothing extenuate,
Or fet down ought in malice

Such is the rule, by which, as he
Ihould judge of others, he wifhes
himfelf to be judged.

JlNVARY 7, 1796.



CONTENTS.



VOLUME THE FIRST.

L E T T E R I.

and plan of correfpondence Jlated
Variety afpecies of originality. Page I

LETTER II.

irft fenfatlon of a traveller Fre neb c oafl
Evils of the antlent fyjlem-r- Profpeft of

Jinal good from . the prefint- diforders
Eulogium on the. new laws, - 4



LETTER III.

Qft end Ghent -Particulars refpeElittg the

Gantois-**4fpeft of .the place Churches

b 3 St.



xxii CONTENTS.

-St. GedukGriticifm and nature not

always agreed -DigreJJion on Belgic po-
litics. - Page 8

LETTER IV.

BruJJels Gloomy afpett in Holy Week
Strength of devotion Religious card'
party ProfpecJ of concluding penance
Confecration of days. - - 15

LETTER V.

Defcripfion of a religious ceremony Devout
character of common people Catholic pe-
nance transferable property. - 20

LETTER VI.

Penance concluded Gonfequent changes
Theatre Societies Comteffe de Choifeul
* Chivalry not extincJ at Bru/els " La-
" dies Club." 24

LETTER VII.
Politenefs exemplified. <*-\ 28



CONTENTS.



LETTER VIII.
Pbilofophy of the heart Inftanced in French
NobleJ/e Their conduct defcribed- Cha-
racier of a, Frenchman traced in his lan-
guage Condujion in favour of philofo-
pby. - - Page 30

LETTER IX.

National varieties four ce of travellers pleafure
Law of etiquette Fourth law of mo-
rals Defined Example to the rule
Relation of trifling occurrences defended. 35

LETTER X.

Park Palace of the arch- due hefs Pillage of
the revolutionifts Compared 'with mili-
tary law. - 39

LETTER XI.

Intention of quitting Bruffets Character of
Flemings Anecdote Conclujion againjl
them. - - - 43



xxiv CONTENTS.

LETTER XII.

Entrance upon Antwerp Church of Notre
Dame General Jlate of Antwerp T
Amujements Remains of revolutionary fpi-
rit Political eonjeQurej* Page 47

LETTER XIII.

ViciJJitudes in the hi/lory of Antwerp Siege
in 1585 Treaty of Munjler No change
in the fpirit of fanaticifm Portrait of
Van Eupen his machinations, defeat, and
fight. - r - $1

LETTER XIV.
From Antwerp to Breda Country defcribed
Contraft between Dutch and Aujlrian
Brabant Breda defcribed Rendezvous
of the late revolutionifts- Sketch offome
particulars previous to the capture of Bruf*
fels Apology for alluding to Belgic affairs^
Different views of PruJJia and Hoi"
land. r ~ - J



CONTENTS. **f

LETTER XV.

Convenience of travelling through Holland*
Entrance of a vej/el for Rotterdam Ab~
rupt feparation-r-Agrtmens of land tra-
vellingPaJJage of the Biejbock Embar-
raffed route by land. - Page 64

LETTER XVI.

J)utch Cabaret Hollanders mduftrious
Route to Rotterdam Rotterdam defcribed
Statue of Erafmus- Prudent manage-
ment of literary honours* <- 72

BETTER XVII.

Peculiar character of Rotterdam Trade the
predominant concern Precipitate depart-
ure. . 77

LETTER XVIII.

Delft Its rarities The Hague Prome-
nade to Scheveling Village, &c. Houfes
Palace of the Stadtholder Churches,

Preachers^



xxvi CONTENTS.

Preachers? &# The fair Drcfs of
Dutch girls Singular hats Apology for
f eventy. - - Page 80

LETTER XIX.

PaJJage to Amjlerdam Mode of travelling
Manners of Paffengen Ley den and
Haerlem Banks of Canals Firjl coup
d'csil of Amjlerdam Paufe from narra-
tion. - - - 86

'

LETTER XX.

City of Amfterdam Eiiloglum on Its com-
mercial character Compared with its quon-
dam rival Antwerp- Aclivity of the city
Streets Stadthoufe Churches Carri-

~ ages Bridge Proofed account of a con-
\ trajledfcene. - -90

LETTER XXI.

*Tfip to Broek View of Amjlerdam from
BuyJifloodt^-Approach to Broek Broek
defcribed Elegant neatncfs of the houfes

Grotefque



CONTENTS. xxvii

Grotefque forms of the gardens, &c. In-
tenor of the boufes. Singular cujloms
Difficulty of accounting for this neatnefs
Return to Amjlerdam. - P a g e 96

LETTER XXII.

Pajjage to Utrecht 'The city defcribed
Glance at Its hi/lory Anecdote from Du-
clos Route to Bommel Bois-lc-duc -
Country defcribed Preparation for ad-
vancing. - . - 103

LETTER XXIII.

Neatnefs of Hollanders confidercd Princi-
pally refolvable into necejjity No great
perfonal neatnefs Hollanders reputed
knavi/Ii Accounted for Different cha-
racier of towns and villages Vindication
of the lajl Religious anecdotes Conclufwn
in favour of their moral virtues. 109



xxviii CONTENTS.

LETTER XXIV.

Singular filiation of Holland confidered*
Goldfmitb referred to Samenefs in the
qfpecJ of its towns Gardens criticifed
Uncouthnefs in thefc conjiftent with their
general habits. Page 1 1 j

LETTER XXV.

Reflections on the national policy of Holland
' Orange cockade univcrfal Attempt to
account for this fubmiffion Political difaf-
feffion of Hollanders Spirit of Hollanders
unforgiving-r-Aneedote in proof. 123

LETTER XXVI.

Route from Bois-le-duc described Maef-
tricbt, its lively afpeft Liege ^ the picJurc
rcvcrfed Sfa, its fituation Salubrity of
its fpr ings not its only attraction Dear-
nefs of living- Water not the only beve-
fage at Spa. - 129



LETTER XXVIL

Necejfity becoming a virtue Illuflrated in
the drefs of the female Hollander- Rule
applied to falubrious fprlngs~~- Advantage
of the union between amufement and regi-
men Its greater dif advantage Conclu-
fion again/I Spa* - Page 134

LETTER XXVIII.
Singular grant of indulgence Departure for
Aix Difgufting effecJ of invalids Ca-
tbedral) devotion of its voorfhippersSame
obferved at Jullers Arrival at Duffel-
dorf. - 138

LETTER XXIX.

Works of art bejl viewed in company Gal"
lery of the Eleffor Chamber of Rubens
Of Vander-Werf Italian " La lumlere
" vraiment foufflee" The 'wife andfoolifo
virgins Holy family Moral reflecJion.

142



xxx CONTENTS.

LETTER XXX.

Cologne defer ibed Bonn y palace , &c.
Pi3urefque route to Remangen-^- Improve-
ment of country to Andcrnacb Reflexion
on its ruins. - Page 147

LETTER XXXI.

Pof.tion ofCobkntzFairfex - drefs of men
Deception offcenery Two evils which
exercife a traveller s fortitude Singular
coachman Arrival at Mayencc. 152

LETTER XXXII.

Mayence defer ibed High mafs Table
d'Hote Abbes Comparifon of manners at
French^ Dutch^ and German tables Hau-
teur of Ecclefiqftics Worms Entrance
into Manheim Rendezvous of emigrants
Refactions on their fate. - r$6

LETTER XXXIII.

Difcipline of Manheim Entrance upon AI-*
face Goodeffefts of the revolution Gaiety

f



CONTENT S.

of the people -Route to Strafboitrg Vejlige
~ of corruption Religious procejfion Apo-
logy for defective defcriptions. Page 162

LETTER XXXIV.

The revolution confideredIts effects on lan-
guage ^Changes in Strafbourg -Contrqfl
between revolutionifts and emigrants Po-
litical afpeft of the place Contraft ofan-
tient and modern decrees Moore ?io pro-
phet. 167

LETTER XXXV.

Wanfof fpecie at Stra/bourg Dread of pa-
per-payment Orderly Jlate of inhabitants
National emolument Religious worfhip
protected Rencontre at Mulhaufen
Dialogue. - - .172

LETTER XXXVI.

Advance of clock at BaJIe Three kings
Beauty of the Rhine Cbarafttr of Eqfle
$ Simple



xii CONTENTS;

Simple manners of inhabitants Beftfpc-*
ties of poetry. - Page 178

LETTER XXXVII.

Drefs of women Eulogium on Bafle Route
to Berne Mountainous varieties Sin-
gular pojition of ' BieJlal-Soleure Arrival
at Berne. - - 183

LETTER XXXVIII.

Gout for amufements inflanced in an emigrant
Pojition of Berne Political difcujjion
Inqui/itive character Route to Geneva.

188

LETTER XXXIX.

Pojition of Geneva Lake Its banks
Mountains Grand Saleve Petit Mole
Glaciers Aiguilles Mont Blanc -
Rhone and Arve. - 194

LETTER XL.

Effetl of King's fight on police of Geneva
on the people Commotion upon bis arrefl

4



CONTENTS. xxxiii

Effeft upon Laufanne Promenades Po-
liticians " La belle democrats" Love-
Language. - Page 199

LETTER XLT.

Drefs, &c. Goutc Genevefe dinner Di-
vifions of Sunday evening Political ftate
of Geneva. - - 204

LETTER XLII.
Federation celebrated at Ferney Introduc-
tion to company Speech of Commandant
EnglifJ} toajled Compliment returned
EffefisGood order of the whole F<?/-
taires hwtfe. - 209

LETTER XLIII.

Laiifanne ^Environs Swell of lakt Cha-
racter of Laufanne Gibbon Firft view
of Glacier s -Projecl of tour. 217

LETTER XLIV.

Route to Cb amount Bonneville Singular
infer if tion Cajcade at kalencheCbar-
VOL, fc c Z-bancs



xxxiv CONTENTS,

a-bancs Cafcade of Ghedc Gaieties of
$t, Gervais. - Page 221

LETTER XLV.

Glacier de Boffins Its beauty Dangers of


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