John Philippart.

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under Gens. Carnac, Egerton, and Cockburn, from Tullagaum on
the Poonah expedition, to proclaim Ragunoth Rao as Peishwa. In
1778 he resumed his duties in garrison at Bombay : in 1780 this
officer, then a lieut., joined, with the 1st batt. N. I. commanded by
Maj. Abington, the Bengal army, under Gen. Goddard, at Com-
randge, in the Guzerat country, and was present at the taking of
Dubboi, Brodera, and Pitlad. In Feb. he led the storm of the left
wing of grenadiers, at Almadabad, under the command of the present
Maj. -Gen. Anderson. In April he accompanied the force under
Gen. Goddard, that stormed Scindia's camp six miles from the en-
campment at Camboale, and shared the glory of the day, with the
thanks of both Houses of Parliament to him and the troops- In
May Lieut. D. returned to Bombay, and was immediately ordered
to Callian to oppose the enemy encamped on the river Arless ; the
British routed and dispersed the Mahratta force, under Obazie Gun-
ness, in three several engagements, and burnt his camp: after
which, the force under Gen. Hartley returned to Bombay for the
monsoon or rainy season in June, and the 1st batt. of Sepoys gar-
risoned Callian, under the command of Maj. Abington. In 1781
Lieut D. commanded several detachments, employed to blockade
the impregnable fortress of Bowa Mullen, about fourteen miles fi-om
Callian in the Concan. In Oct. he accompanied Maj. Abington
with his batt., and ascended the woody hill of Bowa Mullen, taking



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MILITARY CALEMiDAR. 34}

a position nC the foot of the staircase, ami perpendicular face of the
hill, to form a blockade. In Dec. he erected a battery of two sijc-
pounders to batter the gateway, about 200 feet perpendicular height :
he was appointed to command the grenadiers that attempted the
storm with ladders, when the forlorn hope was completely destroyed,
with many others, and swept down the precipices, by huge masses of
stone rolled down the staircase by the enemy ; which obliged the party
to be withdrawn, by order of Maj. Abington. Lieut. D. was wounded
in the back by a blow from a stone, descending the hill to the encamp-
ment- In May a second unsuccessful attempt being made to storm,
the ladders were found short, and broken ; the blockade was aban-
doned, and the 1st batt., which was reduced from 1200 to 347 men,
was recalled to Bombay.

In 1781 Lieut D. was appoinied by Gen. Goddard adj. and quart.*
mast, to the marine batt. of Sepoys. In 1782 he was removed by
Gen. Mathews to be adj. of the European reg., and to accompany
the expedition which that officer commanded to the Canara coast and
Bednore. In 1783 Lieut D. led the storm of Onore, with the Euro-
pean grenadiers, and captured the fort. In March he was appointed
aid-de-camp to Gen. Mathews, and sent on an embassy to the king
of Travancore, and to command his troops, which were to join the
British force in Malabar. He was recsdled in April 1783 to Man-
galore, and commanded a corps, being one-third of the garrison of
Europeans and Sepoys that escaped from Bednore when Gen. Ma-
thews was taken prisoner. In May he was at the storm of the
enemy's camp at Mangalore, commanded by Gunness Punt, one of
Hyder's generals. Four large guns, with their tumbrils, bullocks,
and ammunition, were captured. On the 18th of the same month,
the British being driven into the fort by Tippoo's and the French
troops, commanded by Col. Cosigney, making a force of nearly
80,000 men, Lieut. D. was appointed to command, with his corps,
the cask battery outside the fort; which was kept possession of during
a nine months' siege. Lieut. D., on this occasion, was severely
wounded in the head by a musket ball.

I I



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fl4S THE EAST INDIA

On the Britidh evacuating Mangalore, and arriving at Tellicbery,
in Feb. 17849 Lieut- D. was appointed bj Gen. Macleod bri^-maj.
to die Bombay army in the field* In 1785 he returned to Bombay^
and was appointed by the Bombay government adj. and quart^-masL
7th batt. N. I. In March 1786 he was selected to command the inf.
and afterwards the troops, at Di^o Garcia, in the Indian Archipelago,
near the Mauritius* In May 1787 he returned to Bombay, and was ap-
pointed fort adj. in the island of Salsette. In 1788 he was nominated,
by Gen. Medows, fort adj. and quart-mast at Surat* The 11th
Jan. 1790 he was promoted to capt, and appointed by Col. Fre-
dOTick to the grenadiers, previous to the capture of Darwar.

In 1791 Capt. D. having burst an abscess on his liver, he was com-
pelled to return to Europe for the reinstatement of his health. In
179S he offered his services to the Court of Directors to be employed
at home in their regiments, and offered, through the Duke of York,
to raise a reg. for the line at his own expence, which the adoption
of the veteran batt. prevented being accepted. In 1796 Capt. D. re-
turned to India ; in Jan. 1797 he was ordered to the Malabar coast,
and took post in the Wynaad district, on the top of the Poodiacherrum
Ghaut, previous to the arrival of Col. Dow's detachment. In March
he was employed by Gen. Stuart commanding escorts from Callicut
to Tellichery, preparatory to the army taking the field against the
Pychee or Cotiote Rajah. He commanded the detachment of the
4th reg. on the 19th March, at its retreat down the Eleacherrum
Ghaut (from want of provisions) ; In which retreat Maj. Cameron
and his batt, with four officers, were cut to pieces, and the greater
number of the force wounded, by the Pychee's troops. In May Capt.
D. commanded a wing of the army under Col Dow, at the attack of
the Canonte Newaub's pdace, at Tutucullum, in Cotiote. In June he
was ordered to the command of the 1st batt. of the 4th reg. in Cotiote :
in Oct he was nominated to the command of the troops in Cotiote ; and
in Dec. he received the thanks of Gov. Duncan, and Gen* Stuart,
for his conduct in Cotiote. On the 20th of the latter month Capt D*
was ordered from the cantonm^at in Cotiote into tibe Coorga country.



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MILITARY CALENDAR. 343

above the Ghauts, to protect the Poodiacherrum pass, and the dep6t
of grain collecting by the Coorga Rajah for the Bombay and Madras
troops destined for the reduction of Seringapatam. The 26th Jan.
1797 he attained the rank of maj. In March following, on the arrival
of the Bombay army, commanded by Gen. Stuart, above the Ghauts,
Maj. D. was ordered in advance with CoL Montresor's brigade to
within six miles of Periapatam, Tippoo's boundary. On the 5th of
that month he was ordei
Seedaseer, to take post,
Periapatam ; and on th<
N. I., and repelled the re

from daylight till five in the afternoon, being constantly ei^ged,
several of the muskets having melted, and burst in the muzzle and
touch-holes, from the heat of firing. Maj. D* in April commanded the
batt. in the attack on Tippoo's outworks, and in making a lodgment
for the enfilading batteries of the Bombay army before Seringapatam.
He was on duty in the trenches during the storm of the 22d at Serin-
gapatam ; and on the 25th returned to Cotiote, and resumed his com-
mand on the Malabar coast. In Aug. he was ordered into the Ca-
nara country with the Bombay army ; in Sept. to proceed up the
Ghauts, and to take the command of Bednore; and in Nov. ap-
pointed, by Col. Wellesley, to the command of the province and fort
of Bednore.

The 6th March 1800 this oflScer obtained the rank of Heut.-col. ;
and in this month he was obliged to relinquish his command, and de-
cline the offer of the collections in the Soonda country, owing to a
debilitated constitution, and a relapse of the liver complaint, occa-
sioned by a dysentery acquired before Seringapatam : he consequently
embarked for Europe- In 1804 he returned to India ; and in 1805
he was appointed to command the 1st batt of the 5th reg. at Goa,
under Gen. Sir William Clark. In 1806 he was appointed by his
exc. the viceroy of Goa to command the Algoada fort and reg. of
European Portuguese grenadiers, joined by H. M.'s 86th reg. and two
batts. of Bombay Sepoys, with a competent force of art., making



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244 THE EAST INDIA

cm the whole above 4000 men. In 1807 he was ordered from Goa to
PooQah io the Mahralta dominions, and commanded the cantonment.
lieut-Col. D. in this year received ^^ a coup-de-soleir' whilst attending
the Peishwa, and was obliged to repair to Europe. The 25th July
1810 he attained the rank of coL Being unable to return to India,
he was compelled in 1813 to relire from the service, and thus lost his
promotion to maj.-gen. by a few weeks.

The fc^lowing is an extract from the general letter from Bombay to
the Court of Directors^ dated 29th Nov. 1800, in reference to Colonel
Disney's services : —

*' lieut-Col. Disney has oiur permission to return to £ur(^ for the
recov^y of his health. We have great pleasure in adding, at this
officer's request, our testimony of his services in India, of which, as
our proceedings of the 26th April contain a full statement, we^
have only to refer your Hon. Court to the detail of facts therein
related.'' — Paragraph 32.

(Signed) " R. Richards, Sec. to Govt."



MAJOR-GENERAL JOHN BAILLIE.
(Bombay BstabUshmaU.)

This officer was appointed a cadet in March 1777; he arrived at
Madras in Feb* 1778, and in May obtained the commission of lieut.
fireworker ; and in Nov. of the same year accompanied the expedi-
tion which invaded the Deccan, for the purpose of placing Ragonath
Rao Dada Saib on the Musnud of the Mahratta empire. The then
commander of art., CoL Degen, third in command of that army,
nominated him his aid -de-camp. This, small force, consisting of but
3000 men, traversed the Concan, and ascended the difficult pass of



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MILITARY CALBNDAR. 245

the Bhore Ghaut without opposition, but had scarce entered the
Deccan, when it was opposed by an armjr at least thirty times its
number. Surmounting every obstacle opposed to its progress, the
army at last arrived at the town of Tilligom, eighteen miles
irom Poonah, where it encamped, within about a mile and a half of
this predatory host. Confident of superiority in disciplined valours
and little regarding the hostile demonstrations of so disorganised a
mass, the British were in anxious expectation that the expedition would
be, during the night, crowned with success, by the storm of the
enemy's encampment, the dispersion of his army, and consequent
fall of his capital, when, at 10 P. M. of Jan. 11, 1779f an order was
issued to march ; but it was not of a complexion to sustain confidence
or inspire hope, for the traces were soon discovered of the former
route, add the army learned that the destruction of the greater part of
the camp eqitipage and stores, in flames, previous to their departure,
had been expressly ordered to fiicilitate their retreat*. The Mahrattas

* The ctinpaignx>f 1779f disastrous tod disgracefol as it was to us, afibrded jnauy briU
liaut examples of genius and gallantry, on the part of the subaltern officers, in the com-
mand of posts. The following eulogium on one of them, Lieut. Flint, is extracted from
" Wilks's Sketches of the South of India :*•—

** Strange as in these days the proposition may sound, this lieut. was an officer of very
considerable experience : to a scientific knowledge of the theory, he added some practical
acquaintance with the business of a siege ; and to military talents of no ordinary rank, a
mind fertile in resources, and a mild confidence of manner, which, as his troops were wont
to say, rendered it impossible to feel alarm in his presence. He found the place (Wandi-
wash) in a ruinous state, furnished with abundance of cannoii, but no carriages, and little
powder : he repaired the works, constructed carriages, and manufactured powder. He had
not one artilleryman ; but he prevailed on the silversmiths, who, according to the routine
of Hindoo warfare, are the apology for cannoneers, nbt only to attend regularly to be in-
structed in the exercise, but, in the subsequent siege, to perform thehr duties in a respect-
able manner. From the 12th of Aug. 1780 until the 12th of Feb. 1783, — an eventful period,
during which the flower of Hyder's army were before the place teventy-eight days of open
trenches, and, after being foiled in open force, made repeated attempts to seize it by stra-
tagem, or starve it into surrender, — this officer, never once casting off his clothes at the
uncertain periods of repose, not only provided the means of internal defence, but raised a
little corps of cavalry, for exterior enterprise ; and during a protracted period of famine and
diversified mbery elsewhere, not only fed his own garrison, but procured important supplies
for the use of the main army ; for which he was justly deemed to be the centre of all



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246 THB BAST INDIA

thus relieved from apprehensioD of further offensive operations, issued
like a torrent from their camp, hung on our rear, and pressed hard
upon our flanks, and so completely embarrassed the march, that it
was day-break ere the army reached near to Worgaum, a village five
miles distant, which had been previously burnt by the enemy. In
this position their reiterated attacks were repulsed for three days,
with some loss on the side of the British; but the enemy suffered so
severely, that the British might have effected a retreat to Bombay in
the face of an enemy, whose energies, by whatever cause excited,
were never yet known to survive a succession of defeats, had not
the procrastinating pusillanimity of the diplomatic field deputies, un-
fortunately attached to the army, arrested its career in the moment
of victory, and disgracefully compromised the honour and interests
of the nation, by a capitulation which had no other ostensible object
in view than their own personal safety. Had the surprise of the
enemy's camp been attended with but partial success, — of which
there can be no doubt in the mind of any one in the least conversant
with Indian warfare, — the attendant panic must have completely
opened the road to Poonah, and prefaced, perhaps invited, the pro-
posal of an advantageous peace ; whilst that military anomaly, the
precipitate retreat of a gallant army, uncrippled by loss in action, and
abundant in every description of equipment, in the face of an enemy
it despised, was indicative of nothing less than terror in the control-
ling authorities. And tliat such was the opinion of their superiors,
both at home and abroad, is evinced by the pointed disapprobation of
the Hon. Company, and the refusal of the Bombay government,
hampered as it was with financial difiiculties, to ratify this degrading
treaty, at that eventful period when an universal confederacy of the

correct iDtelligence. The model proposed by the experieoced for the imitation of the yoang
and aspiring; the theme of general applause; honourable in private life as he was distin-
guished in public conduct, — ^the barren glory remained to him of preserving the letters on
service, written in Sir Eyre Coote's own hand^ full of affectionate attachment and admira-
tion. Col. Flint is living*, and in London. Fancy would associate with the retirement of
such a man marks of public approbation, and dignified competency ; but human afiairs too
often reflect an inverted copy of the pictures of the imagination r'^>Voh II. pp. 264-5.

• Died in 18«0.-^. P.



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MILITAET CALBNDAB. 247

Native and European powers threatened Uie subversion of our eastern
empire. These are decisive proofs of the imbecility that gave it
birth ; and at the very time, too, when the Mahratta sceptre was al-
most within the grasp of our ally Ragonath, and his numerous secret
partizans only awaited his arrival at the capital to join the British
standard, and hail him chief of the empire ; — a consummation which
must have instantly dissolved the Native league against us, and ren-
dered England mistress of the destiny of India.

The Bengal detachment, under the command of Brig.-Gen. Thos.
Goddard, having completed its arduous march across the Peninsula,
reached Surat in Feb. 1779- Ens. Baillie was in April attached to a
company of art., ordered to reinforce that army, which, the war being
again renewed, took the field Jan. 1, 1780. He accompanied it as
aid-de-camp to Col. W. A. Baillie, . commanding the art. and a bri-
gade. He was present at the siege and storm of Ahmedabad, and all
the other operations, which produced the conquest of the rich and
extensive province of Guzerat In the following campaign he was
present at the sieges and surrender of Bassein and Arnault two strong
fortresses of the Northern Concan ; and with the army, when, after
the reduction of these and other places of inferior moment, Gen.
Goddard pushed on to the foot of tfie Bhore Ghaut, carried the pass
by a coup-de-main on the night of his arrival, though it had been
strongly fortified since the former ascent of the Bombay army. Ar-
rived at Gondola, a short distance beyond the summit of the Ghaut,
the general determined on the occupation of this formidable position,
as a secure dep6t, whence to dmw his supplies, if necessary, in the
progress of his operations, and a point d'cq^pui in the event of disaster ;
and to strengthen it still further, the enemy being in great force, im-
mediately threw a redan across a rocky projection, skirted by a thick
jungle, in his front ; — ^a preca«tion justified by the incessant exertions
of the enemy for six weeks to dislodge him, though weakened by the
irequent absence of large detachments requisite to ensure the safety of
the Bangaries between Panwell and the Ghaut. The overwhelming
superiority of the Mahratta cavalry, which amounted to three^^fifths



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248 TH£ EAST INDIA

of their army, consisting of above 100,000 men, and opposed to but
300 Bengal and 500 Khundahur horse, was however fatal to this
project ; and the loss of two large convoys of grain bullocks^ below
the Ghauts, from the British weakness in that essential arm, reduced
the general to the necessity of repassing the Ghaut, before the ap-
proaching monsoon should render the roads impassable.

The retreat was commenced at night ; and the enemy, from their
more intimate knowledge of the various collateral passes of the
mountains, were enabled, on its discovery, to anticipate the arrival of
the British in the Concan. The general deliberately continued his
march upon Pan well, constantly harassed by large bodies of Arabs,
who availed themselves of the numerous difficulties of a road.enciun*
bered with rocks, gullies, and jungles, to annoy him, by which he lost
a considerable number of men, and some valuable officers ; but hav-
ing passed this intricate tract, the enemy refused the plain, and, dis-
abled by their efforts, left the general to pursue his route to Panwell,
whence he proceeded to Callian, and cantoned for the monsoon.

On the 10th May 1780 Ens. Baillie was promoted to a lieutenantcy,
and to the rank of capt. July 22, 1787. In 1790 he served as aid-de-
camp to Col. Charles Frederick, who commanded the Bombay force
attached to a division of the Mahratta army under Purseram Bhow,
in the reduction of Darwar, a strong fortress, belonging to Tippoo
Saib, in the province of Gunduck, which was long and gallantly
defended by the veteran Killedar, Budder Alzemen Cawn, a Surdhur
high in the confidence of the Sultaun, and at length surrendered in
March 1791. The protraction of this siege must be, however, in a
great measure, attributed to the parsimony with which the Bhow,
(upon whom the British were entirely dependent for the battering
train,) supplied the British batteries with ammunition. The loss
upon this service was considerable ; but that of our accomplished and
indefatigable commander. Col* Chas. Frederick, who, previous to the
capitulation, died of a dysentery, occasioned by excess of zealous
exertion, oppressed his brother-soldiers of all ranks with the deepest
sorrow.



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MILITARY CALENDAR. 349

In 1792 Capt. Baillie was in command of the art. of Col. Jas. Bal-
four's brigade, with the Bombay force, under Maj.-Gen. Sir Robert
Abercrombj, which joined the army of Lord Cornwallis before Serin-
gapatam, when Tippoo was compelled to surrender half his territory,
and to defray the expense of the war. In 1795 he commanded the
art. under CoL Petrie, in command of the force at the siege and sur-
render of Cochin. On the 6th May 1795 he received the brevet of
maj. He commanded the art. of the line of the army under Lieut.-
Gen. James Stuart, at the siege and capture of Seringapatam, by the
combined armies of the three presidencies, under the command of
Gen. Harris, in 1799. He obtained the brevet of lieut.-col. Jan. 1,
1800; the majority of the corps of art. Oct. 18, 1803; the lieut.-
colonelcy, Sept. 21, 1804; the brevet of col. July 25, 1810; the
colonelcy of artillery, Sept. 8, 1812 ; and the brevet of maj.-gen.
June 4, 1813. He returned to India in May 1818, in conmiand of
the art. of the Bombay establishment, agreeably to the new arrange-
ment; and, as senior officer, succeeded Lieut.-Gen. Sir M. Nightin-
gall in command of the army, Jan. 7f 1819> which situation he held
until the arrival of the present Com.-in-Chief, the Hon. Sir Charles
Colville, on the 9th Oct. 1819.

In May 1822, the period of Maj.-Gen. Baillie's nomination to the
command of the art. having, under the operation of the orders from
the Court of Directors of April 23, 1817, expired, his services were
acknowledged in general orders, of which the following is an
extract : —

" The Gov.-in-Council has great pleasure in acknowledging the
private worth and professional merits of Maj.-Gen. Baillie, the
highly creditable state of eflSciency in which he has left the reg. of
^illery, and during the period he exercised the chief command of
the army of this establishment, the satisfactory manner in which he
conducted the duties of that important station. The Gov.-in-Council
will not fail to bring the testimonials, which have been borne to the

K K



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3M) TH£ EAST IN9IA

merits of Maj.-Gen. Baillie, to the notice of the Hon. the Court of
Directors, and to point out to them the long and highly-respeqlable
course of service which he has gone through in this army/'



MAJOR-GENERAL TREDWAY CLARKE.

(Madras E^abluhment.)

This officer embarked as a cadet for India in Jan. 1780; he arrived
at Madras in July following, and was soon after promoted to lieut.
fire-worker in the corps of artillery.

Upon the army taking the field, under the command of Gen. Sir
Hector Munro, on the invasion of the Camatic by Hyder Ally Cawn,
in Aug. 1780, Lieut, C. was appointed aid-de-camp to Col. James,
the commandant of artillery ; and on the 10th Sept., upon the ad-
vance of the army from the village of Conjeveram to form a junction
with the detachment commanded by Lieut-Col. Baillie, Lieut. C. had
been ordered forward early that morning with a party of pioneers, to
make a road over a swamp for the crossing of the art. of the army,
when two wounded Sepoys belonging to the detachment came in
to him, and communicated the fatal intelligence of the defeat*

* Repeated reference to this defeat occarring in these services, the following paragraph,
extracted from Col. Wilks's Sketches of the South of India, cannot be regarded as
irrelevant : —

^* Col. Baillie, after ordering his fire to cease, went forwards to ask for quarter, by wav-
ing his handkerchief; and, supposing acquiescence to be signified, he ordered the Euro-
peaqa, wha to the last moment preserved an undaunted aspect and compact order, to lay
^owi| tb^ir arms.. The enemy, although they at first paused, and received him as a pi^*
soqer^ after being slightly wounded, perceiving the same unauthorized straggling fire to
continue, rushed forwards to an unresisted slaughter of eighty-six officers — ^thirty-six were
kilkd, or died of their wounds, thirty-four were wounded and taken, and sixteen were
taken, pot wQwdcd; the caraage among the soldieirs being much in the saone proportion^
Hyder*s young soldiers in particular amused themselves with fleshing their swords, and ex-



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MILttAAT CALENDAR. ft5l

and capture of the whole of that force by the maid body of Hyder's
army, under the command of his son, then Tippoo Saib. 'Hiis event
Lt. C. felt it to be his duty to reMm iniiBediately, add report personally
to the Com.^n-Chief, who, upon receiving it, gave orddrs forthwith
for die army to fall back to the village of Cokijev(E»*aita, and subse-