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region about Abiquiu is called by the name of [3 : 36].

(2) " To this ruin the San Juan Tehuas apply tho name of Abe-
chiu, while those of Santa Clara call it Oj-po-re-ge, 'Place where
metates are made rough '. Abechiu is undoubtedly the original
name, and the other one of more recent date'."' In a footnote
on the same page Bandelier adds: " 'Lugar adonde pican los
metates'. As the ancient metates were not made rough by pick-
ing, I therefore conclude that it is a modern designation for

1 Bandelier, Final Eeport, pt. n, p. 53, note, 1892.

2Ibid., p. 56. Bandelier refers to H. C. Yarrow, Notice of a Euined Pueblo and an Ancient Burial
Place in the Valley of the Rio Chama, Eeport upon United States Geographical Surveys West of 100th
Meridian, vn, pp. 362-65.

8 Antiquities, No. 30, 1906.

1 Conimunautds, p. 42, 1908.

6 Bandelier, op. cit., p. 58.



140 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIAN'S [eth. ann. 29

the place." Either Bandelier or his informants have made a
mistake in giving this form, ' poH'''' means ' rough metate' ('o
'metate'; po 'rough'; '*'»' locative and adjective-forming postfix).
The expression meaning 'I make the metate rough' is niJ'Qr)j''o-
'pd'o'"> (n4 'I' emphatic pronoun; uq'oj' 'I it for myself prefixed
pronoun; 'o ' metate '; j5>c> 'to roughen'; 'o'" present progressive).
No such form as -poM- is possible. The writer has studied this
word especially with Santa Clara informants. Po ' rough ' is a
very uncommon word, pa being the common word rendering
' rough ' and the verb Suisse the common expression meaning to
roughen by pecking. ' Olcutssg^iwe would be the common Santa
Clara translation of " lugar adonde pican los metates" ('o 'me-
tate'; Tcutss^ 'to roughen by pecking'; 'zi^e locative). ^o.^emeans
' fish weir ', po.ie means ' head '. Prepounding 'o ' metate ' to either
of these words would form a compound which has little meaning.
The Santa Clara informants can not understand "Oj-po-re-ge"
at all, and none of them nor any other Tewa informant ever
heard Abiquiu Pueblo ruin called by such a name. ' Opo'oywi:,
^opd'qywige could be formed, but "does not sound right" ('<? 'me-
tate'; po 'rough'; ^ywi 'pueblo'; ge ' down at' 'over at').

(3) " Kwengyauinge ('blue turquoise house').'" "Kweng-
yauinge (maison de la turquoise bleue)".^ This name is evi-
dently Kv/n,fs^''qy'wi^e ' over at the turquoise pueblo ' Qcunfs^
'turquoise' <1cu 'stone', ny^ as in ^q,nfx 'salt', cf. '4 'alkali';
'qywi 'pueblo'; ge 'down at' 'over at'). The Tewa know two
pueblos by the name Eu7)fc^''q7jwi; one is the inhabited pueblo
called in Eng. and Span. Pueblito [13:15], which lies northwest
from San Juan on the west side of the Rio Grande and is inhab-
ited by San Juan Indians; the other is the pueblo ruin in the Tano
country [39:23] near the turquoise deposit [29:55]. That the Tewa
know a third pueblo by this name is not impossible, but persistent
questioning of informants has failed to bring the information that
there is a Kunj'se'qywi in the Chama Eiver valley. Cf . S:y,lc&ii-
^qywikeji, one of the names of [3:9].

See [3:9], [3:16], [3:19], and [3:86].

[4] EL EITO SHEET

The region shown on this sheet (map 4) is generally called in Tewa,
Eng., and Span, after El Rito town [4:5] or the plain or creek bearing
that name. In the central and southern part of the area shown vege-
tation is scarce and the low hills are sandy.

' Hewett, Antiquities, p. 34, 1906.
2 Hewett, Communautfe, p. 42, 1908.



MAP 4
EL RITO REGION










;^-»>;"<i^"-'






7






•<. "V


















LU

o

H



MAP 4
EL RITO REGION



HAKEINGTON] PLACE-NAMES 141

Two pueblo ruins are shown on the sheet. These two seem to be
the only ruins in this area which are known to the .San Juan people.
They are claimed by the Tewa, who have definite traditions that they
were built and occupied by their ancestors.

[4:1] (1) P-pQpiyy, Pi^q,kwaje, Pi^(l,piykwa)^ ' light-reddishness moun-
tains' ' light-reddishness heights', referring to the color of the
mountains (pi'4 old absolute form of pi^^wi^^, pi'iwiyy 'light-
reddishness' 'light red' 'pinkness' 'pink' <pi 'redness' 'red',
'4^*'*, ^Qwiyj" 'brownness' 'brown' but when postpounded to
other color names indicates light and faint quality of color; piyy
'mountain'; hwaje 'height'). With the use of the absolute form
of the color-adjective in this name, that is, of pv'q, instead of
pi''q,wv'*, pi'QiWirjf compare posi 'greenness' 'green' in the name
[6:24] instead of posvwi''^, posiwiyf, and ho 'grayness' 'gray' in
the name [6:21] instead of howi^^, howiyf. The forms pi^q,, posi,
and ho do not occur in Tewa as it is spoken at the present time,
but they are un4erstood. They are old nouns and correspond to
the noun-forms of other color- words, as pi 'redness', as compared
with ^*'4'% pi'ivj' 'red'.

These mountains or heights are more noticeably reddish than
the plain [4:4] at their base, and it is not improbable that all the
other geographical features which are called P*'^- get their names
from them. The canyon [4:2] and creek [4:3], the town [4:5], and
ruin [4:7] certainly get their names Pi''Q,- from the mountains
[4:1] and the plain [4:4], and since the plain is less conspicuously
red than the mountains and bears the name Pi'o.nuge ' over at the
foot of the pink' (see [4:4]), one is led to think that the mountains
give the names to all these places, or at least suggest the names
as strongly as does the plain.

(2) ffitdpiigj', g'itd'impiyj' ' El Rito Mountains '(y*V^ <Span.
El Rito, Rito, see discussion under [4:3]; 'iyy locative and
adjective-forming postfix; ^i»?y 'mountain'). =Eng. (3), Span.

(3) Eng. El Rito Mountains. ( < Span.). = Tewa (2), Span. (4).

(4) Span. Sierra del' Rito Colorado, Sierra del Rito, Cerros del
Rito ' red creek mountains '. See discussion under [4:3]. =Tewa
(2), Eng. (3).

Cf. [4:2], [4:3], [4:4], [4:5], and [4:7]. The most easterly of the
mountains shown on the sheet is not as reddish as the others.
[4:2] (1) Pi^^nicg.epoisi'i, Pi^inug^impoTsi^i 'pink-below water can-
yon' {Pi^nugjB, see [4:4]; Hyf locative and adjective-forming
postfix; poisiH 'canyon with water in it' < po 'water', tsi'i can-
yon').



142 ETHNOGEOGEAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [bth. ANN. 29

(2) ffiHtpofsiH, ffitit'impoisiH ' El Rito Canyon ' (2f ^V-w, see [4:3];
'i2?y locative and adjective-forming post6x; ^(?S^'J 'canyon with
water in it' < po 'water', fsiH 'canyon').

"The Mexican settlement of El Rito lies at the northern end of
the basin, near where the creek issues from a sombre and rocky
gorge".' Cf. [4:2], [4:3], [4:4], [4:5], [4:Y].
[4:3] (1) Pi'inug.epohu'u, Pi''g,mig.e'iniPohu''u 'pink below creek'
(P*'^?iwge[4:4]; '^T/y locative and adjective-forming postfix; poku'u
'creek with water in it' < po 'water', hw'u 'large groove'
'arroyo').

(2) ^itit' Poku'u, ffiiii'im poku'u 'El Rito Creek' {ffifii < Span.
(4), Hvy locative and adjective-forming postfix; poku'u 'creek
with water in it' < po 'water', ku'u 'large groove' 'arroyo').
= Eng. (3), Span. (4).

(3) Eng. El Rito Creek, Elrito Creek, El Rito Colorado Creek,
RitoCreek. (<Span.). =Tewa(2), Span. (4).

(4) Span. El Rito Colorado, El Rito 'the red creek' ' the creek'.
Mexicans say that the proper name is El Rito Colorado, but most
of them say El Rito. =Tewa (2), Eng. (3).

The creek proper, Te wa foAw'M, begins where the stream emerges
from the canyon [4:2] three miles above El Rito town [4:5] and
is called poku'u from that point to its mouth. The course below
El Rito town appears at the present time to be dry throughout the
year; this may be due to irrigation at El Rito town. The places
[4:1], [4:2], [4:4], [4:5], and [4:7]' seem to get their Span, names
from the creek [4:3] while their old Tewa names, Pt'i-, are derived
from either the mountains [4:1], the plain [4:4], or from both.
Perhaps this creek is occasionally called by still another name in
Tewa and Span. — Kasitapoku'u, Kasitii'impoku'u, Span. Rito
Casita, Ritode Casita, referring to [4:9] and [4:10], but San Juan
Indians have denied this. Cf. [4:1], 4:2], [4:4], [4:5], and [4:7].
[4:4] (1) Pi'q.nug.e, Pi'inug.e'akqyj', Pi'&nuge'ivf 'aJcqyj- 'pink below'
'pink below plain' {pi'd 'pinkness' 'pink' < ^* 'redness' 'red',
'i 'brownness' 'brown', but when postpotmded to other color-
names indicates light or faint quality of color; nuge^helow' in
contradistinction to the mountains [4:'l] < nu'u 'below', ge 'over
at' 'down at'; 'i?;y locative and adjective-forming postfix; 'akqyf
'plain'). See [4:1]. Cf. [4:2], [4:3], [4:5], [4:7]. "The level
basm of El Rito spreads out to the view. It is surrounded by
wooded heights on all sides; its goil is dark red, and on its eastern
edge flows the stream that has taken its name from the color of
the ground."*



'Bandelier, Final Report, pt. II, p, 51, 1892.



HARRINGTON] PLACE-NAMES 143

(2) y^itu'akqVJ'', Eit^'ivf 'akqyf ' El Rito plain' {:ijiti(, < [4:3],
Span. (4); ''{yf locative and adjective-forming prefix; "'akqyf
'plain'). =Eng. (3), Span. (4).

(3) Eng. El Rito Plain, Elrito Plain, Rito Plain. (< Span.).
=Tewa(2), Span. (4).

(4) Span. Llano del Rito Colorado, Llano del Rito, ' red creek
plain' 'the creek plain'. =Tewa (2), Eng. (3). "The Rito
plain. "^

This name applies to the whole plain about El Rito town [4:6],
this plain lying entirely west of the creek [5:3]. The plain is
level and reddish, but not as markedly so as the mountains [4:1].
It extends toward the south beyond [4:9] and [4:10]. See [4:1].
Cf. [4:2], [4:3], [4:5], [4:7].
[4:5] (1) Pi^qtnngebu'u, Pi'inug.e'imhu^u 'pink below town' {Pi^d-
nug.e, see [4:4]; 4??y locative and adjective-forming postfix; 6w'm
'town').

(2) ffttiibu'u, ffituHm iu'u ' El Rito town' {^itit < [4:3], Span.
(4); 'J7;y locative and adjective-forming postfiix; buhi 'town').
= Eng. (3), Span. (4).

(3) Eng. El Rito settlement, Elrito settlement, Rito settlement.
(<Span.). =Tewa (2), Span. (4).

(4) Span. El Rito Colorado, El Rito, 'red creek' 'the creek'.
" The Mexican settlement of El Rito."='

Bandelier gives the elevation of El Rito, according to Wheeler,
as 6,792 feet.* "The Mexican settlement of El Rito lies at the
northern end of the basin, near where the creek [4:3] issues from
a sombre and rocky gorge [4:2]."^ There is considerable land
under irrigation at El Rito town. Cf. [4:1], [4:2], [4:3], [4:4], [4:7].
[4:6] (1) 'Ek.welanbJm.al. (<Span.). Eng. (2), Span. (3).

(2) Eng. Spanish- American Normal School. =Tewa (1),
Span. (3).

(3) Span. Escuela Normal. =Tewa (1), Eng. (2).

Mr. Eulogio Cata, of San Juan Pueblo, is the only Tewa Indian
who has attended this school, the object of which is the training
of teachers for schools in which many of the pupils come from
Mexican homes.
[4:7] (1) Pi'^nug.e'Qywikeji 'pink below pueblo ruin' {Pi'q.nuge, see
[4:4]; ^oywikeji 'pueblo ruin' K'oyvii 'pueblo,' keji 'ruin' post-
pound).

(2) ffiinL^qrjwiheji, ^ituirj/qiywyceii 'El Rito Pueblo ruin'
{^iib < [4:3], Span. (4); 'i?7y locative and adjective-forming post-
fix; "> oyw^ceji 'pueblo ruin' K'q'ywi 'pueblo', %V 'ruin' postfix).

1 Bandelier. Final Eeport, pt.ii, p.53, 1892.
2 Ibid., p. 51.



3



144 ETHNOGBOGEAPHY OF THE TEW A INDIANS [eth. ANN. 29

The pueblo ruin is a quarter of a mile northeast of the Spanish-
American Normal School. It consists of indistinct mounds
which lie in a field. Potsherds of red ware may be picked up
from the mound. According to San Juan informants this was
a Tewa pueblo and its old name was the name given above
under Tewa (1). This is all the information that could be
obtained about it.
[4:8] S^p^we' qywiJeeji ' S^ps^we Pueblo ruin ' {Ss^ps^w^ unexplained
except that -we is probably the locative postfix used in the Namb6
dialect meaning 'at' 'up at'; 'qywikeji 'pueblo ruin' <.^Q'r)%oi
'pueblo,' Iceji 'ruin' postfix). An effort has been made to get the
explanation of this name at San Juan, Santa Clara, San Ilde-
fonso, and especially at Narab6, where the old Winter Cacique
thought a long time about it. The meaning of the word has been
forgotten by the Tewa. "Se-pa-ua".'^ "Se-pa-ue".^ "Sepaue".
"Sepawi".^

This ruin is described by Bandelier^ and by Hewett." Accord-
ing to Bandelier it is the largest ruin in New Mexico. "Les
traditions rattachent cette tribu [Namb6] a celle des Sepawi
sur I'oued El Rito, dans la vallee du Chama.'"' "A 9 milles au
sud-ouest d'Ojo Caliente, dans la valMe El Eito, on aperpoit Se-
pawi, Tune des plus grandes mines de la region Pueblo . . . On
n'en connait pas I'histoire, mais, d'apres la tradition, ce serait
le village actuel de Namb6, a [20] milles a vol d'oiseau au sud-
est. " 8 The old Winter Cacique of, Namb6 informed the writer that
Namb6 people or Tewa used to live at Ss^ps^we, but this informa-
tion had to be gained as an answer to a leading question. A num-
ber of Tewa were found who knew of Ss^ps^we ruin, but not one who
seemed to know definitely that Namb6 people used to live there.
It is generally known that it is a Tewa ruin. The writer is un-
able to understand from reading Bandelier and Hewett on which
side of El Rito Creek the ruin is situated. According to Hewett,'
."Sepawi" is located on the east side of El Rito Creek; three San
Juan informants and the old Winter Cacique of Namb6 stated that
the ruin is on the west side of the creek, but perhaps they were led
to say this because they know the ruin is near El Rito town and
that the latter is on the west side.
[4:9] (1) Xasita. (<Span.). =Eng. (3), Span. (4).

(2) Teqwa'e 'little house', translating Span. (4) {teqim 'house'
<te 'dwelling-place', qwa indicating hollowness or receptacle; 'e



1 Bandelier, Final Report, pt. ii, p. 17, 1S92.
' Ibid., p. 51.
» Ibid., p. 52.

[ Hewett: General View, p. 597, 1905; Antiquities, p. 40, 1906; Communautfe, pp. 33, 41 99 1908
1 Bandelier, op. cit., pp. 51-52. > i-r , , ., .to™.

» Antiquities, No. 38, 1906; Communaut4s, pp. 33, 41, 1908.

' Ibid., p. 33. 8 ihid d 41 n . i-

•■ P' ^'- ' Antiquities, pi. xvii.



HAEBINGTON] PLACE-NAMES 145

diminutive). =Tewa (1), Eng. (3), Span. ('4). This term would
hardly be used, but the writer heard it employed once in the
conversation of a San Juan Indian.

(3) Eng. Casita. (<Span.). =Tewa (1), Tewa (2), Span. (4).

(4) Span. Casita 'little house'. =Tewa (1), Tewa (2), Eng. (3).
The modern Mexican settlement is entirely on the western side

of the creek. At this point a wide low plain extends eastward
from the creek, but above and below Casita there is no plain east
of the creek, the country being covered by low barren hills.
See [4:10].
[4:10] (1) Kasiixikeji^ Kasitabukeji 'old Casita' 'old Casita town'
{Kasita <Span. Casita 'little house'; iu^u 'town'; heji 'ruin'
postpound). =Tewa (2), Eng. (3), Span. (4).

(2) Tegwa^ekeji, Teqwa^ebukeji 'little house ruin' 'little house

town ruin' {teqwa 'house' <te 'dwelling-place', g'W'a indicating

hollowness or receptacle; 'e diminutive; bu'u 'town'; keji 'ruin'

postpound). =Tewa(l), Eng. (3), Span. (4).

' (3) Eng. Old Casita. ( < Span.). = Tewa (1), Tewa (2), Span. (4).

(4). Span. Casita Vieja 'old little house' settlement. =Tewa
(1), Tewa (2), Eng. (3).

The ruins of the adobe houses of Old Casita are seen about a
mile south of the present Casita on the eastern ,side of the creek
[4:3]. The ruin of an adobe church looms among them. The
ruin is about 500 feet east of the creek. An old plum tree stands
on the western bank of the creek opposite the ruin. An old
informant of San Juan said that when he was a boy Old Casita
was still inhabited by Mexicans. See [4:9].
[4:11] PokwiiaMu 'dry lake corner' {pokwi 'lake' <fo 'water', kwi
unexplained; ta 'dryness' 'dry'; hu^u 'large low roundish
place').

This hollow among the hills is 3 or 4 miles east of [4:10] and
north of [4:18]. An old San Juan Indian said that when he was
a boy his father and he went deer hunting in the hills east of El
Rito Creek; having killed a deer, they hung it up in a cedar tree
at Pohwifabu'u. They went to Placita Colorada [5:16] to get a
donkey on which to carry the deer home. When they returned
to Pokwiiabu'u they discovered that someone had taken the deer
during their absence. They found the deer at the house of a
Mexican at the now ruined Old Casita. It is said that Pokwiiabu'u
does not drain into any creek. There is a little water in the lake
there only after a heavy rain.
[4:12] Pepowikqhu'u 'coyote water gap barranca arroyo' {Depowi\
see under [4:unlocated]; kqhu'u 'barranca arroyo' <^g 'bar-
ranca', Aw'm 'large groove' 'arroyo').
87584°— 29 eth— 16 10



146 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [bth. ann. 29

This arroyo runs into [4:13] and is crossed by the wagon road
[4:15] west of [4:14]. The gap from which it gets its name is
somewhere near the upper course. The trail [4:16] is said to pass
through this gap. See PepowiH [4:unlocated].

[4:13] Tomajokoku'u, see [3:22].

[4:14] fow^'e 'little people' 'the twin War Gods' {iowh, 'person'; 'e
diminutive).

At the northeastern extremity of the low mesa indicated on the
map stand two eroded knobs of earth about the size of half -grown
children. These are at the top of a cliff 20 or 30 feet high, at
the level of the top of the mesa. The main road between El
Kito and Abiquiu passes within a few hundred feet of these War
Gods, the arroyo [4:13] lying between the wagon road and
the effigies. "Picturesque rocks, curiously eroded, line the creek
bottom on the east." ^

[4:15] Main wagon road connecting El Rito and Abiquiu. The road
from El Kito to Abiquiu passes the Spanish- American Normal
School [4:6] and the.Eito Plain [4:4], Casita [4:9], and somewhat
below Casita crosses the creek [4:3], recrossing it just, north of

[4:16] JViiufsejiwepo, N^rdsejiw^im po 'Tierra Amarilla trail' {JVinfse-
jiwe, see [l:Tierra Amarilla region]; 'iyj' locative and adjective-
forming postfix; po 'trail').

In following this old trail one leaves Rio Chama town [5:16],
crosses El Rito Creek [4:3] and the upper [4:13], passes through
PepowiH [4 :unlocated], and across [1:32], [1:15], and [1:14] to the
Tierra Amarilla region.

[4:17] 'Oku heh^nj'u''i"^ 'long hill' ('c^w 'hill'; heh^nfu 'long'; '»'
locative and adjective-forming postfix).

One wagon road passes down the east side of the creek between
the stream and the crest of this hill. In driving from El Rito to
Abiquiu one takes the road which turns to the west [4:16] before
reaching this hill.

[4:18] Nameless arroyo, see [7:12].

[4:19] Tutsimbehu'u, see [7:18].

Unlocated

PepowiH 'coyote water gap' (4e 'coyote'; po 'water'; vnH 'gap'
'pass').
This is a gap in the hills somewhere in the upper course of [4:12],
q. V. The trail [4:16] passes through it. There is said to be a
sprmg or a wet place at the gap, hence the name po ' water.'

1 Bandelier, Final Report, pt. ii, p. 53, 1892.



MAP 5
LOWER CHAMA RIVER REGION



... 'c/.-





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C3
LJ
CC

ce

UJ

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UJ

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MAP 5
LOWER CHAMA RIVER REGION



HARUiNGTON] PLACE- NAMES 147

Tsefu^u 'eagle end' {tse 'eagle*; fu^u 'projecting end of a long
object in horizontal position ').

This was said by a Santa Clara informant to be a mountain north
of El Rito[4:5]. It was also said that the name is Tsefu 'eagle
nose'(/'!< 'nose'), but this was probably due to misunderstanding.

[5] LOWER CHAMA RIVEE SHEET

This sheet (map 5) includes a part of the lower Chama River valley.
Six pueblo ruins are shown, all of which have old Tewa names and
are declared by the Tewa to have been occupied by their ancestors.

[5:1] Tom.ajoJcqhu'u, see [3:22].

[5:2] Towa'e, see [4:14].

[5:3] El Rito Creek, see [4:3].

[5:4] TutsQ.m'behu^u, see [7:18].

[5:5] ^4wi4piz?y' wrestling mountain '(^^m^, see [5:7]; fiyf ^mowo.-
tain').

This small, round hill is about half a mile southeast of the junc-
tion of El Rito Creek with Chama River. It is not more than 60
feet high, but very symmetrical and prominent. The name given
above is certainly the old Tewa name of the hill, and it is not im-
possible that the hill gave the name Tsdw4- to the pueblo ruin
[5 :7] and other features in the vicinity. Inquiry was made of a
Mexican family which lives on the ranch situated between [5:5]
and [5:6] as to the Mexican name of the hill, but they said that it
has none. However, another Mexican said that he calls it Cer-
rito Redondo 'round hill'. See [5:7]: Cf. [5:6], [5:8], [5:9].

[5:6] TsQ,m4ke-ii, TsQm4hw(ye 'wrestling height' {TsQ,m4, see [5:7];
IceM, hmaje 'height').

This is the height on which the pueblo ruin [5:7] stands. The
main wagon road down the Chama River valley east of the river
passes between [5:5] and [5:6] and then along the base of [5:6],
between [5:6] and [5:8] and [5:9]. Cf. [5:5], [5:7], [5:8], [5:9]._

[5:7] Ts^mq'' qyv^ikeji 'wrestling pueblo ruin' {tsq,m4 'to wrestle';
'qywikeji 'pueblo ruin' < 'g5^oi 'pueblo', keji 'ruin' postpound).
The verb tsQtnq, is used only in a perfect or past sense; the verb
denoting 'wrestling' in the present or future is nj'a. Thus ^Hi-
nfo^^^ 'they are wrestling with each other' (^^8^ 'they 3+ with
themselves'; n/a 'to wrestle'; ./e'« progressive present); iibitsq^mq,
'they have wrestled with each other' {^ibi 'they 3+ with them-
selves'; tsqm4, 'to have wrestled'). The informants thought it
likely that the name Ts^mq. was originally applied to the pueblo,
perhaps because there was at some time in the past a wrestling
contest there, and that the other places in the vicinity are named



148 ETHKOGEOGRAPHY OP THE TEWA INDIANS [hth. ann.29

Ts^m4 from the pueblo. The writer has not had an opportunity to
look through early Span, documents for mention and forms of the
nameChama. Theform"Zama"isu8edbyZarate-Salmeron.^ So
far as he is aware the only other form which occurs in Span, docu-
ments is the now standardized Chama; San Pedro de Chama also
occurs. These terms, Zama, Chama, and San Pedro de Chama,
appear to have been used in Span, invariably to designate either the
whole Chama River district ("San Pedro de Chama, as the district
was called after the reoccupancy of New Mexico"^) or the Chama
River itself. The diminutive form Chamita has been and is given
to the eastern part of the V-shaped tract of lowland formed by the
confluence of the Chama River with the Rio Grande, and to the
Mexican settlement made there. The latter place and settlement
have been or are also called San Gabriel del Yunque and San Gabriel
de Chamita, or even merely San Gabriel. See [13 :28]. ' ' The name
Chamita dates from the eighteenth century, and was given in order
to distinguish it from the settlements higher up on the Chama
River," ^ Now Span. Zama, Chama, evidently come from Tewa
Tsdmi, name of the former Tewa pueblo [5:7], applied also to
several other places near that pueblo. Since there is much land
good for agriculture in the vicinity of that pueblo, the writer
believes that one of the Span, settlements higher up on the Chama
River in contradistinction to which Chamita gets its name, was at
Ts^mi-. At any rate, the first extensive farming land encountered
in going up the Chama valley after leaving the region about the
Canoe Mesa near San Juan [5:55] is at Ts^mg,-, and it is not at all
strange that the name Tsc^m4- was taken over into Span, and
applied first to a more or less definite region up the Chama Valley,
as the Tewa applied it, then to the whole Chama River region,
and more recently especially to the Chama River itself. It was
forgotten long ago by the Mexicans, if indeed it was ever clearly
understood by them, that Ts^ma- is properly only the name
of a former Tewa pueblo and of a little round hill, a marsh, and
rich bottom-lands which lie beside it. What relation the name
Placita Rio Chama [5:16] bears to the names discussed above is
impossible to determine without historical evidence. It is always
called Placita Rio Chama 'Chama River town' and never Placita
Chama. The settlement may be called by this name for no other
reason than because it is in the Chama River valley. In going
up the river it is the first compact Mexican settlement met after
passing [5:33] and entering the narrower part of the Chama
River valley. From Chama applied to the Chama River the



'Quoted by Bandelier^ Pinal Report, pt. II, p. 60, ]892.
2Bandelier, ibid., p. 62.



HARRINGTON] PLACE-NAMES 149

modern town of Chama on the Denver and Kio Grande Railroad
in the northernmost part of New Mexico gets its name.

Ts^m^' qyviikeji is a very large ruin consisting of low mounds.
Three large courtyards can be distinctly made out. An Indian



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