John Philippart.

The East India military calendar: containing the services of ..., Volume 1 online

. (page 16 of 45)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook

and a reg. of light cavalry, and on the 15th Feb. die whole marehed
vte Traree and the Malown Ghaut, in order to e£fecl a junction with
tbeJeft division of the grand arifiy under Sir D. Marshall at Kim*
lassa. This having been eflSeicted, the division moved on the town o£
Saogur ; and a^political agasrt havrng^arrived iu^camp, die whole dish
Crict quietly submitted to the British government by negociation.
The division next marched to reduce the fort of Dhamomie, gar-
risQoed by the troops of the Nagpore Rajah. The Killadar having
rejected terms of. capitulation, the batt^ies were opened^ and six
hours battering and bombardment compelled him to surrender at dis*
oretion« From Dhamornie the division <}oinmenced a tedionil and
harassing march, dragging the gun^ through jungles and over roads
where no wheeled carriages had ever been before, towards the Ner-
buddah river, for (he reduction of the fortified town and citadel of
Mundlah, likewise belonging to the Rajahof Nagpore. The divimw,
after encountering great difficnkies from the aim ost<4mpassable state
of the roads, came before the place on the 18th April, and a breach
having been effected, it was carrried by assault on the 36th, the enemy
suffering a lots of between 5 and 6(X) men. £ight craipanies of the



Digitized by



Google



MILITARY CALENDAR. 1^7

2iid bait, 13di reg., under Maj. T., formed part of the storming co-
lumn, and his name was noticed with applause in the general orders
issued by Lord Eiastipgs on the ocga^o^ of the capture of this im-
portant fortress. Chowra Ghur, another fort belonging to the Nag-
pore Rajah, having for some time resisted a British force that had
invested it, the division immediately moved in that direction, and
on the approach c^the advance the place surrendei^ed. The division
then reoroBsed the Nerbuddah, aiid returned to canton for the rainy
season, at Sangur ; and thus terminated the cstmpaigns o^ 1817-18. '

Govanment having deternnned to form the siege of the stupen-
dous fortress of Asseerghur, the Sangur train was put in requisition, and
commenced its march under the escort of the 2d batt. 13th reg. on the
3d March 1819- Gen. Watson soon followed with another batt.,
and the detachment joined the besieging force, under Gens. Sir John
Dovefaon and Sir John Malcolm, on the 1st of April. At this siege
were assembled the troops of the diree presidencies ; and after an in-
cessant bombardment and battering, during which the heavy guns
were nearly rendered unserviceable, in consequence of the great ele^
vatioD at which they had to fire at the breach, the place surrendered
0n the 9th April. At this memorable siege there were present three
Qritish ladies, one of whom was the wife of the subject of our memoir.

The eombtded army having received the thanks of the command-
ing general, broke up on the 15th of the same month, and the Sangur
division returned to its cantonment on the 20(h of May, having
mwched a distance of nearly 600 miles, encumbered by a large
battering train, at the most inclement season of the year, the thermo^
meter being higher than 110 degrees in the tents.

On the 6th July 1820 this officer was promoted to the rank of lieut.-
coL, and appointed to the command of the 1st batt. 22d reg., which
he inatm^iately proceeded to join at Secrora in Gude. From this
post he was removed with his batt. to Kurnaul. Lieut-Col. Thomas
was subsequently appointed to the 2d batt. 7th. reg. and to the com-
mand of Seetapore in Oude.



Digitized by



Google



l68 THB EAST INDIA

LIEUT..COL. MARMADUKE WILLIAMSON BROWNE.

(Bengal Establishment.)

Tu IS officer was appointed a cadet in 1790, and went out to India at a
very early period of life: on the 17 th June 1792 he was promoted to
lieut.-fireworker in the Bengal art. ; lieut.21st Feb. 1801 ; capt-lieut.
24th Sept. 1804; capt. 20lh Feb. 1808; maj. by brevet, 4th June
1814. ; in the reg. 1st Sept 1818 ; and lieut.-col. 7th Aug. 1821.

In 1797-8 he was appointed adj. and quart.-mast. to the art. with
the army assembled at Lucknow, under the personal command of the
Com.-in-Chief, Sir A. Clarke ; in 1798-9, maj. of brig, to the art. with
the army under Sir James Craig, assembled on the N. W- frontier at
Anopsheher, to oppose the incursion of Zemaun Shaw; in 1799> in
command of a detachment of artillery sent out against several re-
fractory forts in the Benares district; in Nov. 1800, quart-mast, to
the 2d batt. of art, which he held until appointed maj. of brig, to the
reg. in March 1806 ; this he resigned in Jan. 1809, on being appointed
principal deputy commissary of ordnance ; and on the 1st Nov. 1821,
to the highest and most honourable staff situation held by officers of
artillery— that of principal commissary of ordnance commissariat.

This officer was selected by the Gov. -Gen. the Marquess of Wel-
lesley, and appointed to the charge of the experimental horse art,
which he held from Feb. to Nov. 1801, when he resigned to take his
tour of the field duties ; he was also in Nov. 1809 selected by the
Com.-in-Chief, without any application of his own, to be one of the
agents for army clothing ; and which he held till Jan. 1822, when he
was removed by an order from the Court of Directors, after having
held the situation for twelve j^ears, to the entire satisfaction of the
government, and the colcmels of regiments, who were more immediately
concerned; the reason assigned for removing this officer was, that



Digitized by



Google



MILITAKY CALENDAR. 169

^ his holding two appointments was contrary to a late r^ulation of the
Court regarding pluralities.

He served during the whole of the campaigns against the Mahrattas
from Aug. 1803 to July 1805, and held the situation of quart. -mast,
to the art. with the army under the personal command of the Com.-in
Chief, Lord Lake ; during which period he was present and engaged
in the attack of Gen. Perron's troops, under the walls of AUygurh,
29th Aug. 1800 ; the battle of Delhi, 11th Sept ; attack on the troops
under the walls of Agra ; battle of Deeg ; the sieges of Allygurh,
Agra, Deeg, and the four attacks on Burtpore ; also, at the relief of
Delhi.

Lieut.-CoL Brown, after serving thirty and a half years in the
East Indies without visiting Europe, and having been absent from
his duty only nineteen months on account of his heplth during that
period, was obliged in Jan. 1822 to resign his staff situation^ and avail
himself of the indulgence of the service, by proceeding to Europe on
furlough, for the recovery of an impaired constitution.



LIEUT-COL. THOMAS DUER BROUGHTON.

(Bengal Establishment.)

In March 1797 this officer arrived in India, as a cadet on the Bengal
establishment, and was posted as ensign to the 2d batt. 9th N. I.
stationed at Burgam- Towards the end of this year the 13th and
14th regs. N. I. were raised, and this officer was promoted to lieut. in
the latter, and directed to join the 2d batt. about to be raised at
Buxar. In the formation of this corps under Maj. (late Maj.-Gen.)
Cunningham, Lieut. B. appUed himself diligently to acquire a know-
ledge of his parade duties ; and in the autumn of , the following year
he and the late Lieut-Col. Ludlow, C. B a few years his senior, of-



Digitized by



Google



170 THE EAST IS^DIA

fered their smrices to command two companies of volunteers from
the batt. intended to form part of the tiiree corps raised in the
same manner throughout the army, and destined to join the Madras
army about to take the field against Tippoo. Lieut. Ludlow being
soon after appointed adj. to a regular batt. returned to take charge of
his appointment ; and his companion embarked for Madras with the
1st batt. of volunteers, under CapU John Malcolm, in Dec. 1798.
A voyage of five days landed them at the place of their destination ;
and being joined by the other two batts. they marched, after a short
stay at the Mount, under the command of Maj.-Gen. Popham, who had
been sent round from Bengal to command the troops of that presidency,
to join the army assembling in the neighbourhood of Ryacotta, under
tibe personal command of Gen. Harris. Lieut. Broughton was present
at the whole of the operations of the campaign of 1799, including the
march to Periapatam, under Gen. Floyd, for the purpose of forming
a junction- with Gen. Stuart and the Bombay army, which ended in
the capture of Seringapatam ; and subsequently at the first pursuit of
Doondia, under the Duke of Wellington, (then Col. Wellesley.) At
the conclusion of this service, the Bengal brigade formed part of the
troops selected to garrison Seringapatam, where they remained till
Dec ; when they were ordered to Madras with as little delay as pos-
sible, for the purpose of being re-embarked for Bengal. Upon their
arrival, however, the intentions of government were changed, and the
three batts. of volunteers were directed to commence a long, though
not uninteresting, march through the northern Sircars, towards their
own presidency. On reaching Masulipatam their services were re-
quired to reduce a refractory Zemindar in the neighbouring hills;
and they were accordingly detained for that purpose. This mea-
sure, however, was not approved of by the gov.-gen., who required their
immediate return ; and accordingly, as soon as steps could be taken
to relieve them they resumed their march, and reached Midnapoor,
the frontier station of Bengal in that quarter, in July, 1 800. Here they
found orders for the formation of the three volunteer batts. into the
18th and 19th regs. of the line, the 15th, l6th, and 17th, having been



Digitized by



Google



MILITARY CALENDAR. 171

raised during their absence from Bengal. Previously to their de-
parture, in Dec 1798, the sj^stem of rising by regimental promo-
tion had been established ; and Lieut Broughton had been appointed
to the first European reg. ; which corps he proceeded to join at Di-
napoor, as soon as he was released from his duties with the volun-
teers. In the following year the Marquess Wellesley made his pro-
gress through the extended provinces of the governments committed
to his immediate care ; and Lieut. Broughton accompanied the flank
companies of his reg., which formed his Lordship^s guard during his
residence at Patna. At the express desire of the gov.-gen., he was
afterwards appointed to the command of a guard of thirty men from
his corps, intended to form part of his Lordship's personal escort
throughout the remainder of his tour. In the discharge of this agree-
able duty, Lieut. Broughton acquitted himself so much to the satisfac-
tion of his Excellency, that he nominated him adj. and assist, teacher
of Hindostan, to the Cadet company, upon its institution at Ba-
rasett in the following year. The trouble and vexation, however,
attendant upon teaching grown-up boys their exercise, and in-
structing them in the rudiments of a new language, soon disgusted
him with this situation: and accordingly, upon the breaking out
of the Mahratta war in 1803, when two volunteer batts. were raised,
he again offered his services; they were accepted^ and he was ap-
pointed quart-mast- of the 1st batt., which he joined with half a
dozen of his young pupils, who had passed their examinations, and
were declared qualified to join regiments- The two wings of this
batt. were destined for different services. The first which sailed
went to Ceylon ; and the other, which Lieut. Broughton accompanied
as staff, formed part of the expedition under the late Lieut-Col.
(then Capt) Morgan, which took possession of the town and dis-
trict of Balasore, in Aug. 1803.

In the course of the following year, Capt. Morgan being removed
to the command of a provincial batt. about to be raised at Culpee,
that of Balasore, together with the whole of the civil authorities,
devolved upon Lieut. Broughton. In the discharge of the several



Digitized by



Google



172 THE EAST INDIA

functions of magistrate, collector, and secret agent, he obtained re-
peated testimonies of approbation from Lieut.-Col. Harcourt, first
commissioner, and commanding in the province : he retained these
situations till the arrival of Mr. Kerr, of the civil service, who had
been permanently appointed to the superintendance of the district.

Early in 1805, the wing of the batt. under Lieut. B/s command
was ordered to Barrackpoor: and on the 14th Nov. following he
was promoted to the rank of capt.-lieut. : he remained at Barrack-
poor till Feb* 1806, when he was appointed to command the escort,
consisting of two companies, about to proceed with Mr. Mercer,
the resident, to the camp of Dowlut Rao Scindia.* He set off
immediately by Dawk, to take charge of his new appointment;
and joined Mr. Mercer at Agra, where he was making prepara-
tions for the march. About this period this officer's commission
as capt.Jieut. in the army, was anlidated to 29 Dec. 1804, in con-
sequence of the resignation of a lieut. of the reg. in Europe, of
which due information had, from some cause or other, not been
transmitted to India. In this responsible situation Capt. B. con-
tinued till the close of 1811, when he took his furlough, and re-
turned to his native country.

Capt. B- was included in the brevet which took place at the
peace, and obtained his rank in tlie army as Major from the 4th
June, 1814. In the following year he returned to India, and landed
in Calcutta in Aug, ; when, his reg. having been for some years at
the eastern islands, he was directed to assume the command of a
large body of recruits assembled at Burhampoor, and formed into
a temporary corps of eight companies. As the choice of recruits
had become much more extended since the peace, this division,
as it was termed, of the European reg. exhibited the finest body

* Daring his residence in Scindia's camp, this officer obtained that information respect-
ing the easterns and manners of that singular people, which he has given to the world in the
<< Mahratta Letters :" and it was ther6 too he profited by his proficiency in Oriental lan-
guageS) acqaired at Barasett^ in collecting, arranging, and translating his ** Specimens of
the Popular Poetry of the Hindoos' country.**



Digitized by



Google



MILITARY CALENDAR. 173

of Europ^n inf. that had probably ever been seen in the Com-
pany's service; and Maj. Broughton's exertions to do it justice,
in disciplining and training, were cheerfully and ably seconded
by half a dozen officers, who had on various occasions returned
from the reg., and were directed to join and do duty with this
division. At the commencement of 1816 Maj. B. was ordered
with four of these companies to Java, where they arrived in Apr. ;
and the maj. was appointed to the command of Weltevreden, hav-
ing, on the 4th of the preceding month, been promoted to a regi-
mental majority.

Expectations seem to have been entertained by the Indian govt,
that that valuable and beautiful island would not have been so
speedily given over to the Netherlanders, and a new government
and fresh troops had accordingly been sent from Bengal. They
had, however, scarcely reached their destination, when news of the
arrival of the Dutch fleet, with the authorities and troops on board,
was received. Arrangements were speedily commenced for the de-
livery of the island to its old sovereigns, and the departure of the
British troops. Maj* B/s detachment was among the first to em-
bark for Bengal, where it arrived at the end of Sept.; and the
division was once more united under his command, and stationed
at Burhampoor. It was there inspected in Feb. 1817, by Lord
Hastings, who expressed his approbation and thanks to Major
Broughton and his officers, in the most flattering terms ; and soon
after, upon the arrival of the head-quarters of the reg. from Ma-
cassar, directed him, in General Orders, to assume the command,
and consolidate the whole into one corps, upon one system of in-
ternal arrangement ; an effective lieut-col. being, in the same orders,
posted to the corps, but instructed to confine his duties to the com-
mand of the station. The reg. was soon after joined by another
detachment, consisting originally of three strong companies, which
had been for many years at Amboyna ; and in amalgamating these
several bodies, who viewed each other with the most jealous eye,
and in the introduction of many new regulations and habits, as



Digitized by



Google



174 THE EAST INDIA

well as eradicatmg some old ones, Maj. B. found ample calls for his
unremittiDg attenticm, as well as for the exertions of every officer of the
corps. His success, however, was complete ; and it is to him, that the
r^. is indebted for the formation of the rifle company ; which,
under the immediate care of its commandant, CapL Wood, attained to
a state of perfection, both in discipline and appearance, in the highest
d^ree creditable: the establishment of the regimental school; the
distribution of the men into messes ; the appointment of color Serjeants,
^ the first in the Company's army, and which led to the extension of that
rank throughout the army of Bengal : and finally, for the organization
and establishment of the regimental savings' bank ; an establishment
which has opened to the sober and steady soldier the means of secur-
ing a supply for the future comforts of his family, or his own old age ;
and to the more thoughtless, a temptation to throw into another channel
the rupee, which was destined for the canteen or the gaming table. To
the usual and anxious labours of such a command was soon added,
that of his old employment, the instruction of young officers. A regu- .
lation was made for all the infantry cadets to join, in the first instance,
the European reg. where they were to continue, till reported by the Com.
officer qualified to join Native corps. A memorial pointing out the
additional and troublesome duties thus devolved upon the Com.-officer
of the European reg., while his allowances and emoluments were much
inferior to those of officers commanding Native corps ; together with
the disadvantages under which the officers in general of the former
laboured, when compared with their brethren in the latter service, was
dehvered by Maj* Broughton into the hands of the Marquess of Hast-
ings, on Christmas day, 1818 ; and some months after, an additional
salary was attached to the command of the Europeim reg^, as a compen-
sation for the extra duties of the situation. Maj. Broughtt!)h, however,
who had then held that command for four years, and under whose care
nearly two hundred young men had been prepared to join the differ-
ent corps of the army, was not allowed to benefit by this regulation.
It was now directed, that the Europ. reg. should not be left without
the presence of a lieul.-col., though that want had not been felt during



Digitized by



Google



MILITARY CALENPAR. 175

the long period it had been absent on service to. the,^99tward. The
enjoyment of Uie additional salaiy was ai30 limited to that rank : an
effective lieut.-col. was again appointed; and in Feb. 1820 Major
Broughlon delivered up his anxious charge to his successor.
This officer was promoted to lieut.-col- Sept. 1, 1822.



MAJOR-GENERAL W. H. BLACKFORD.

(Bombay Establishment.)

This officer arrived in Bombay in Aug. 1777; the 7th March 1779
he was appointed a cadet in the engineers, Bombay establishment ; the
1st Jan, 1780 he was promoted to an ensigncy, and served at the siege
of Bassien, with the army commanded by Gen. Goddard. After the
storm of that fortress, he was one of the sub-engineers employed to
survey that territory, and to estabUsh a chain of field-works for the
security of the environs against Mahratta horse. On the 20th Feb*
1783 he was promoted to lieut. He served in the memorable cam-
paign commanded by the unfortunate Gen* Matthews, from the first
landing of the army, on taking of Rajamundroog on the Canara coast,
to the conclusion of peace that followed in 1785. During this long
and trying campaign, Lieut. B, served at the siege and storm of
Onore. He was entrusted with repairing the breaches^ and making
other improvements in that fortress; and ultimately he had the honour
of being the only engineer officer belonging to that garrison during
the successful defence it made under the command of Maj. Torriano.
The siege and blockade of Onore lasted eight months under the most
pressing events, arising from famine, sickness, and desertion ; the gar-
rison were at length relieved by a peace, which returned them to
Bombay, reduced from their original strength of 1200 to about 250, for
embarkation to the Presidency. The want of provisions was at one



Digitized by



Google



176 THE EAST INDIA

time so seriously felt^ that a number of horses were killed and salted as
a last resource, rather than surrender to Tippoo's forces- After this
service Lieut. B. was appointed senior engineer to the garrison of
Surat.

The 27th Sept. 1785 Lieut. B. was promoted to the rank of a capt.
In 1785-6 he was ordered to Tellichery, where he suggested various
plans, which ultimately led to a curtailment of the original lines to a
more limited system of defence. In Jan. 1787 he returned to the
presidency, to the ordinary duties of his department. In April 1790
he was ordered, as senior field-engineer, with a detachment under
Gen- James Hartley, for the relief of the King of Travancore, at-
tacked by Tippoo. Gen. Hartley landed, and cantoned near Cochin.
Tippoo had made a successful attack on the Travancore lines, but
the timely arrival of the Bombay detachment saved the interior of the
territory from further depredation. Capt. B. was detached to as-
certain whether the fort of Cranganore (belonging to the King of Tra-
vancore) could be defended against Tippoo, who was preparing to at-
tack it. Its local position was very tenable and strong ; but the total
want of supplies of every kind for its defence induced Gen. Hartley
to give up the idea of defending it. The Travancore garrison was
withdrawn, and the fortress was blown up by Tippoo's troops the next
day. On the opening of the season. Gen. Hartley^s army, joined by
the Travancorians, marched to Palicaudcherry, encamped there some
time, and relieved Madras garrison at Paulghaut, where Capt. B. suc-
ceeded to the duties of engineer, which he held until Gen. Hartley's
division was directed to return to the coast of Malabar. On the 10th
Dec. 1790 the detachment came up with the enemy, strongly posted
for defence near Trevanagary ; after a severe action, Tippoo's forces
were completely defeated. In this engagement Capt. B. received a
severe wound on the side of his head — a musket-ball passed through
his hat, and lodged near his temple ; the ball was immediately ex-
tracted, but the wound was very obstinate in healing.

In Jan. 1791 Gen. Hartle/s detachment formed a junction with
the Bombay army assembled at Cananore, under Sir Robert Ab«*-



Digitized by



Google



IflLITAftY CALENDAR. 177

cromby. Capt, B* joined it, and was attached to the van with some
pioneers to clear the road for its march up the Ghauts. In the exe-
cution of this fatiguing duty, with an impaired state of health (his
wound not having healed,) he was attacked on reaching the head of
the Ghauts, with a violent fever and delirium, diat threatened his
existence. In this despairing condition he remained a long time too
ill to be moved: the surgeon at length laid open his wound, conceiving
some splintry adhesion of the skull prevented its healing, when a piece
of Capt. B«'s hat was found buried in it This discovery e£^scted a fa-
vourable change for removing him to Tellichery, where he arrived
with total loss of memory ; and from thence embarked, and arrived in
Bombay in May 1791- On recovering from that illness, he rejoined
the army at Cananore in Oct* I79I9 dud resumed his duties in the
field during that service, and siege of Seringapatam by Lord Corn-
wallis, which campaign terminated in a peace with Tippoo* From
this period (20th May 1792) he returned to the ordinary duties of his
department at the presidency, and was employed on a particular survey
of the town of Bombay, to ascertain the superficial measurement each
house occupied within the garrison.

In 1794r5 he succeeded to the appointment of superintending en*-
gineer at Bombay, which he held until he was compelled to seek a
^rlough to Europe for the benefit of his health. Capt. B. quitted
India 17th Jan. 1796, and arrived in En^and 4th Aug. following.
He returned to India 17th Feb. 1798, and arrived in Bombay 4th
June following. He was then ordered to Cananore, as superintend-