John Philippart.

The East India military calendar: containing the services of ..., Volume 1 online

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army under Gen* Jones, adrandng to the siege of Burtpoor, and tvbs
appointed commissary of provisions to that force, with which he
returned, at the peace, to Bombay ; and, in 1805, having been pro-
moted to a majority, to England.

He retired from the service in 1807, and died at Bath 4th Jan. 1819



MAJOR FREDERICK SACKVILLE.

(Bengal Establishment.)

This officer was appointed a cadet SOth Jan- 1801 ; ens. 1st Sept.
following; lieut. SOth Sept. 1803; capt. 11th July 1811; and maj.
(as dep.-quart. -mast-gen.) 17th Feb. 1819. In April 1802 he joined
the 2d batt. 18th N. L, under Maj. P. Don; and in July 1803
marched to Allahabad, and joined the division of the army destined
to penetrate into Bundlecund, at the opeoing of Lord Lake's cam-
paign, against the confederated Mahratta chieftains. In Oct. he
crossed the Kane river, under the command of Col. (now Lieut.-
Gen.) Powell, and attacked the confederated Bundela chieftains,
drawn out in battle array, at Copsah, under the Newaub Shumcheer
Behauder, routed them, and captured two guns and some tumbrils.
On the 30th Oct. he was present at the siege and capture of forts
Bursah and Chamonlie; and in Dec. at the siege and capture of
Culpee.

In Feb. 1804, Lieut. S. marched to reinforce Col. (the late Maj.-
Gen. Sir H.) White's division of the grand army, before Gualior*^
which was reduced, after a severe and arduous siege of one month.

* The hill fort of Gaalior stands unrivalled in India, for extent, importance, and natural
strength. It is generally termed (as stated in page 35) the Gibraltar of the East, and is



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MILITARY CALENDAR. 373

Lieut. S. rejoined the division of the army in Bundlecund, in
April, and was stationed at Kooneh, under the command of Col.
Fawcitt/ In May he was detached with the 1st batt. 18th reg.,
under Capt. J. N. Smith, to besiege the fort of Belah, belonging to
a refractory chief, about eight miles from the head-quarters of the
division. On arriving before the place, orders were given to detach
three compapies, under Capt. Watson, to protect the town of Kotrah
from a body of Pindarries, r^orted to be in the neighbourhood,
leaving for the siege one company of European art., one troop of
eav., and seven companies of N* I. Lieut. S. was ordered with two
companies, at 8 P. M., to precede the guns, and seize the village of
Belah and outskirts of the fort, which, under favour of a bright fiill
moon, were carried, a lodgment effected, and the guns advantage*
ously posted, for commencing operations in the morning, under the
command of Capt. Feade, of the art. In consequence of the harassing
duty during the night, Capt- Smith deemed it proper to relieve the
party in the trenches, by two companies under Lieut. Gillespie, leav-
ing in camp (which, on account of water, was two miles distant from
the fort) one troop and five companies of Sepoys, amounting alto-
gether to nearly 450 men. At sun-rise, on an alarm being given,
by the picquets, of a large enemy's force in sight, the drum beat to
arms, and every preparation was made for defence : shortly afler,
numerous bodies of horse approached the. camp, cut through it in
various parties, burning the tents and carrying off cattle. At 8 A. M.
this small corps found themselves hemmed in on all sides, whikt
other bodies seemed engaged in surrounding the party in the trenches
where, unfortunately, the only 6-pounder had been sent to assist in
expediting the siege. The enemy's force amounted to 23,000 men,
under the command of the famous Mahratta chieftain, Ameer Khan.
At 10 A. M. the report was heard of nine guns in the trenches, and

considered the key of Hiodostan, by the commaDding sitaatioo, in central India, which it
possesses. The active and judicious measures adopted by Sir Henry, in his operations
against this place, which, under the roost common defence, is naturally impregnable, so
astonished the garrison, as to lead to its surrender, after a close siege of little more than
4 month. — Fide also Sir Heniy White's Services, page 24, ei seq.



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374 THE EAST INDIA

soon after the silence which followed, a summons was received to
surrender, accompanied by the information of every individual in
the trenches, having been overwhelmed and cut up. The corps
immediately struck their camp, formed a square, and it was deter-
mined by Capt. (now Col.) John Nicolas Smith to fight their way to
Kornah, where the head-quarters of the division lay, about eight
miles distant. At 1 P.M. they rejoined the division, which had
advanced two miles to meet the enemy, and to rescue the party now
exhausted with heat and fatigue, in repulsing several attacks* of the
enemy, in which they lost some men and the greater part of the
baggage.

In Sept. 1804, Lieut. S. accompanied the division, under CoL
(now Gen. Sir G.) Martindell, to take possession of the strong holds
in Bundlecund, and to attack the enemy posted in the hills near Ma-
hobah. On the 24th Sept. they attacked and routed the confede-
rated Bundela chieftains, under Rajah Ram, at the lake, and on the
heights of Mahobah, seized their camp, baggage, cattle, and sup*
plies, and pursued them from hill to hill, driving them from a series
of strong positions until the close of the evening.

In Sept. 1804, Lieut. S. was appointed, by Col. Martindell, to act
as assist.-surveyor to the division, tor the purpose of surveying the
route of the troops over the unexplored country of Bundlecund, In
Oct. he was present at the siege and capture of Jyhtpoor hill fort,
1300 yards in length, and well defended with art. : on the east face
the fort is covered by a deep and extensive lake, and on the west
side it is well supphed with strong flanking towers. The first assault,
by escalade and a coup-de-main^ at the gateway, was repulsed with a
loss of nearly 500 men. The batteries were then opened in form,
and the garrison reduced to a surrender, after a severe siege of one
month, at a season the most unfavourable for military operations*

In Oct. Lieut. S. marched with the division to Culpee, on the

* At one time Lieut. S. had to defend himself against the combined attack of four horse-
men, all of whom were shot dead on the spot ; on this occasion he owed his life to the skill
he had acquired in the art of fencing at the naval college at Portsmouth.



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MILITARY CALENDAR. 375

right banks of the Jumna river^ to restore the health of the corps^
nine-tenths being brought from Jyhtpoor iin litters. In April 180^,
the division being recruited and restored, marched, under Col. Mar^
tindell, to Hingoona, on the banks of the Chumbul, to observe Scin*
dia's operations towards the relief of Burtpoor, besieged by Lord
Lake. In May Lieut. S. was appointed by his lordship, surveyor
to the Bundlecund division of the army, with an allowance of 1000/.
per annum. In June he marched from the Chumbul, and took up a
position of surveillance on th6 western frontier, near Ihansi, a rich
and flourishing town, under an independent Mahratta chieftain, caHed
the Bhow Rajah. Ii!i Nov. Lieut. S. was detached, by Col. Martin-
dell, with a small escort, to survey some riautes through the interior of
the Bundeki states, which he effected in rathw more than a month, but
Tvith great difficulty, from the jealousy of the inhabitants, and suspi-^
cSous character of his proceedings. In Dec. he accompanied the
division through the Bundela states, and took up a position on the
Banghem river, ten miles north of fort Callinger.*

In Feb. 1806 Lieut S. was appointed by the Gov.-Gen., Lord Wel-
lesley, surveyor of all the ceded and conquered countries south of
the Jumna river, with authority to act and extend his surveys at dis-
cretion. In March he accompanied Capt. (now Lieut.^oL) Baillieif
on a tour of settlement. In April he proceeded with an escort, cbti-
sisting of a complete company, to defend the British iand Mahratta
frontier on the right banks of the Jumna, especially the Talobks of
Burdike aiid Joossepara; also to ascertain and lay down the) cofl*
fluence of the Chumbul, Sinde, and Pohoodge rivers, \vith the JiaitfnM.
Great difficulties and obstacles were opposed to this survey, in con-
sequence of the jealousy and barbarism of the feudal tribes ^itih(ibitiflg
the banks of the Chumbul and Sinde rivers; the company #ii8'trity'^
mately threatened with attacks from parties of irregular troops ; it Was
fired upon by the forts with which this country is covered, and expe-

* This hill fortress is of the same description as Gaalior, containing in its interior a
vast surface of table land, well cultivated, and supplied with springs of water,
t See his Services, page 64, et seq.



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376 THE EAST INDIA

rieoced every opposition to the obtaining of supplies. In June 1806
Lieut. S. returned to fiandah, in Bundelcund, for the rainy season, hav-
ing succeeded in every point connected with his expedition. In Dec;
he accompanied Mr. John Richardson, agent to the Gov.*Gen. in
Bundlecund, and a strong detachment under CoL Arnold, with a bat-
tering-train, to reduce a variety of hill forls, above the second and
third range of ghauts, subject to Gopal Sing, and situated along the
southern frontier of the district.

In Jan. 1807 the detachment stormed a strong pass, numerously de-
fended, leading up the second range, by a simultaneous attack of
three divisions ; two of which having, by a difficult and circuitous
route, taken the enemy in the rear, produced an instantaneous panic,
and their entire discomfiture. Jn Feb, they captured the fcwt of
Salelchoo, and seized on two guns which the enemy, in withdrawing,
had taken with them ; reduced several forts and strong holds with
ease and rapidity, arising from the skill and effects of Col. Arnold's
attack on the main body at the pass of Mokundre. In March Lieut.
S. proceeded, with a small detachment of thirty men, to penetrate and
reconnoitre the country on the Boghela frontier, and to bring into
his survey the Soane river : he found every place in arms at bis ap-
proach, and was pursued by a large collected force for a considerable
distance. In order to save his party, Lieut. S. galloped singly into
the midst of them, at the moment they were aiming their pieces to fire,
look them by surprise, and succeeded in gaining protection and sup-
plies for the night. Similar proceedings occurred on the following
day, when he received a note from Mr. Richardson, informing him of
the rebel, Gopal Sing, having broken his faith, and who was supposed to
be in pursuit of this little party. Lieut. S. marched immediately to-
wards the head-quarters, sixty miles distant, passed during the night
within hearing of the enemy, and arrived safely in camp on the fol-
lowing day.

In April he returned with the division towards Bandah, after a
successful termination of the political intentions of government, as
connected with the frontier tribes, and the wild and mountainous



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MILITABT CALENDAR. 377

Ghoonds. In Dec. 1807 he accompanied Mr. Richardson, with ^
strong detachment of art. and troops, to reduce several hill forts and
refraclory chiefs on the southern frontier of the district This force,
under the command of Col. Cuppage, breached and captured
Herapon fori, at the foot of the second range of hills, and com-
manding the pass; and in Jan. following it took possession of seve-
ral strong holds and fastnesses in the wild and mountainous tracts in-
habited by the Ghoonds.

Lieut. S. was appointed, in May 1808, by Lieut-Gen. Hewitt,
Com. -in-Chief, adj. to the 2d batt. 18th reg., with permission to con-
tinue his surveys : in July following he was appointed, by theGov.-
Gen. in council, surveyor in Bundlecund, with authority to act at dis-
cretion, and to prosecute his surveys ad libitum ; under general instruc-
tions, however, from the Surveyor-Gen., Lt.-Col. Colebrooke. In Oct.
1809 he was appointed, by Lord Minto, Gov.-Gen. of India, sur-
veyor in the ceded and conquered district of Cuttack, and to define
the British and Mahratta boundaries in Orissa. In March 1813 he
was appointed, by his lordship, superintendent of the new Juggernauth
road, extending 300 miles from Juggernauth to Burdwan ; and in
Jan. 1817 Lord Hastings nominated him lstassist.-quart.-mast.-gen. at
the head of the topographical staff in Bengal. In March 1819 he
was relieved, by Capt. E. R. Broughton, at his own express desire,
from the duties of superintending the construction of the new road.
A committee of survey was directed to inspect and report on the state
of the road at the time of transfer ; the concluding paragraph of whose
report is as follows : —

" On consideration of the duty performed by Capt Sackville, in
the superintendence of works on a long extended line of 180 miles;
both as it regards the labourers employed, organizing and controul-
ing their numbers, supplies, and exertions; and with respect to the
numbtr and variety of bridges, in realizing materials, fixing their
scites iv dimensions, &c : and when the committee further consider
the natr the soils, rock, sand, and clay, over which the road is

construe* .1 nd carried— 4he inclined plane over which it passes —

3 c



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378 THE EAST INDIA

the deep flats which intersect it, and which must have impeded the
work considerably— also the violence of the rainy seasons (particu-
larly the last,) and the short intervals of dry weather and of dry
ground for carrying on operations,— they (the committee) have no hesi-
tation in declaring it as their opinion, that Capt. Sackville merits,,
and they hope he will be honoured with, some very satisfactory mark
of the approbation of government, for zeal, activity, and ability dis^
played, which alone could have brought so difficult and arduous an
undertaking to its present advanced state/'

The previous opinion of the government in regard to this officer's
exertions on the above duty, may be seen from the following extracts
from Secretary Mackenzie's letter of 23d Aug, 18l6,

" Par. 2.— The Gov. Gen, in Council has perused, with much satis-
faction, the full and comprehensive report which you have furnished
of your past operations, which has tended to confirm the very favour-
able opinion already entertained by government of the zealous and
well-directed exertions which you have manifested in the performance
of the important and arduous duty entrusted to you. — 3. Your
suggestions in respect to the future execution of the remaining por-
tion of the work in question, likewise appear to his lordship ip
council calculated to be of great utility to the officer on whom
that duty may devolve. — 4. The Gov.-Gen. in Council received
with concern the information that the state of your health rendered
you desirous of being relieved from your present duty. His lord-
ship in council must particularly regret that any thing should pre-
vent you from completing the important work which you appear
so successfully to have brought to its present stage ; a service which
need not be affected by any alteration likely to take place in the
nature of your present appointment/'

In May 1818 Capt. S. was appointed assist, quart.-mast.-gen.
with Maj.-Gen. Sir G. Martindell's force, at Rhorrda, and to survey
the country around it. In Feb. 1819 he was appointed, by Lord
Hastings, dep. quart.-mast.-gen. of the Bengal army, with the official



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HILITAEY GAf.B]fDAR. '379

rank of major. In May .1819 he was appointed joint o6mmissioner
with Mr. Fleming, court of eircuit judge, to investigate certain
transactions at Malda of a civil and miUtary nature ; and in Feb.
1820 he returned to Europe on furlough.

In the course of his services, this officer has prepared for the govern-
ment numerous plans and maps of Bundlecund, the district of Cut*
tack, &c. &c.



MAJ.-GEN. SIR DAVID OCHTERLONY, Bart. & G.C.B.

(Bengal Establishment.)

This officer was appointed a cadet in 1777 ; ensign, 7th Feb. 1778 ;
lieut. 17th Sept. following; capt. 7th Jan. 1796; maj. 2 1st April
1800; lieut.-col. 18th March 1803; col. Ist Jan. 1812; and maj.-
gen. 4th June 1814.

In 1781, this officer, then a lieut., belonged to the 24th Bengal
N. I., which was one of the five regiments that marched from Bengal,
under the command of Col. Pearse*, to aid the presidency of Madras,
then engaged in war with Hjder Ally. The Bengal detachment
joined the forces employed in that war, under the veteran Com .-in-
Chief, Lieut.-Gen. Sir Eyre Coote, and partook of the very arduous
and brilliant services of those campaigns. At the siege of Cuda*
lore, in 1783, on an occasion in which the 24th reg. distinguished
itself against the French European regiments, who,^ making a sally
when this corps was in the trenches, were received on the points of
their bayonets, and repulsed in a manner whiqh will ever redound to
the honour and glory of the Bengal army, Lieut. Ochterlony was
wounded and taken prisoner.

♦ See p. 87.



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880 THIS, EAST INDIA

On the close of the war in the Carnatic, Lieut. O. returned with
his corps to Bengal, where his services were rewarded by ihe staff
appointment of judge-adv.-gen. to one of the divisions of ihe army,
in which situation he continued for many years.

In 1803, Lieut.-Col. Ochterlony was on service with the 12th N. I.,
under the personal command of the Com. -in-Chief, and present at
the capture of the forts of Sasnee, Bejigurh, and Catchoura, in the
Dooaub.

On the breaking out of the Mahratta war in 1803, Lieut.-Col. O.
was appointed dep. adj.-gen. of the army ; and, taking the field with
the Com.-in-Chief, was present at the affair near Coel, on the 29th
Aug., the assault of Allyghur on the 4th, and the battle of Delhi on
the 11th Sept, of that year.

Immediately after the battle of Delhi, Lieut.-Col. O. was appointed
Envoy or Resident at the Court of the Emperor Shaw Allum, in
which situation he obtained the particular approbation and applause
of the Com.-in-Chief and of government, for his judicious conduct
during the siege of Delhi,* by the forces of Holkar,^ under Scindia,

After peace was completely restored in that quarter, a gentleman
of the civil service was appointed to succeed Lieut.-Col. Ochterlony,
at the court of Delhi, when he was nominated to command the for-
tress of Allahabad. From this inactive situation Lieut.-Col. O. was
removed in 1809, to command a force, assembled on the north-west
frontier, to oppose some hostile demonstrations of the Seiks. With
that force he established a position on the banks of the Sutuleje, and
continued in command in that quarter, until again called into the
field during the Nepaul wav.f

* Extract of a letter from a field-officer, dated Feb. 1805. — " Having received accoonts
from Col. Ochterlony, acting Resident at Delhi, that the whole of Holkar's infantry had
invested that city, we marched to its relief, arrived there on 19th Oct., when the enemy
moved off precipitately, after having battered the walls for eight days, which left the whole
nearly in ruins ; and although in the course of that time they made several assaults at
different places, they were gloriously repulsed with great loss, on every occasion, by our
gallant troops, not in number one hundredth part of the enemy; for which Col. O. has had
the highest honours conferred on him, both by the Com.-in-Chief and Marq. Wellesley."

t .Extract of a letter from a Staff-officer, explanatory of the origin of this war : — ** For



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MILITARY CALENDAR. 381

The plan of the campaign was, by a variety of operations, under-
taken at once, for the accomplishment indeed of separate objects,

a series of years the Nepaulese bad been making encroacbments on tbe British domioioDS,
which, not being vigorously resisted at first, encouraged a continuance of tbe evil. At
length a remonstrance was made to the court of Catmandoo on the subject, and commis-
sioners were appointed on the part of both states, to examine jointly the pretended rights
of the Nepaulese to tbe lands which they had acquired. The result of this enquiry wa», a
complete refutation of all their pretensions, and the production of the most satisfactory
evidence of the artifice and violence with which their acquisitions had been obtained ; but,
notwithstanding this public exposure of their total want of right, they continued to evade,
pn various pretences, the demands of tbe British government for restitution. It was far,
however, from tbe wish of the latter to engage in a war with Nepaul, if this extremity could
have been avoided ; and these measures of forbearance and conciliation were carried to tbe
utmost extent compatible with the dignity of the English empire. In the course of these
investigations it appeared, that the Nepaulese had occupied, about twenty-five years ago,
a considerable part of the country, which has since been ceded to the Company, by the
Newaub of Oude, and to which they had no better claim than they had to any other portion
of the territory which they had seized. As this aggression, however, had not been made
directly on the Company's dominions, it appeared possible to leave it in their hands, with-
out injury to the credit of the British government ; and it was, therefore, proposed to re-
linquish our right to it in their favour, on condition that they should peaceably restore the
lands which they. had usurped on the English territory. To this proposition an evasive
reply was received, and it was found necessary to inform them, that we should insist on
the resumption of this country, as well as of all the parts which they had acquired by
direct aggression on the Company's dominions. In the meantime it was known, that they
bad for some time been laying up large stores of saltpetre, purchasing and fabricating
arms, and organizing and disciplining their troops, under some European deserters in their
service, after the model of the companies of our Sepoy battalions.

Under these circumstances, perceiving that there was no end to the evasions, that every
effort at accommodation served only to augment their pretensions and their arrogance, and
that longer delay would only render a contest more arduous, it was deemed indispensible,
by the British General, to bring the question to immediilte issue ; and a portion of coun-
tiy in Goorackpoor, in which they had seized upwards of thirty villages, during the very pro-
gress of these discussions, was selected as a fit object to decide the point. Ample time was
idlowed for the progress of a messenger, from Calcutta to Catmandoo, for deliberation and
decision on tbe subject there, and for despatch and execution of orders, by the Nepaulese
authorities established in the territories in question ; and they were distinctly informed,
that if, at the conclusion of a specific period, determined by these considerations, this por-
tion of country was not relinquished, the Company's officers should be replaced by force.
A body of troops, adequate to the service, was at the same time held in readiness, and
orders to carry the above resolution into effect, without reference to government, trans-
mitted to the magistrates at Goorackpoor. At the conclusion of the appointed time, no
ateps whatsoever had been taken by the Nepaulese towards a compliance with this requi-



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382 THE EAST INDIA

but these objects mutually facilitating each other, to wrest the country
suddenly from the Nepaulese. With this view, it was intended that
the principal division of the army, under Maj.-Gen. B. Marley, should
move from Palna, on the capital, by the route of Etoude and Chusa-
panee, while a force, under Maj.-Gen. Sullivan Wood, should pene-
trate into Gorkah, by the route of Roots wild, and prevent the trans-
fer of the war to the westward. The very same reasoning was applied
in arranging the attack fo be made on the troops serving in the wes-
tern part of the enemy's dominions. A division under Maj.-Gen.
Ochterlony, to advance from the Sutuleje, was directed against the
force under Umar Sing, and Maj.-Gen. Gillespie, at the Head of an-
other, was to occupy the valley of the Dhoon, and the territory of
Suenaghur, and cut oflf the communication with the capital, and the
resources to the eastward. As soon as these operations were suffi-

sition, nor did they manifest the smallest symptom of any such intention. Accordingly
Mr. Martin (t^ie Judge) advanced with a small force, under Lieut.-Col. Richardson, and
re-established the different Thannahs; the Nepaulese authorities, with what troops they had,