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" The first advices respecting the Pindarries received firom the Resident at Nagpore,



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456 THE EAST INDIA

Early in 1817 the Gov.-Gen. came to the determination of furnish-
ing the Berar subsidiary force from the Bengal army, either because
Nagpore was more contiguous to the territories of that presidency, or
because, to appoint the military force as well as to direct the political
influence sustained by it, belonged to the supreme government. What-
ever were the views of expediency for this measure, the Bengal troops
relieved those of Madras at Nagpore, early in March 1817* It was
near the end of April before Col. Walker hims^lp^s able to quit
Nagpore, but he sent on the forces in advance, and joined them with
the general staflf at Amorawitty. The whole reached EUichpore about
the middle of May, and from thence joined the Hyderabad contingent.
Col. Walker, after he was relieved from the command in Berar, re-
ceived the most flattering testimonies* of approbation of his conduct

stated their number to be about 27,000, who are collected and prepared to cross the Ner-
buddah ; a body of about 4000 men soon afterwards crossed the river at the Buglateer-ford,
but crossed it in consequeuce of the movements of the troops under Col. Walker, com-
manding the Nag^re subsidiary force. Another similar body having again crossed over at
the Buglateer-ford, and it being reported that they had taken the Boorhanpoor road, Col.
Walker pursued them for some time in that direction. On his return, with the hope of
intercepting some of the other Pindarries, who might be expected to follow them, he suc-
ceeded in surprising and dispersing a party belonging to the first body^ some of whom were
killed^ and a few taken prisoners. It appeared from the information they afibrded^ that the
report of their having proceeded to Boorhanpoor was incorrect ; and in consequence of CoK
Walker's movement they recrossed the river, and the whole of the Pindarries assembled in
that part of the north of the Nerbuddah immediately fell back.'*

* The following copies of letters and orders were communicated to Col. Walker, or
published to the army on this occasion : —

*^ Sib, — On the occasion of your quitting the Rajah's territories with the principal
body of the Madras troops lately serving his Highness as a subsidiary force, I perform a
very pleasing duty in communicating to you the high sense which I entertain of the
services and good conduct of the whole of the force under your command. Entering
a foreign country in the beginning of an alliance, which rendered it of peculiar im-
portance that the first impression on the minds of the Rajah and his subjects should
be favourable, it has uniformly shewn a degree of regularity and discipline, highly cre-
ditable to the British character. The zeal and activity displayed by you in the operations
on the Nerbuddah, and the meritorious exertions of the troops in that quarter, have
been fully made known to the supreme government, in the reports I have from time
forwarded of those operations. From that quarter must proceed the ultimate tribute
of approbation j but, as connected with the execution of measures specially entrusted



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MILITARY CALENDAR. 457

from the Gov.-Geii., Lord Hastings, the Com-in-Chief, the Gov. at
Madras, and the Resident at Nagpore.

to my superiDtendance, I beg to offer you my persoqal thaoks, and to request you will
be pleased to convey tliem also to the officers and men of the force.

^' I further beg to express my full concurrence in the approbation which you have ex-
pressed in your orders of this date (of which you have favoured me||afth a copy) of
the zeal and ability of Lieut.'Col. Scott, and the good conduct of thi^ioops at Nag-
pore ; and I have no doubt that they will continue to maintain the credit of the esta-
blishment to which they belong, whilst they remain in these territories.

<< In conclusion, I cannot refrain from expressing my obligations to you for the zealous
and friendly co-operation which I have uniformly experienced from you in your late
command. (Signed) << R. Jenkins^ Resident.

*^ Nagpore, Jpnl 2, 1817."

7b Richard Jenkins, Esq. Resident at Nagpore.

" Sib, — I am directed to acknowledge the receipt of your despatch of the 2d Inst.,
transmitting a copy of your letter to Col. Walker of the same date.

'* The sentiments expressed in that letter are fully participated in by the Gov.-Gen. in
council. The judgment and activity uniformly displayed in Qol. Walker's arrangements
and operations in the important command which he lately held, had not failed to at-
tract the notice of his Lordship in council; and his Lordship has derived great addi-
tional satisfaction from observing the high testimony borne by you to the discipline
and good conduct of the troops, composing the force under Col. Walker's command,
during the time they were stationed in the Nagpore territories. The conciliatory de-
meanour of Col. Walker towards the officers of the Nagpore government, and the na-
tives in general^ is also a point in that officer's conduct which his Lordship is desirous
to mark with particular approbation. You are requested to make known to Colonel
Walker the very favourable sense which the Gov.-Gen. in Council entertains of his
merits and services.

^' A copy of this letter will be transmitted to the government of Fort St. George,
9nd to the Resident at Hyderabad.

(Signed) <^ J. Adam, Act. Chief Sec. to the Government,

'* Fart WiUiam, JprUlS, 1817."

7b the Chief Secretary to Government, Fort St. George.

^* Sir, — In submitting the accompanying copy of a letter from Col. Walker, late
commanding the Nagpore subsidiary force, for the consideration of government, I am
directed by the Com.-in-Chief to state, that his Exc. cannot refuse himself the gratifica-
tion of embracing this opportunity to express his full approbation of the conduct of that
part of the Madras army, under Col. Walker's command, recently employed ia the Berar
country.

'* The conduct and exertions of Col. Walker during his command of the Nagpore

3 N



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458 THE EAST INDIA

The detachment lately under the command of CoL Walker, had
arrived only a few days at Ellichpore, when they were again or-
dered to take the field, in consequence of the defection of the Peishwa,
and an open declaration of war. This event was hastened by the
escape of Trimbuckjee Danglia from his confinement at Tannah ;
which was followed by an attack on our troops at Poonah, and
a general insurrection, wherever the Peishwa's influence extended.
The first direction of the Hyderabad force was a rapid movement
upon Jaulnah ; but when they reached the bottom of the Luckna*
wanay Ghaut, they received orders to proceed into Candeish, where
it was supposed a large body of the insurgents were assembled.
This information, however, either proved incorrect, or the enemy
dispersed, and found means to conceal themselves in the fastnesses
of that country. After this disappointment. Col. Walker was
detached, in command of two regs. of cav., a corps of flank com-
panies of inf., and a proportion of light art., to explore the valleys
among the hill-forts of Chandore, and the whole tract of country
to the westward. Notwithstanding the most diligent and perse-
vering search, he was not able to obtain the least trace or intelli-
gence of an enemy. The detachment halted at Wonny, or Wunn,
not far from Nassuck, and about sixty miles from Surat; from
hence, after remaining for some time in this position, Col. Wal-
ker marched to Jaulnah. On the 18lh Aug. 1817» the 5th regi-
ment of cav., to which he was attached, and which had served up-
wards of eight years in the Deccan, was ordered to return to the
Carnatic ; but an order from the government directed Col. W. to re-
main, and appointed him to the command of all the cav. with the
Hyderabad force.

force, have been sucli as to merit every praise; and the Com. -in-Chief cannot in sufficiently
adequate terms express his commendation of them. His Excellency considers it a duty
incumbent upon him to recommend Colonel Walker to the fiavourable notice of the
Right Honourable the Governor in Council.

(Signed) " J. H. S. Conway, Adj.-Gen. of the Army.

« Jdjutant 'General's Office^ Choultry Ptatn, May 18, 1817."



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MILITARY CALENDAR. 459

The most formidable armies perhaps that had ever been seen in
India, under an European standard, were now assembling from
the three presidencies, and were gradually approaching the points
from which they might most effectually cooperate, or unite, against
whatever enemy might oppose the views of the British government.

The Nepaulese had submitted to the terms which we thought
necessary to prescribe ; and we had fiill leisure to collect all the
resources of the empire, to maintain the peace and the security of our
dominions in India. The most able and experienced officers were em-
ployed. CoL W. was placed on the staff, and attached to the third
division of the army of the Deccan, which he was appointed to com-
mand during the absence of Sir John Malcolm on political affairs.

The Colonel left Jaulnah about the middle of Sept. with his staff
and a reg. of cav. The division was appointed to assemble at
Amorawitty, and it was expected that he should be at its head on the
banks of the Nerbuddah by Oct.

After Col. Walker had recdved his instructions, he made every
exertion to arrive at the place appointed for the rendezvous of the
division. The haste with which he set out corresponded with the
importance of the service, and his anxiety to answer the expec-
tations of the Com. -in-Chief, who had confided largely in his ac-
tivity and judgment. He left Jaulnah on the I4th Sept., to take the
command of the third division of the army of the Deccan ; but was de-
tained on the road eight or ten days by the flooding and swelling of the
rivers which lay in his route. This circumstance agitated and an-
noyed him exceedingly, and brought on a slight fever, which how-
ever had left him previous to the sudden and fatal stroke which
deprived his family, his friends, and society, of a good man, and
the Compan3r's army of a most valuable officer. This event took
place on the 12th Oct., at a village called Sirpoor, about twelve
miles from Basseen : he was seized with a fit of apoplexy at eleven
in the forenoon, and did not speak aftecwards. He died at sunset,
and his remains were interred at Basseen on the IStfa, with every mili*
tary honour which could be bestowed.



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460 THE EAST INDIA

Col. Walker was a man of the most amiable and gentle manners
of great professional ardour and talents : the loss of such an officer
was not only felt by the private circle of his acquaintances, but also
by the public authorities in India. It was deplored by the Com. -in-
Chief, whose expressions on the occasion mark the highest admi-
ration of Gtl^ Walker's character and talents; and even betray a
feeling of despondency, from the difficulty of making another selec-
tion so well adapted to the peculiar duties which had been assigned
to him. These feelings were displayed in a letter from Sir T. Hislop
to Lord Hastings, dated Camp at Nandore, 17th Oct. 1817, four
days after the unfortunate event, of which the following is an ex-
tract : —

" Your Lordship will participate with me in the feelings of deep re-
gret, as well as of a public as a private nature, which the melancholy and
altogether unexpected death of Col. Walker has occasioned in my mind.
By this mournful event, the public service, particularly at this moment,
has sustained a loss which I acknowledge myself unequal to repair; for
I know not at present of any officer, in whom an equal combination of
rank, talent, experience, and local knowledge, can be found, to warrant
a recommendation to be the Colonel's successor, in the important duty con-
fided to him.*'

The most decisive proof of the regard and affection in which Col.
Walker was held, is afforded by the determination of his brother officers
of erecting a monument to his memory.



THE LATE LT.-COL. JAS. ACHILLES KIRKPATRICK.

(Madras Establishment.)

This officer was the son of Col. Kirkpatrick, formerly of the East
India Company's establishment, at Fort St. George. He was born Aug.



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MILITARY CALENDAR.



461



1764; and, after receiving a liberal education, he was appointed a
cadet on the Madras establishment, and proceeded, in 1779-80* to
India. In 1788-9, the impaired slate of his health compelled him to
revisit his native country, where, however, he remained but a very
short time, returning to India before the conclusion of the first war
with Tippoo Sultaun ; in the second campaign of which he served,
with the reserve of the army, under the command of Lieut.-Col.
Gowdie. Towards the end of 1793, he was appointed to the charge
of the garrison of Vizianageam, which he soon relinquished, for the
appointment of Persian translator to the detachment serving with his
highness the Nizam. In this situation he continued till Oct. 1795,
when, on the death of Lieut. William Stewart, he succeeded to the
office of assistant to the Residency at Hyderabad, which was at tliat
period filled by his brother^ Maj (the late Col.) William Kirkpa trick,
who being obliged, early in the year 1797, to proceed to Bombay,
and subsequently to the Cape of Good Hope, for the benefit of his
health, the charge of the British interests at the court of Hyderabad
devolved on the subject of the present memoir.

During the period of his acting as Resident at the court of Hydera-
bad, Capt. Kirkpatrick had the honour, under the directions of Lord
Momington, now Marquess Wellesley, of negociating and concluding,
with his highness the Nizam, Ihe important treaty by which the
alarming power and influence of France in the Deccan were com-
pletely annihilated, and that prince rendered an efficient ally of the
Company, and enabled to co-operate with effect in the war soon
after produced by the perfidy and restless ambition of Tippoo
Sultaun.

Lord Mornington testified his approbation of this important and
eminent service, by appointing Capt. K. to the vacant office of Re-
sident at the court of the Nizam, and by conferring on him the pecu-
liar distinction of honorary aid-de-camp to the Gov.-Gen. ; and he
was the first person on whom this honour was bestowed, though it
was afterwards extended to others: it may be in a manner said to
have been instituted to mark and dignify the merits of Capt Kirk-



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462 THE EAST INDIA

patrick. So high indeed was the sense which his lordship enter-
tained of Capt. K/s services on this occasion, that he was pleased to
recommend him to his Majesty's ministers as deserving of some mark
of the royal favour.

Extract of a Letter from the Gov. -Gen. to the Court of Directors , dated

Nov. 21, 1798.

" Par. 21. — ^Among your servants who have been concerned in the exe-
cution of my orders, on this occasion, I have already recommended Lieut«-
Gen. Harris to your favourable notice. To his name, it is my duty to
add those of Capt. Kirkpatrick and of Lieut.-Col. Roberts. I found the
former in the situation of Acting Resident at Hyderabad ; and to his zeal,
address, discretion, and firmness, I attribute the early success of the ne-
gociation entrusted to his management.

" 32. — Upon the resignation of Colonel Kirkpatrick, I took occasion td
manifest my sense of Captain Kirkpatrick's merits, by appointing him Re-
sident at the court of the Nizam.**

But though the reasonableness of this recommendation was readily
admitted, a compliance with it was from time to time postponed, and
finally, entirely neglected. Upon the determination of the supreme
government to demand adequate security against the hostile disposi-
tion and designs of Tippoo Sultaun, such were the zealous and suc-
cessful exertions of Capt. Kirkpatrick to bring the Nizam's contin-
gent into the field, that it actually reached Chittoor before General
Harris was ready to proceed on his march from Velore.

Extract of a Letter from the Gov.-^Gen. to the Court of Directors, dated

March 20, 1799.

" 79. — The Nizam's contingent consists of 60,000 of the Hon. Com-
pany's troops, subsidized by his Highness, of about the same number of
his own infantry, including a portion of M. Perron's Sepoys, now com-
manded by British officers, and a large body of cavalry.

" 80. — This force, under the general command of Meer AUum, formed
a junction with the army on the 19th Feb. ; and it is with the greatest
satisfaction that I remark to your honourable Court, the beneficial effects



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MILITARY CALENDAR. 46S

which the Company have already derived from the recent improvements
of an alliance with the court of Hyderabad. The Nizam's contingent ac-
tually arrived in the vicinity of Chittoor, in the state of preparation for
the fieldy before Gen. Harris was ready to proceed on his march from
Velore."

Ample as the political and territorial advantages were, which the
Nizam derived from the partition treaty of Mysore; yet as his
extravagant expectations from the spoils of Seringapatam had been
necessarily disappointed, the ratification of that treaty, by the Court
of Hyderabad, was not obtained without eliciting fresh proofs of the
address and abihty of Capt. Kirkpatrick.

In Oct. 1800, Capt. K., after a long and arduous negociation,
succeeded in concluding a new treaty with the Nizara, whereby the
political ties which connected the British government and the state
of Hyderabad, were drawn together more closely than before ; while
the money subsidy hitherto paid by his highness, in defraying* of
the expences of the British troops employed in the defence of his
country, was commuted for the territories acquired by his high-
ness, in consequence of the wars of 1791-2, and 1799, with Tippoo
Sultaun, which were now assigned in perpetual sovereignty to the
Company.

The estimated revenue of these territories, according to the sche-
dules annexed to the treaty, amounted to star pagodas 16,51,465.
The sense entertained by Lord Wellesley of this officer's services
on this important occasion will best appear from the following copy of
a letter to Capt. Kirkpatrick, dated Nov. 10, 1800.

" Sir, — Since the commencement of my administration of the afiairs
of the British empire in India, frequent occasions have arisen, at the court
of Hyderabad, to require the exertion of address, firmness, and perseverance
on the part of the British Resident, and on the success of the negocia-
tions entrusted to hi^ management, the most important political interests of
the Company in India have essentially depended. In all these instances
your general conduct has afforded me the greatest degree of satisfaction ;



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464 THE EAST INDIA

and I now repeat, with pleasure, the public tribute of justice which I
rendered to your eminent services in accelerating the destruction of the
French influence at Hyderabad, in the year 1798; and in bringing^ the
Nizam's forces into the field with so much promptitude and alacrity dur«-
ing the war in Mysore, in 1799. The conclusion of the treaty of the 13th
Oct. 1800 furnishes a confident expectation of the lasting security and
permanent duration of the British power in the Deccan : the service which
you have rendered to the Company, and to the British interests in India, by
your able and assiduous exertions throughout the course of the long and
intricate negociation which preceded this important measure, demands my
most cordial approbation, and entitles you to the gratitude of the Company
and of your country.

** I discharge a satisfactory part of my public duty in recording these
sentiments on the proceedings of this government ; but the peculiar merit of
your services, and the great importance of the beneficial consequences which
have flowed from your success, will induce me to submit to the Court of
Directors my earnest recommendation, that you should be rewarded by some
honourable mark of public distinction.

(Signed " Welleslby."

In Dec 1800 Capt. Kirkpatrick attained the rank of maj. From
this time, nothing material occurred at the court of Hyderabad, until
April 1802, when Maj. K- concluded a treaty of commerce between
the East India Company and his Highness the Nizam. By this
treaty, the merchant acquired, for the first time, a degree of security,
and the trade of the two countries a spring, that have since conduced
essentially to the advantage of both. The difficulties experienced by
Maj. K., in accomplishing this beneficial measure, and consequently,
the merit of his success on the occasion, can only be duly appreciated
by those acquainted with the extraordinary spirit, the profound
ignorance of every true principle of commerce, and the obstinate
prejudices which usually prevail in Asiatic, and particularly in Ma-
hommedan, courts, on most questions of political economy.

In 1803 the British government was compelled, in defence of its
own rights, and those of its allies, both of them invaded by the rest-
less ambition of the confederated Mahratta chieftains, Dowlut Rao



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MILITARY CALENDAR. 465

Scindia, Raojie Bhosillah, and Jeswunt Rao Holkar, to appeal to
amis. On this occasion, the power of the court of Hyderabad, sti-
mulated by the unremitting exertions of the Resident, proved emi-
nently useful, and contributed, in no small degree, to the speedy and
glorious termination of the war in the Deccan. What considerably
aihanced the merit of these efforts was, that they were made in the
midst of difficulti^, occasioned by the daily expectation of the Nizam's
death, and the consequent anxiety respecting the succession to the
throne. His Highness actually died on the 6th Aug., being only two
days prior to the commencement of hostilities, in the attack of, and
capture of, Ahmednuggur. Owing however, in a great degree, to
the prudent measures adopted by Maj. Kirkpatrick, under the general
direction of Lord Wellesley, Secunder Jah succeeded to the vacant
musnud of his father, without the slightest opposition ; and the ener-
gies of the new government were immediately directed to a vigorous
cotoperation with the British forces, against the common enemy.

The favourable sentiments entertaintxl, by Lord Wellesley, of Maj.
Kirk Patrick's conduct and services on this occasion, were signified
to him, by direction of his lordship, in the following terms, contained^
in a letter, dated 30th May 1804 :

^< Lord Wellesley desires me to add, that as soon as the British troops are
withdrawn from the field, and ai*e returned to their usual stations, it is his
intention to aflbrd you a public testimony of his approbation of your conduct,
during the late crisis of aflkirs, and to recommend your services to the notice
of the Court of Directors, and of his Majesty's ministers. His lordship will
not lose sight of your claim to some mark of distinction from his Majesty's
government in England, and will not fail to urge your pretensions in the
manner most likely to obtain for you those honours, to which he is of opinion
you are entitled for your public services, under his lordship's administration ;
which he recommended strongly to government, in England, some years ago,
and which, in bis judgment, have been withheld from you unjustly."

The next occasion, and the last of particular importance, that ex-
ercised the vigilance and address of Maj. Kirkpatrick, presented it-
self in the somewhat sudden death of Azim-ul-Omrah, who fell a vic-

3 o



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466



THE EAST INDIA



tim, on the 9th May 1804, to a fever of only four clays duration.
Numerous were the candidates, who contended for the high station
of this intelligent and respectable minister ; and who by various arts
strenuously endeavoured to secure the succession to it. Of these can-
didates, some were well known to be violently disaffected to. the British
interest, while others were utterly disqualified, by incapacity, for ihe
arduous trust to which they aspired. In spite, however, of the active
intrigues set on foot by these different competitors, Maj. Kirkpatrick
was enabled to keep the appointment of a successor to the deceased
minister in suspense, until he received the sentiments and instructions
of the Gov.-Gen. on the subject. The result was, that the vacant
office was conferred by the Nizam, on Meer Allum, who was dis-