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THE



EAST INDIA



MILITARY CALENDAR;



CONTAINING



THE SERVICES



OF



GENERAL AND FIELD OFFICERS



OP THR



INDIAN ARMY.



I onMned, That the Right of the Warrior thonld not b« lajured, and that the Soldier who had grown In yean
- thonld not be deprived of his Station or hi* Wages ; And that the Actions of the Soldier should not be
" Suppressed; For men who sell their Permanent Happiness for Perishable Honor, Merit GompensatlMi,
" and are worthy of Reward and Enoonragement." Institutks or Timoob.



BY

THE EDITOR OF THE ROYAL MIUTARY CALENDAR.



^^ Q-^U'/v^ / - Y- ^^-j^'-* li-



S.0tai0tt:

PRINTED FOR KINGSBURY. PARBURY, AND ALLEN, LEADENHALL-STREET.



1823.

•4<



Digitiiecliby VjOO^IC



THE NE\V YORK
PUBLIC LIBRARY

433881^'

» R t9S» t-



W. WiusoN, Printer, 4, OfCTllle-Street, Hatton-GarJen, Londoo.



. . • .



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-a - • •



mi^ Wl0tk



IS, WITH PERMISSION, RESPECTFULLY DEDICATED



TO THE



HONOURABLE THE COURT OF DIRECTORS



OF THE AFFAIRS OF THE



EAST INDIA COMPANY,



BY THEIR OBLIGED AND FAITHFUL SERVANT,



THE EDITOR.



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In concluding this Volume, the Editor has the honour publicly to acknow-
ledge his obligations to many distinguished officers who have, either from
personal friendship to him, or a desire to have the services of their contem-
poraries accurately recorded, aided and encouraged him in his labours. It
would be gratifying to the Editor to introduce their names in this notice,
but as their assistance was not given with a view to public thanks, he imagines
this general acknowledgment of their kindness will be more acceptable to
them than a particular specificution of their several favours and his obligations.

To the memory of one highly-honoured individual, by whom the Editor
was most particularly encouraged to pursue a task, agreeable, as it records the
services of honourable characters, yet both laborious and expensive in its
execution, the Editor cannot avoid the public expression of his respect and
gratitude. The friendship of that individual, the late Maj.-Gren. Sir Henry
White, K. C. B., his advice, and his talents, principally influenced the Editor
in this undertaking ; and if the work should contribute to rescue from oblivion
the services of veteran officers of the Indian Army, the memory of that dis-
tinguished character is, at least, entitled to this public acknowledgment.

It was observed to the Editor, by a late Lieutenant-General of the Madras
Establishment, that ** unfortunately during the period of the services of many
of the oldest officers of the Indian army, the military transactions in India had
not assumed in their detail that historical dress^ they have of late worn, or
had the gratifying medium for individual and subordinate merit of a gazette,
and consequently the only record of their services consists in general orders or
letters to the government, and frequently in letters to themselves*, that have
never been made known to the public." This misfortune it must be acknow*
ledged will, in a degree, be remedied by the East India Military Calendar ;
the services of some of the oldest officers of the company's army are introduced
in this volume, and the Editor will endeavour to collect and arrange for
publication those of others. \



* See p. 246.



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VI ADVERTISEMBNT.

Allusion is made in this work (p. 420) to the operations of the Indian army
not being sufficiently estimated in this country : this remark equally applies
to the services of its officers, than vi^hom there are not in any army individuals
virho have been more constantly, actively, ahd honourably employed, or who
have evinced greater gallantry and military skill : moreover, the officers of
the Indian army, as observed by Lord Morpeth*, " to all the qualifications of
soldiers unite all the accomplishments of scholars/' To the remoteness, there-
fore, of the theatre of their exploits can only be ascribed the comparatively
small degree of attention their operations have frequently excited in this coun-
try : and if by recording those operations fairly, and in the case of living
officers, without comment, the Editor can contribute to draw the public atten-
tion to their importance, he will have performed a task most grateful to his
feelings.

As it may excite surprise, that the services of officers inserted in this volume
are not arranged according to seniority of rank, the Editor begs to observe,
that the chief object which influenced their publication without such refer-
ence was, that as several of the retired Lieutenant- Colonels and Majors entered
the service prior to some lieutenant-Generals and Major-Generals of the Hon.
Company's army, it would not have been advisable to class them with officers
of their own rank now in the service, and whose military career, in some cases,
commenced at the period which terminated that of their seniors ; and con-
sidering also, that in a collection of the services of gallant men all places must
be equally honourable, he has thought it best to disregard seniority all toge-
ther in the arrangement of the services for publication.

As parts of three or four of the services of deceased officers published in this

^ On a motioo of ihanks^ in ihe House of Commons, lo the Marquess of Hastings and to the army
in India, on the 4th March 1819, by the th^n President of the Board of Controul, the Right Hon.
George Canning, Lord Morpeth observed, " that he thought the Indian or Native part of that army,
whose operations had been so warmly extolled, had vied with British soldiers in coolness and deli-
beration ; but there was one circumstance, in regard to many of our officers in India, which had
always struck him with peculiar force, — to all the qua1i6cations of soldiers, they united all the
accomplishments of scholars. This was exemplified by their scientific labours; they had per-
formed the measurement of mountains, for the purpose of discovering the difference in altitude
between those of the old continent and their competitors in the new ; they had traced the courses
of the Ganges and the Indus, amid the fatigues of war. Many of these very officers bad been
the companions of the early victories of Sir Arthur Wellesley, and maintain their former glory.'*



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ADVBRTISBMENT. Vii

work have also appeared in that respectable miscellany the * Asiatic Journal/
the Editor has further to observe, that the memoirs in question were placed
in bis hands by the friends of the deceased officers.

The Editor, in requesting to be favoured with communications from those
who are acquainted with thie services of old and distinguished deceased officers
of the Indian army, need scarcely observe, that as his object is to do justice to the
career of the General and Field Officers of the Company's present army, and to
rescue from oblivion the names and achievements of those who, from a simple
factory on the coast, struggling for its security and existence, mainly contri-
buted to render the East India Company the Governors of a vast Empire ; he
flatters himself, that officers, and the individuals connected with India, who
have the power to assist him in recording the eminent merits and exploits of
the leaders and actors in a career, honourable to their friends, families, and
descendants, and the knowledge of which is important to history, will cheer-
fully aflbrd their aid to this undertaking.

Duke-sireei, Westminster, \st Sept. 1823.



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THE



EASTINDIA

MILITARY CALENDAR.



THE LATE LIEUT.-GEN. SIR HENRY COSBY, Knt.

(Madras Establishment.)

This much-distinguished officer arrived on the coast of Coromandel
in the year 1 759) soon after the siege of Madras had been abandoned
by the French army, commanded by General Lally, and imme-
diately joined the army in the field under Colonel (afterwards Sir
Eyre) Coote, as ensign, being then a youth of between fifteen and
sixteen. He proceeded*, in 1760, with the army to retaliate on the
enemy by the siege of Pondicherry, and was appointed to the first
company of grenadiers in the Company's senrice, with which he
acted at the attack of the Bound's Hedge, where the division he was
widi, commanded by Major (afterwards General) Joseph Smith, con-
sisting entirely of Company's troops, carried the principal post, de-

• Whikt on the march towards Pondicherry, Major More, of his Majesty's 79th regi'
ment, was detached to intercept a body of the enemy, who were collecting provisions for
the garrison, when a severe action took place; and the enemy being superior jn force, the
Major found it necessary to retreat under cover of the pagodas of Trivity : during the
business of the day, Ensign Cosby, making one of the detachment, ofiered his service as
an Assistant Aid-de-Camp, and whilst attending the Major in that capacity, the latter had
Us horse killed under him by a cannon-ball, upon which Ensign Cosby remounted him on
bis, at the risk of being made prisoner himself. Mqor More, on the return of the detach-
ment, recommended him strongly to the Commander-in-Chief, and oflfered him an ensigncy
in the 79th regiment, which he declined, preferring to remain in the Company's service.



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2 THE EAST INDIA

fended by the regiments of Lovaine and Lally with ten pieces of
cannon, the latter being all taken, and many prisoners; the main
body making a precipitate retreat into the town. Immediately after
the investment of the place, Ensign Gosby was appointed to the
charge of the Ariancopong redoubt, the southermost one of the
Bound's Hedge, a situation of much importance, as it was that by
which the enemy expected ta receive suppHes, and which, though
often attempted, they were prevented from effecting by the assiduity
of this officer.

He served after this at the siege and taking of Vellore, under Ge-
neral Calliand, and being promoted to the rank of Lieutenant, was
sent on duty to lyia^ulip^tam, lyb^re^hewa^ appwointqdito qonqqiand
a detachment of two hundred sepoys, two six-pounders, and twelve
artillery men, to assist tlie then temporary Nabob of Rajamundry
against some refractory Poligars, who resisted his authority, but were
speedily brought to terms.

Lieutenant Cosby returned to Rajamundry, where his situation
became particularly dehcate, there being at that time different claim-
ants for the possession of the Northern Circars, and of course much
jealousy respecting the English influence at Rajamundry.

A near relation of one of the candidates, and nominal killedar or
governor, who commanded a fine corps .of. fiv^ hundred Arabs, which
he had brought with him from the north of India, and who shewed
evident marks of discontent at the measures now adopted, was in the
fort, and Lieutenant Cosby felt it necessary to keep a watchful eye
over hin^, which many subsequent^events justified, as he was one night
awakened by a confidential person, and informed, that most of the
Arabs had in the course of the evening been secretly collected into
the fort from the Petah, and were then in the very act of having
hall cailridges served out to them by their commander in the court of
his own residence. Not a moment was to be lost ; the barracks of the
English 3epoys were fortupately clpse to Lieutenant Cosby's owa
quarters, and the two field-pieces always kept in front of them, with
the artillery men in a shed adjoining. The men were under arms in



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MILITARY CALENDAR. 5

mx instant) Mid, with portfires lighlbd, this small body moved directly
to the Killedtfr's residence, which was rarrounded by a high wall,
and taking possession of the two approaches, obtained that advantage
whidi the smallness of the force rendered necessary. On Lieutenant
Cosby sending in a message, that if they did not immediatdy lay
down their arms, the field pieces would compel them to do so ; the
Killedar, astonished at this unexpected obstacle to his plan, which
was noticing less than to make himself master of the place, lost all his
confidence, and immediately surrendered, attempting to make many
excuses fiir his conduct. Lieutenant Crosby, however, having reason
to think the plot deeper laid than even now appeared, sent off an
express to the then Chief of Masulipatam, Mr. Pybus, under whom
he acfteil, with a ftill )account of the business, in consequence of which
a strong reinforcement was immediately sent to him for the security
of the place, until matters were finally settled between the English
government and the SoubaK of the Deccan, who assumed the right of
disposing of those provinces as he pleased, and whidfa were soon
after completely ceded to the English, when Lieutenant Cosby had
the honour of bdng the first to hoist the English colours on the fort
of Rajamundry, on the bank of the Godavery? and those provinces
stin continue an mte^ral part of the East India Company's valuable
possessions north of the Kistna.

Lieutenant Cosby was soon after appointed to silcceed Captain
Long in the command of the garrisoii of Masulipatam, in which he
contihued till 1764, v^hen officers being greatly wanted at the siege of
Mkdura, then obstinately defended by the celebrated Isoof Cawn, who
had rebelled against the Nabob of Arcot, such was Lieutenant Cosby's
zeiAj although then most advantageously situated, that he tendered
his services, which being readily accepted, he proceeded to join the
army under Colonel Charles Campbell, who was so well pleased with
his conduct on this occasion, that he immediately appointed him to
the command of eight independent companies of Sepoys stationed on
the south face of attack, where he continued till the fall of the place.

tte was next appointed to the command of Warriorpollam, a place



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4 THE BAST INDIA

dieo recently taken from the Rajah of that name, and during which
period he was indefatigable in his endeavours to bring the Sepoys
under his command to submit to a more regular system of discipline
than they had hitherto been accustomed to ; and was the first on the
coast of Coromandel who succeeded in getting them to submit to a
uniformity of dress, and many other regulations, which being after-
wards gradually adopted throughout the service, brought them to be
what they now are, very little inferior to the best troops in £urope.

In 1767, Lieutenant Cosby was promoted to the rank of Captain* ;
and the Sepoys, being then formed into regular battalions under the
command of Captains Commandant, he was appointed to the com-
mand of the sixth.

The government of Madras having at this period entered into a
treaty of Alliance with the Soubah of the Deccan and the Mahrattas,
for the reduction of the power of Hyder Ally Cawn, which had then
become very alarming. Captain Cosby with his corps, now completed
to a thousand men, was selected to make part of the £nglish contio*
gent, which was to consist of five hundred European infantry, five
battalions of Sepoys, thirty European dragoons, and sixteen field-
pieces, twelve and six-pounders, under the immediate command of
Brigadier General Josq)h Smith, the Commander-in-Chief of tlie
troops on the Madras establishment. Owing, however, to the
treacherous poHcy so common to the native powers of India, this
little army had joined the Soubah in the enemy's country but a short
time before it was discovered that the Mahrattas, being the finrt in
the field, had, after plundering every thing they could, made a se-
parate peace with Hyder ; that the Soubah was on the point of follow-
ing their example, and that the English were likely to be made a
sacrifice to this selfish and perfidious conduct. Precautions were
therefore adopted by the Madras government to. guard against the

* At this period^ from there being but few field officers in the Indian service^ the rank
of captain gave to an officer of the Company's service a command, which in the present
days woold be considered suitable for a major or lieutenant-general of the " King's army/*

J. P.



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MILITARY CALBKDAIU 5

worst that might happen; and Brigadier Greneral Smith received
orders to retire by slow marches into the Camatic with the greater
part of his force, leaving, however, for the present, three battalions of
Sepoys, under the command of Captain BaiUie, with the Soubah^ then
advanced near to Seringapatam. This was no doubt risking these
corps ; but the government had not yet, as they thought, sufficient
grounds to withdraw entirely from the league. In order, however, to
indemnify themselves, they had appointed a detachment, under Major
Bonjour, to take possession of the Biramaul country, lying between
the Carnatic and Mysore.

Whilst in this awkward situation, the three battalions left with the
Soubah became greatly in arrear of pay, and apprehensions were enter*
tained that they might mutiny, and advantage be taken of their doing
so, either by Hyder or the Soubah, to get them into thdr service ; and
as they consti tuted part of the Company's best troops, their relief became
an object of most serious consideration to the general. He therefore
detached Captain Cosby with five hundred of his own men and twelve
dragoons, with a sum of money in specie made up in bags, it being
-intended in case of extremity that the money so prepared should be
divided amongst the dragoons, in order to make a last push with it for
Captain Bliillie's camp ; and, as the whole of the route lay through
the enemy's cotmtry, and the high road within sight of several of
Hyder's garrisons, particularly Bangalore, he was directed to proceed
with as much caution as possible.

This delicate service was performed with admirable success. Captain
Cosby having so skilfully evaded the corps detached to intercept him,
as to retiirn with the loss of only one man, who deserted, ailer per-
forming a circuitous march, gmded chiefly by the compass, of 350
miles in thirteen days, including two days occupied in delivering his
charge and refreshing his troops.

The Soubah and Hyder having soon after settled matters, they
determined on the invasion of the Carnatic ; but, with more honor
than was expected, first permitting these battalions of the Company's
army to retire. Brigadier General Smith, by orders from the govern-



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6 ^ TH^ EAST INDIA

raent of Madras, began his retreat from rtie Biramaul, ih order to
cover the Company's frontiers, there to wnkt for further reinforcements,
the whole force of the English being at this time only 800 European
infantry, 5000 Sepoys, SO Ikiropean dragoons, and sixteen pieces of
cannon, twelve and six-pounders, and 1000 irregular cavalry belong-
ing to the Nabob of Arcot.

The enemy, consisting of 42,000 horse, 28,000 infantry, and 109
guns, came up with this small force on the 28th Sept«nber, 1767,
just as they had got through the Changama Pass, which divides the
Camatic from Hyder's dominions, and had early in the morning, with
a large body of cavalry and light troops, taken possession of a village
and hill commanding a narrow defile, through which the English army
had to pass. Brigadier- General Smith, having made the best possible
disposition, began to move forward with the line, and the corps com-
manded by Captain Cosby, being one cJf those in advance, was or-
dered to dislodge the enemy from the village, which he effected at the
point of the bayonet ; and finding himself annoyed from the hill, pro-
ceeeded with equal success to drive them from that position likewise,
while the advance pursued its route, and cleared the difficulties of the
pass. From this hill Captain Cosby perceived the rapid approach of
Hyder's regular infantry at some distance, on the right flank of the
Engli^ line, and reporting his observations to Major Bonjour, who
conin>anded the advance, requested, and obtained his permission, to
call up the leading corps of the army, commanded by Captain Cowly,
to occupy the hill, before he quitted it to join the van to which he be-
longed,— ^a judicious suggestion, which essentially contributed to the
success of the day. The confederates were entering this position, but
had not completely occupied it, when Brigadier-General Smith, on
approaching the hill, and hearing the report of Captain Cosby, per-
ceived the necessity of quickening his march, and by so doing got up
in time, and by securing the hill and village, gained an advantage
that enabled him completely to repulse every subsequent attack, and
ultimately oblige the eneniy to draw off, leaving him master of the
field, and at liberty, soon after dusk, which now approached, to con-



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tinuq his march, which the necessity and sitaatioii of affaics obliged
him to do aU night, in order to reach a dep6t, TrinomaUy, where
Sirigadier-General Smith expected tb be reinforced by troops from
Trichinopoly. The enemy suffered so seiverely as to prevent iheir fol*-
Ujwing during the night, and Hyder himself was slightly wounded.
The loss of the English was considerable.

The battle of Trinomallyi or Errour^ followed sooa aifter/ that of
Changama, and proved so decisive that the confederates lost the
greater part of their cannon and baggage, blew up their ammunition,
and went off in the greatest confusion, abandoning a stt*ongly-fortified