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of the Mahrattas, who kept the brigade in a state of inactivity under
Qim pretext or anotb^, until the end of the dry seasotn, when it was
deoned advisable to quit Suogumsen, the point of rendeavous, and
to march the British detachment back to Zyghur, where it embarited
ipn board boat3 Ui& end of April, with the exception of the art., !and
^)ed for Cananore on the coast of Malabar, to assist in* preserving
the peace and quiet of that province against the restless spirit of its
inhabitants, rendered bold and daring by the absence of most of the
tnoops at Seringapatauu The capture of that place ^nd the death of
Tippoo soon followed ; and the brigade, reinforced t:^ the 1st batt. 3d
reg.^ the whole under Col. (now M^.-Oen*) Grants were ordered into'
Canam, to obtain poasesaon of the forts and strong: hokN bekmging to



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288 THB BAST IKDIA

tbe late Sultaun in that province, which service, under very tryiag dr*
cuoistaoces, was performed during the monsoon in 1799«

In Dec. following this officer proceeded with his corps to £roa, to
jmn the British troops at that station, under the late Sir Wittiam
Clarke, H. M/s 84th foot. In March 1800 he was promoted, and re-
moved, by a new regimental distribution, to capt.-lieut. and ady of
the 1st batt. 6th reg. In March 1801 he was promoted to a com-
pany, and at the beginning of the following year selected by his com-
manding officer to proceed, in command of 400 men^ on service to
Kurree, with a field force placed under the command (^ Col. Walker,
to act against the enterprising chieftain, Mulhar Rao, who was then
(^^;>osed to the government of his highness the Guicawar at Baroda.
At Cambay this force was joined by 1000 troops belonging to the
Guicawar, and arriving at its destination in March, found Mulhar
Rao strongly entrenched and fortified, at the head of 30,000 troops,
in front of the town and citadel of Kurree. On the 17th of that
month the British engaged the enemy under the guns of his entrenched
batteries ; on which occasimi Capt. Smith lost the services of 150 men
out of 600, having been previously joined by two companies of fen-
cibles, under the late Capt. Wilkinson. The British forcej owing to
its great exertions on that day in favour of the Guicawar dynasty, be-
came so crippled, as to be under the necessity of retiring to a position
immediately in the rear of the field of battle, where it entrenched
itself, and awaited a reinforcement of 4000 men, under Sir William
Clarke : the arrival of that formidable corps put an end to field ope-
rations in this quarter.

About this period Capt. Smith was compelled by severe illness to qint
the army, and return to Surat, from whence he proceeded to Bombay
after the rains, for the purpose of taking a furlough for three years
to England ; but, before the expiration of his time, the pressing de-
mand for officers, in 1805, to meet the exigencies of the service, under
Lord Lake, induced Capt. Smith to hasten his return to India, and
accordingly he embarked on board the Sir William Pultney in July
of the same year ; by which means, he was fortunate enough to join



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MILITARY CALENDAR. 289

the Cape expedition, under Sir David Baird and Sir Honie Popham ;
and was present at the attack and capture of that place — a corps, in
which he had a company, having been previously formed at St. Sal-
vador, on the coast of Bengal, by order of Gen* Baird, composed of
cadets and soldiers intended for the three presidencies of India.

After the capture of the Cape, Capt. Smith proceeded on to Bom-
bay, where he arrived in May 1806. Whilst at Bombay, he was
selected, by the acting commanding-oflficer of the forces, Gen. Jones,
to officiate as exercising officer of the 1st batt. 6th reg., its command-
ing-officer being incapacitated from the loss of a leg. Capt. Smith
joined with his corps tte Goa force, under Col, Adams, 78th reg., at
the latter end of 1807- During his stay at Goa, he succeeded, in
1808, to the junior majority of the reg., and was appointed to com-
'mand the corps to which he belonged. At the latter end of 1809 he
was ordered to join the Poonah force, under Maj.-Gen. Chami>agn6,
by ihe route of Merritch and Tasgom, through the southern parts of
the D^can : with this force he remained on service till the end of
1810, his batt. being then ordered down to Bombay, where it was
stationed for two years, when Maj. Smith was again ordered to the
Deccan, to join the field force then under Maj.-Gen. Montresor ;
with which he continued til! the middle of 1814, having been pro.
moted in the interim to a lieut.-colonelc5^

In consequence of an arrangement to give another officer the com-
mand of a batt., Lieut.-Col. Smith joined the 2d batt. of his reg. at
Baroda in April of the latter year, and with it marched with the field
force under Maj.-Gen. Sir George Holmes, to watch the motions of
Scindia's army on the banks of the Myhee ; he continued with this
force till the middle of 1815, when extreme ill health compelled him
to go to Bombay. Before he was sufficiently recovered to encounter
fatigue, he was ordered to Poonah, to assume the command of the
1st batt. 9tb reg., owing to the absence of its commanding officer, on
sick leare to Bassora ; and immediately waved all personal considera-
tion to meet the urgency of the case, though the order was afterwards
rescinded. At the end of 1815 he joined his own batt. in Guzerat ;

p p



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290 THE PAST INDIA

and ID April 1816 left fiaroda to join <iie field force at Pomiah, by
the route of Bensder Ghaut, bdng the first corps that ever marched
through that pass. From that period till the end of 1817, Lieut*-Col.
S. continued in the Deccan, participating in all the duties of that
service, besides the occasional responsibility of arduous separate com*
mands- Having suffered throughout the latter period of a service of
twenty-seven years a train of diseases that neariy proved fatal, be com-
plied with theVecommendation of his medical advisers, and returned to
England in 181 8. Remaining under the severe influence of the be-
fore-mentioned diseases, the consequence of his protracted service in
India, and of fatigue and anxiety in the execution of his duties, be
was induced to prolong his stay in England till the latter end of 1821 ;
at which time he was preparing to return to his duty, when he suc-
ceeded to the command of a regiment.

llie following are the dates of this officer's commissions : ensign,
17th March 1791 ; Heut, l6th July 1794; capt.-lieut., 6th March
1800; capt, 91st March 1801 ; maj., 4th Feb. 1808; lieut.-col., 2d
Oct. 1813; lieut.-col. commandant, l6th Nov. 1821.



MAJOR-GENERAL Sl\ GEORGE ASHE.

(Bengal Establishment.)

Appointed a cadet in 1778 ; aisign, 5ih N. I., in Oct. ; lieut., 3d
Nov. in the same year ; capt,, 7th Jan. 1796 ; maj-, 4th March 1800 ;
lieut.*eoL, 1st Jan. 1803; col*, 1st Jan. 1812; and maj .-gen. 4th
June 1814.

This officer served in the field through the course of tbe Mabratta
war, under die government of Warren Hastings, and was dai^geroQ^y
wounded on that service ; he was also in a state of active service dur-
ing the whole of Lord Lake's campaigns. His corps formed part of



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MILITARY CALEKDAR. ^91

the division of the army tinder the innnediate cooiaKmd of the
late Maj.-Gen. Sir. H. White, against Agra in 1803, and his co-
operation was in a superior degree conducive to the soccess of the
operations on that occasion. In the latter end of the same year Sir
H. White was detached, with a force from the grand army, lo drive
the Mahrattas from the province of Gohud, and, if possible, to obtain
possession of the very strong and important fortress of Gualior^ On
the arrival of Sir Henry at the fortress, he found it necessary to apply
for a reinforcement; and, in consequence thereof. Lord Lake de-
tached 2000 Native troops, the European flank companies, a strong
battering train, with the pioneers of the army, under the command of
Lieut. -Col Ashe, to join Sir Henry before Gualior (which at that
time was deemed impregnable) ; and during the siege Lieut.-CoL A.,
in the words of Sir Henry^ ^^ diaf^yed tha oMSt enthusiastic bravery
and devotion.''

The fort was situated on a rock, and the part that had been breached
was difficult of access, and though the field officer whose. turn it was
to command the storming party had all the requisites of the most ar-
dent zeal and courage, it appeared to Sir Henry that he did not pos-
sess that bodily activity which was so especially necessary on such a
service. Sir Henry naturally felt the delicacy of his situation, in being
obliged to order an officer out of his turn on such a perilous duty,
when Lieut.-Col. Ashe relieved him from his perplexity, by volunteer-
ing his services to lead the storming party. Fortunately, however, a
few hours before the columns were ordered from the trenches to the
assault, the garrison most unexpectedly capitulated. Sir Henry was
no sooner master of the fortress, than he dispatched Lieut.-Col. A.,
with a force, to get possession of the fort of Gohud ; which duty was
promptly performed, and his services acknowledged by Lord Lake in
public orders. Lieut.-Col. A.'s corps afterwards formed part of the
force under Col. Monson, who found himself under the painful ne-
cessity of retreating from Jeswunt Rao Holkar's army. Having sus-
tained a considerable loss in passing the Banass nullah, or river, he (Col.
Mon on) announced to the troops that they should endeavour to reach
Agra, — distant about 100 miles, — in^ the best way circumstances would



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292 THE EAST INDIA

allow, as they could not continue their march in a body with suffi-
cient rapidity to escape the overwhelming force of their pursuers.
'^ On that occasion Lieut.-CoL Ashe dismounted from his horse, ani-
mated bis men to stand by their colours to the last, and promised to
lead thera to Agra : — which he accomplished*."

Ill heahh, the consequence of a long series of service in India,
obliged Lieut.-Col. A. to seek the climate of Europe ; but, after a
short stay, he returned to his duty in India. He was subsequently
appointed by Lord Hastings a commissioner to settle the affairs in
Rohilcund, with the command of all the troops in that province. In
1821 be returned to England.



MAJOR CHARLES STUART*

(Bengal Establishment.)

In 1796 this officer was appointed a cadet of infantry, of the season
1795, on the Bengal establishment ; he embarked for India 12th
Aug. 1796, but the ship having been detained several weeks at the
Cape of Good Hope, he did not arrive at Fort William till March
1797. He was very shortly after promoted to the rank of ensign,
and posted to the 3d N, I., but did not receive a commission, or join
that corps, having been transferred.^ to the cavalry, and directed to
join the 2d reg. Bengal light cav., then stationed at Caunpoor : his
commission dated 13th Nov. 1796- Different circumstances having
delayed his departure from Calcutta, this officer did not join his reg,
till Dec. 1797 ; and early in Jan, following, ihe squadron to which he

» Letter of Sir Hcniy White,

t Lieut.-Col. John Stuart, who commanded His Majesty's 9th foot^ and died of wounds
received at the battle of Roleia, in Portugal, in 1808, was brother to this officer.

X This was the last year in which transfers from the infantry to the cavalry were per
mitted t^ the Court of Directors to be made by the local authorities in India.



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^ IIILITAEY CALENDAR. 393

was posted, formed part of a detachment which marched from Caun-
poor to escort the late Newanb of Oode to Luckaow, the supreme
gov^mnent having determined to place him on the Musnud, in room
of Visier Ally, deposed. As resistance was expected, an army of
about 12,000 men was assembled at Lucknow, under the Com.-in-
Chief, Gen. Sir A. Clarke; but no opposition was made, and the
force gradually dispersed. In 1798 the 2d reg. formed part of an
army, cottsisling of from 12 to 14,000 men, collected at Anoopsheher,
under Gen. Sir James Craig, to repel the threatened invasion of Ze-
maun Shaw, king of Cabul ; but dissensions in his own country pre-
vented the execution of his plan. In Jan. 1799 Vizier Ally, the de-
posed Newaub of Oude, having fled from Benares, afler murdering
several British subjects, it was apprehended he would raise com-
motions in Oude ; in consequence of which, the greater part of
the army marched from Anoopsheher to Lucknow, in the vicinity of
which it remained some time, and then broke up ; the corps to which
this officer belonged returning to Caunpoor about June 1799* Under
the new arrangement of regimental rank at this period, this officer
was posted to the Sd light cav., and two regts. of cav. being added to
the establishment, he was promoted, 29th May 1800, to lieut., and, at
the same time, appointed adj- to the corps.

In 1800 Lieut* S. was employed with part of the reg. in pursuit of a
person, who, in the name of Vizier Ally, endeavoured to raise com-
motions in the vicinity of Lucknow. Favoured by the nature of the
country, which is covered with trees and underwood, he for some time
evaded the difierent parties sent against him, and was at last appre-
hended in the town of Lucknow. In 1801 the 3d light cav. was
reviewed by Gen. Lake, Com.-in-Chief, and Lord Cornwallis, Gov-
Oen., who were so pleased at the state of discipline in which they
found the corps, that they bestowed the highest encomiums on it in
the general orders of the day, and presented Maj. C. Middleton, who
commanded it, with a sword, having an inscription on it expressive-
of their sense of his professional merits. Shortly afterwards, the reg.
marched to the vicinity of Juanpoor, as part of the Gov- Genu's escort.



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294 THE BAST IKDIA

and when relieved from that duly iziaf ehed to Banfi-Bareily, the new
station assigned to it, which it reached in April 180SL From thence
it proceeded on service, and after the fell of Sasnee it was left tbere^
whilst the army undertook the siege of Bejighur, oo the capture of
which this corps was directed to jora, aad the army marched on to
the fort of Catchoura. In a few days thb place yielded, and^ no^
thing more remaining to be done, the different corps were orderad
back to their respective stations* Early in Aug. 1803 the dd^eav.
was ordered to join the army, then assembling for the war with the
Mahrattas. ; *

In the course of the campaigns that followed, viz. from 1806 to
early in 1806^ this officer was present at the attack of the Enemy's
horse in the vicinity of Coil, the capture of Allygurh, the siege and
capture of the fort of Agra, the battle of Laswarree^ the capture of
Rampoorah, the battle of Deeg, the uegp and captuce of Deeg^ the
siege of Burtpoor, and the pursuit of Ameer Khan, with various
'skirmishes and incidental services of minor imp€>rtance. On the
restoration of peace the 3d cav. was ordered to Muttra ; and in the
cold seascm of 1807-8 this corps, in which this officer had now at-
tained the rank of capt.-lieut., (commission dated 11th March 1805)
and the situation of quart-mast., marched from Mnttra, forming part
of a detachment assembled under Maj.-Gren. Dickens, of H. M/s
service, to chastise a refractory Zeoiindar, who had refused obedience
to the civil power. During this service two forts, Cumooncdb and
Gounowree, and a small intermediate Gushee, were taken. This
service completed, the 3d cav. was sent into cantonn^nts at Cutch in
Bundlecund, about which time Capt S. resigned the quarter-maal^*
ship ; and soon after, 4th April IdO?^ was promoted to the regimenftal
rank of capt. In 1808-9 Capt. S. coEmtianded a squadron of his
corps, constituting part of a detachment under Maj. Guppage^ em-
ployed above the Ghauta, in the southern part of Bundlecund, to
reduce several petty chiefs to the obedience due to the Rajah of
Punnah, which service was effected without difficulty, only one
Gushee making any opposition. The detachment then joined a force



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MIXITART CilL£37DAB. 295

under CoL MartiiicMl, destined to act against the hill ibit of Adjee-
gurh ; which place yielded after a digbt resistance. In March 1809
the corps returned to quarters ; and in April Capt. S« received inti-
mation of the intention of the Gov-Gren., Lord Minto, to appoint
him to the charge of the Cad^ Institution at Barrasett, near Calcutta,
and was directed to proceed to the Presidency, where he arrived in
Aug., and immediately assamed the command^ of the Cadet Com-
pany, and which he retained until Aug. 1811, when the institution
was abolished. The conduct ef Capt. S., whilst in that command,
received, as shewn by the annexed general orders, the approba-
tion of the supreme Gov. ; and the Cora-in-Chief, Gen. Hewett, then
Vice-President, during the absence of Lord Minto at Madras, was
also pleased to approve of the manner in which Capt S. had con-
ducted the duties of the institution, and offered to appoint him his
aid-de-camp, as a public testimony of the iavourable opinion he en-
tertained of his services. — (See the accompanying letter.)

Gen. Hewett left India at the commencement of 1812, having pre-
viously appointed this officer to act as assistant adj-gen. to the army,
in which situation he was confirmed by government, at the recom-
mendation of Gen. Sir George Nugent, Com.-in-Ch!ef, successor
to Gen. Hewett. The l6th May 1816 he attained the rank of maj.;
and on the first vacancy which occurred in the adj.-gen/s office, he
was appointed, Marcii 1817f second dq)-adj.-gen. of the army, and
in May following first dep. This latter situation he hdd till the com-
mencement of 1820, when he was compelled byill^health to solicit
]eave of absoice, and to proceed to the Cape of Good Hope, having
nearly completed twenty-Uiree years service in India. Not finding
bis- health re-established by a residence at the Cape, he obtained a
furlough to England, where he arrived in 1833*

IRxtract from General Orders by his EjN^ellency the Vice-Premdent in

Council.

** Fort WUHam, 27th Aug. 1811.
^^ Orders having been issued for the abolition of the military Insti-



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296 THE BASt IKDfA

lutioD at Barrasett, on the 1st of Sept. next, under instructions to that
effect, received from the Hon. the Court of Directors, his Exc. the
Vice-President in Ck)uncil, deems it an act erf justice publicly to re-
cord his high sense of the valuable services of Captain Charles Stuart,
and the other officers attached to the Cadet Institution, and of the
2eal and unremitting attention which has so uniformly marked their
conduct in the exercise of the peculiar duties of their different depart-
ments.

^^ To Capt. Stuart in particular the warmest approlmlion is due,
for the firmness and decision which he has so frequently displayed in
many trying and delicate situations since his appoiotaieat to the com^
mand of the Cadet Company."

Letter from Lieut. -Col Carey, Secretary to Gen. Hez^tt^

" Head'(^uartersj 5th Sept. 1811.

" My deae Sir,— The departure for England of Capt Sharp,
the Vice President's aid-de-camp, affording Gen. Hewett an oppor-
tunity of further testifying to you and to the world the approbation
with which he has viewed your conduct in the arduous situation,
from which the recent orders of the Court of Directors have relieved
you, I am desired by his Exc. to sj^y, that, if to be. announced in pubhc
orders as his aid-de-camp, in the room of Capt. Sharp, would be at
all gratifying to your feelings, he will be most happy to nominate
you to the situation. Circumstanced as the general now is, his sole
motive is a compliment to your character and merits ; for, under the
expectation of Lord Minto's early return, and, at any rate, of his
own embarkation for England in Nov. or Dec. next, the appoint-
ment, in a pecuniary point of view, is undeserving of a moment's
attention, and on this account the gen. is particularly anxious, that in
the event of your accepting it you do not put yourself to any expense
for dress, or to inconvenience, in attendance upon him, as he has liter-
ally no duty for you to perform. Allow me to express the satisfaction
I derive in being the channel of this communication.

(Signed) « P. Cakby.

" To Captain Stuart.''



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HILITAEY CALKNOAjR. 397

COLONEL ANDREW M^DOWALL, C. B.

(Madras Establishment.)

This officer entered the East India Company's service in 1783, and
immediately after his arrival at Madras, was ordered to march
and join the army under CoL Fullarton to the southward, and in the
same year was at the siege and capture of Palicaudcherry, and the
reduction of the principal part of Tippoo Sultaun's forts in that tract
of country. In 17iB9 he served with one of two corps that were sent
to Travancore to defend the Rajah's Hues ; also with the grand army,
under Sir W. Medows and Lord Comwallis, in 1790, 91^ and 92.
He was present at the storming of the pettah of Bangalore ; at the
siege and taking of that fortress, and in the action of the 15th May
1791, under Lord Comwallis, with Tippoo's army, at the Carri
Ghaut Hills. On the 6th Feb- 1792 he served under the same com.
at the storming of Tippoo's redoubts before Seringapatatn ; also with
the grand army, under Lord Harris, at the battle of Malavilly, and
the siege and taking of Seringapatam in 1799. In 1801, 2, and 8, he
served under Maj-Gen. Dugald Campbell, in settling the country
ceded to the Company. In 1817 he again took the field under Lieut-
Gen. Sir T. Hislop, Com.-in-Chief of the Madras army, and com-
manded a brigade at the battle of Mehidpore. In 1818 he was se.p
lected to command a detachment to act against Bajee Rao's hill forts,
in the provinces of Gnngtory and Candeish, and after taking Unki-
Tunki, Rajdair, Trimbuck, and Malligaum, twenty-five other forts,
surrendered^ and both provinces were subdued. Lt-Col. M^DowalPs
small detachment suffered severely on this service, but not so much as
might have been expected, from the extraordinary strength of the hill
forts he had to attack. Lieut.-Col. M^Dowall is a Companion of the
Order of the Bath.



Q Q



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39ft > THB BAST IJ^JDIA

LIEUTENANT-COLONEL ARCHIBALD SPENS.
(Bombay EstablishmerU.)

This officef wa$ appointed a cadet of the season ITSO, and embarked
in tbe fpllo^f'ing y«ar ; bfut, owing to various detentions of the s^ip,
did not roach India until Sept. 1782. In Nov. of the same year he
obt«ioed an ensigncy, and was posted to a corps of grenadiers. In
Dec. he proceeded with the army under Gen. Mathews, which landed
in Canara: he was at the storming of Onore, taken in Jan. 1783 ;
at thejtttack of Cundapore, and of the Hussanghurry Ghaut» leading
to the capture of Bednore- His corps took possession of the fort
of Bednore, and was soon afterwards ordered to join the troops form.-
ing the $iege of Mangalore, which it was also ordered to take posses*
sion of on its surrender. Tippoo, after the re-capture of Bednore,
proceeded to lay siege to Mangalore; and a large body of his troops
being considerably in advance, were attacked by Col. Campbell, ^i^nd
beaten, with the loss of their guns. Ens. S. was engaged in this
nffair ; and in the subsequent attack of the Eadgaw hill by the whole
of Tippoo's army, when the British were driven back to the fortifi-
cations. Mangalore was then invested, to which garrison Ens. S. be-
longed, during the whole of that memorable siege-
In May 1787 he obtained the rank of lieut. In 1790 he accom-
panied the same grenadier corps, with the detachment under Colonel
Hartley, from Bombay, which landed in the Rajah of Travancore's
country, near Cranganore, and was with it at the battle of Travenan
Gurry and capture of Ferokabad. LieuU S. remained with the detach-
^m6nt until it joined the army, under Gen. Abercromby, at Cananore,
preparing to co-operate with Lord Cornwallis at Seringapatam.
He continued with this army during all its operations in 1791 and
1792, until the peace of Seringapatam. While employed on these
services, Lieut. S. held the situation of baggage-master to the force



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M Iltf AAY. OALKVrOAR. §gg

ixikdet Coh Hartley; quMtemaiaii^ttf df brigade under lOen.Abet*^
cromby ; and adj. of a batt; wbich lait appointment he held untU
179^ whefa he obtained Ibslvb o£ absence to Europe. In Jan. 1796
he was promoted to capt., by brevet; in March 1797^ to capt.-lieut; and
in July following to capt. In 1798 he returned to Bombay, and was