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tinguished beyond any other for his political sagacity and experience,
and reasonably believed to be a steady friend to the connexion sub-
sisting between his master and the British government, of which he
had been for more than twenty years a principal promoter and ad-
vocate ; and to which, in fact, he was chiefly indebted for the rank and-
consideration he attained.

In Oct. 1804 Maj. Kirkpatrick was promoted to the rank of lieut.-col. ;
and in Sept. of the following year he proceeded to Calcutta, with the
permission of the late Gov-Gen., Lord Cornwallis, partly for the be-
nefit of his health, which was somewhat impaired by his long resi-
dence at tlyderabad, but chiefly for the purpose of conferring with
his lordship on the political affairs of that court. He reached Cal-
cutta, under the affliction of an alarming complaint, and of which he
died, on the 15th of Oct. 1805, after a short illness, in the 41st year of
his age.

In private life he was eminently distinguished for all those quali- '
ties which gain esteem, and secure confidence and friendship- The
high diplomatic situation in which he died, he had filled for a period
of nine eventful years ; and it has been shewn that, in the course of
that time, he was successfully employed in some of the most important
negociations which took place during the vigorous and brilliant ad-
ministration of that enlightened statesman. The following, as well as



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MILITARY CALENDAB. 46?

those already iDtroduced, are most honourable testimonies of the
zeal and talents which Lieut.-Col. Kirkpatrick displayed in his official
character :—

Extract of an Order published hy the Vice-President and Dep.-Gov. of Fort
fVilliamf on the occasion of the death of Lieut. -CoL Kirkpatrick.
" The Vice-President and Dep.-Gov., with sincere regret, performs the
paioful duty of directing the last tribute of military honoars to be paid to the
remains of that valuable officer, and meritorious public character, Lieut«-Col.
J. A. Kirkpatrick, of the establishment of Fort St. George, late Resident at the
court of the Snbadar of the Deccan ; in which situation he rendered the most
important services to the Honourable East India Company."

Extract from a Despatch^ dated Nov. 3, 1805, from Mr. Russely Acting
Resident at Hyderabad^ to Sir George Barlow^ Governor-General. ^

" The intimation of the decease of Lieut.-Col. Kirkpatrick, the late Resi-
dent at Hyderabad, v«ras received by his highness the Subadar with expressions
of the most poignant grief, and diffused a universal gloom over every indi-
viduaLat Durbar. The important public services, and the eminent private
virtues of Lient.-Col. Kirkpatrick, were always justly appreciated at the
court of Hyderabad. He commanded the confidence and attachment of those
with whom he was connected by the functions of his public office, and the love
and admiration of those who participated in the happiness of his private
friendship. I had long known the respectability of his public character, and
long esteemed the virtues of his mind ; and it was not without a bitter pang,
that I directed the last tribute of respect to be paid to the memory of a man
whose loss can never be sufficiently deplored.'*

Extract from a Despatch^ dated Nov. 23, 1805, from Mr. Secretary Edmon^
stone to Mr. Russel^ Acting Resident at Hyderabad.

'^ The Gfov.-Cien. has received, with deep concern and regret, the inteUi<»
gence of the death of Lieut.-Col. Kirkpatrick, the late Rodent at the court
of Hyderabad, whose eminent public services, during the long period of time
that he discharged the arduous and important functions of that high station,
entitled him to the distinguished approhation of the British government.**



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468 THE BAST INDIA

LIEUTENANT-COLONEL THOMAS STEELE-

(Madras Establishmait.)

In 1792 this officer arrived in India, and shorlly afterwards was em-
ployed, as a subaltern, under Col. Maxwell, against the southern
Poligars. In 1796 he was present at the capture of Ceylon. In
1798 he embarked with the force employed against Batavia and Java,
and on his return was present at the storm of Seringapatam, He
served also during the active campaign, under Col. Stevenson, as
captain, against Doondia. In 1803, 4, and 5, he served under the
Duke of Wellington in the Mahratta war. In 1814, as lieut.-col.
(which rank he obtained 6th May 181S), and in command of a bri-
gade, he served with Col. Dowse's field force; and in 1815, 16, 17,
and 18, he was employed, with a similar command, to quell the dis-
turbances in the Ganjam district, and during the invasion of that
country by the Pindarries: he served also in the Goomsur hills,
against the rebels of that country.



MAJ..GEN. SIR JOHN MALCOLM, G.C.B. & K.L.S.

{Madras Establishment.)

Appointed a cadet on the Madras establishment in 1781 ; ensign,
24th Oct. 1781;Jieut., 1st Nov. 1788; capt.-lieut., 29th Nov. 1797;
capt, by brevet, 7th Jan. 1796; capt. regimentally, 19th Sept. 1798;
maj., 27th Jan. 1802; lieut-coL, 18th Dec 1804; col. by brevet,
4th June 1813; col. regimentally, 8th April 1818; brig.-gen.*, in
May 1817 ; and maj.-gen., 12th Aug. 1819-

* This rank had been previously conferred on this officer in 1808 and 1809, as a tem-
porary commission, to be held by him during his absence from the British Indian territories
on hb mission to Persia.



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MILITARY CALENDAR. 469

This officer arrived in India in 1783*, and in Feb. 1794 returned to
England, for the recovery of his health. In 1795 he re-embarked on
board the same ship with Gen. Sir Alured Clarke, who was proceed-
ing to Madras as second in council, and Com -in-Chief at Fort St.
George, and entrusted in his way thither with the command of a
secret expedition against the Cape of Good Hope. Upon the ar-
rival of the fleet in False Bay, Gen. Clarke conferred upon Lieut.
Malcolm a conditional appointment, as his aid-de-camp, and em-
ployed him in procuring 400 recruits for the Madras army from
among the German troops who had been taken prisoners of war at
the Cape. For these services he obtained the recorded approbation
of that General, and of the Madras government, by whom he was
appointed, 29th Jan. 1796> secretary to the Com.-in-Chief, and, on
the 21st Jan. 1798, to succeed Major Allan as town-major of Fort St.
George.

In Sept. 1798 Capt. Malcolm was appointed assistant to Capt.
Kirkpatrick-f , the resident at Hyderabad : in Nov. following he was
called from thence, by express summons, to Calcutta, where he ar-
rived, charged by Meer Allum with some verbal communications to
the Gov.-Gen., Lord Mornington, of considerable importance. He
immediately accompanied his lordship on his way from Calcutta to
Madras. In Dec he quitted the Gov.-Gen., and received instruc-
tions to proceed immediately and join the Nizam's contingent force ;
and in Jan. following (1799) he was invested with the chief command
of the infantry of that force, and which continued to act under his
direction during the campaign that terminated in the death of Tippoo
Sultaun, and the surrender of his capital to the British army. The
services of this officer during that campaign were various, as he was

* Sir John Malcolm was born in 1769, and was but thirteen years of age when sent out to
India to the care of his maternal uncle, the late eminent Dr. Gilbert Pasley. Sir John is
one of seventeen children, and it is a remarkable occurrence, that three brothers, Sir
James, Sir Pulteney, and Sir John Malcolm, were honoured on the same occasion with the
dignity of Commander of the Bath. Sir John was subsequently raised to the rank of Grand
Cross of that order.

t See Services, p. 460.



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470 THE EAST INDIA

not only politioal agent with the Nizam's army, >and commanded all
the regular troops of that prince, but was, with Sir Arthur Wellesley,
Col. Close, and Maj. Agnew, one of a political commission : he had
also charge of all the supplies from the Deccan. The manner in
which Capt. M. fulfilled these duties is thus noticed in a letter to the
Court of Directors ; —

" The Com.-in-Chief reported to us, that Capt. Malcolm had, at all times
during the campaign, in A¥hich he took a very conspicuous part, made the ne-
cessary arrangemei^ts for the co-operation of the contingent, in a manner which
reflects the highest honour on his abilities, and which strongly marked his
zeal in the public cause. The peculiar talent for conciliating the Sirdars of
the allied forces, and for directing their exertions to objects of general utility,
in a manner foreign to their habits of service ; his ability in applying the un-
connected power of resource possessed by the contingent in aid of the^ general
supplies of the army ; and the important assistance he gave with the corps of
his highness the Nizam's regular infantry^ under his command ; are valuable
points of service, entitling Capt. Malcolm to the notice of your Hon. Court.

<* In consequence of the honourable testimony of the Com.-in-Chief, we
conveyed to Capt. Malcolm our public thanks for the zeal, ability, and judg-
ment, which he had shewn in the discharge of extensive duties of great poli-
tical importance and delicacy."

After the fall of Seringapatam, Capt. Malcolm was appointed,
jointly with Capt. (now Maj .-Gen. Sir Thomas) Munro, secretary to
the commissioners, to whom was entrusted the adjustment of the
aflfairs, and division of the tert-itories of Mysore, and the investiture of
the young Rajah with the government of that country.

Shortly after the termination of the Mysore war, and the arrange-
ments of the conquered territory were completed, it was deemed ex-
pedient that a mission should proceed from the Supreme govern-
ment of India to Baba Khan, in order to ascertain the intentions and
power of that prince, and more particularly of Zemaun Shaw ; and^
under the apprehension that the latter was meditating the invasion
of Hindostan, to engage the court of Persia to act with vigour and
decision against either him or the French, should either attempt to



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MILITARY CALENDtAR. 471

penetrate to India through any part of the Persian territories. For
this service, involving the most essential interests of the East India
Company, Capt. Malcolm was selected, and ordered to quit Hyder-
abad, in Oct. 1799, and proceed to Bombay, there to embark for
Persia, and, should the season admit of it, to touch at Muscat, in
his way thither, in order to endeavour to adjust any points relating to
the British interests at that place, which the Bombay goverauAent
should recommend to his attention.

Capt. M. reported, on the 1st Feb. 1800, to the Gov.-Gen. his ar-
rival at Bushire, and his having concluded an agreement with the
Imaum of Muscat, which provided for the future residence there of
an English gentleman in the capacity of agent of the British govern-
ment ; and on the 20th Feb. 1801 he transmitted to Bengal copies of
two treaties which he had concluded with Persia, the one political,
the other commercial. Capt. M. reached Bombay, on his return
from Persia, 12th May 1801, and arrived in Calcutta in Sept. follow-
ing, when he was appointed private ^secretary to the Gov.-Gen. The
success of his mission is thus stated to tlie secret committee by Lord
Wellesley : —

*^ He had succeeded,'* observes his lordship, " in accomplishia^ every
object of his mission, aod in establishing a connexion with the actual govern-
ment of the Persian empire, which promised to the interests of the British
nation in India, politio^l and commercial advantages of the most important
description.'' After referring to the stipulations of the treaties, his lordship
adds, " Your committee will further have the satisfaction to observe, that
these important advantages have been obtained without any sacrifice what-
ever, either of interest or of honour, on the part of the British government.
The issue of Capt. Malcolm's negociations with the Imaum of Muscat, has
proved highly advantageous to the interests of the British nation. The im-
portance of cultivating a g^ood understanding with the government of Muscat,
is suflSciently obvious, and the arrangements which have taken place with
that government, through the agency of Capt. Malcolm, may be expected
to ensure all the beiie;fits of which that connexion is susceptiUe. The inter-
course which Cftpt. Malcolm held with the Pacha of Biigdad, appears to have
produced on the mind of that prince an impression extremely favourafble to



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472 TUB EAST INDIA

the British interests, and to have laid the foundation of future essential advan-
tages, intimately connected with the alliance so happily contracted with the
court of Persia/' After further adverting to the great public advantages
which had resulted from Capt. M.'s mission, as well as to those which might
be expected to ensue from it, his lordship observes, in conclusion, ** I anxiously
solicit the particular attention of the honourable committee, and the Court of
Directors, to the ability, firmness, temper, and dignity, which have distin-
guished Capt. Malcolm's conduct throughout the whole course of the arduous
and important duties committed to his charge^.

On the decease of the Persian ambassador, Hajeh Kulleel Khan,
who was accidentally shot at Bombay in 1802, Maj. Malcolm was
immediately dispatched to that presidency, invested with authority to
conduct all aflFairs respecting the embassy from the King of Persia to
the British government, and to make every necessary communication
to the King of Persia and his minister ; also, with instructions to con-
sole, and, as far as possible, compensate the family and relatives of the
deceased ambassador, and to make the necessary arrangements for
their return to Persia. The Bombay government were instructed
upon this occasion to receive Maj, M. at Bombay, with the honours
due to an envoy to any foreign slate, from the supreme British autho-
rity in India. In Aug. 1802 Maj. M. quitted Bengal for Bombay,
and returned in Nov., having, as is stated in a letter from Bengal to
the Secret Committee, " completely succeeded in accomplishing the
objects of his mission without subjecting the Hon. Company to any
considerable expence, or imposing any important permanent burthen
on the Hon. Company's finances/* " Every measure which pru-
dence and policy could dictate in the actual situation of aflfairs,"^ the
Bengal government further observe, " has been adopted under the
authority vested in that officer, for the regulation of all points cod-

* The Gov.-GeD. in advising the Court of Directors of the result of Capt. M.'s mission
to Persia, in which he had been accompanied by four assistants, further stated, that his
lordship's object in connecting so many assistants with the mission was not only to pro-
vide for the possible contingencies of so distant an expedition, but also with a view to the
education of a suitable number of the Company's junior servants in the diplomatic line.
Tliis measure and its object were both highly approved by the Court of Directors.



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MILITARY CALENDAR. 473

nected with the Persian embassy/' " The Gov.-Gen./' il is added,
/" is of opinioD, that Maj. Malcolm has manifested a degree of judg-
ment, ability, and zeal, in the discharge of the duties of his mission,
which merit? the highest approbation of this government, and the
Gov.-Gen. in Council deems it to be his duty to recommend the
merits and services of that able officer, on this important delicate oc-
casion, to the distinguished notice of your Hon. Committee and the
Hon. Court of Directors.''

In Nov. 1802, while Maj. Malcolm was at Bombay, Gov. Duncan
received a communication from the Peishwa, stating the extremity to
which he was reduced by the intrigues of Jeswunt Rao Holkar, and
requesting an asylum in the British territories. Before any answer
was returned to this letter, it was judged proper to consult Maj. MaK
colm, who, at the request of the government, communicated to them
his detailed sentiments on the conduct which he judged it advisable
for them to pursue on that occasion; and it appears from a letter ad-
dressed by the Bombay government to the Resident at Poonah, on the
4th Nov., conveying instructions for his guidance, " that all their pro-
ceedings on this subject had had the concurrence, and been indeed
suggested in their course and purport by Maj. Malcolm.'' It further
appears from a minute* recorded by Gov. Duncan, dated 5th Sept.
1803, that he had derived great assistance from the accidental pre-
sence and co-operation of Maj. Malcolm, in preparing instructions for
the army in Guzerat.

Maj. Malcolm was nominated, in Feb. 1803, by the Gov-Gen. to
the Residency of Mysore, in the room of the late Mr. Webbe, who was
transferred to Nagpore. The considerations which led to this officer's

* Extraci, — ** Under these circumstances, and the earnest wish I entertain to adopt such
a line of conduct as may in general consonance to my own judgment, meet also the senti-
ments of the supreme government, I have availed myself of the accidental presence here of
Maj. Malcolm, late private secretary to his Exc. the most noble the Grov.-Gen. (whose
minute acquaintance with all the military objects at issue, joined to his accurate informa-
tion of our political circumstances in Guaerat, enable him so well to afford advice on the
present occasion,) to confer with him on the subject, the result of which has been our con-
currence in the accompanying draft of instructions."

3 P



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474 THE EAST INDIA

selection for this appointment, are thus stated in a letter from Lord
Wellesley to the Madras government : " It is indispensably necessary,
that the person who may be nominated to ihat situation should be in-
timately acquainted with the conditions and interests of the several
states and chieftains composing the Mahratta empire, with the whole
course of the late transactions in the Deccan, and with my views and
sentiments with regard to the whole system of our political arrange-
ments in that quarter of India. The complete information possessed
by Maj. Malcolm in all these important points, added to the zeal,
judgment^ and ability, which have distinguished the conduct of that
officer, in various important political stations, quahfy him in a peculiar
degree for the situation of Resident at Mysore/' Maj. Malcolm
quitted Calcutta for Fort St. George, whither it was previously the in-
tention of the Gov.-Gen. to have proceeded in person : but his lord-
ship observed, in the conclusion of the above quoted letter, ** that
his absence at such a crisis would be supplied in a considerable de-
gree by the communication which Maj. Malcolm would be enabled to
make to the Fort St. George government.'*

On the 1st March 1803, Maj. Malcolm received the appointment
of Resident at Mysore from the Madras government, by whom it was
considered unnecessary to furnish him with any specific instructions for
his guidance in the immediate duties of the residency. Towards Ae
close of the same month Lord Clive recorded a minute, in which,
adverting to the extensive acquaintance of Maj. Malcolm with Lord
Wellesley's sentiments, relative to the poHtical interests of the British
government in the then crisis of Mahratta affairs, he states, that he had,
in compliance with his lordship's wishes, determined to employ the
abiHties of Maj. Malcolm on such affairs of a poHtical nature, as the
advance of the British troops into the Mahratta territory might give
rise to. Maj. M. was accordingly directed to proceed to the head-
quarters of Lieut. -Gen. Stuart, who was recommended to repose that
confidence in him " to which he was entitled by his great public ser-
vices, by his distinguished zeal, and by his extensive experience.*'

Shortly aflerwards,Maj.Malcolm joined the detachment of the army



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MILITARY CALENDAR. 475

nder Ma j .-Gen. Wellesley, at whose request he accompanied the
force to Poonah, in order to assist the Maj.-Gen. in the adoption of
measures for the conciliation of the Peishwa's southern Rajahs, Soidars,
and Jageerdars, respecting whom he prepared, and in April trans-
mitted to Lord Clive, a memorandum containing a full description of
their political influence and numerical force. It is further to be ob-
served, that the late Sir Barry Close conducted some of his personal
discussions with the Mahrattas jointly, and with the assistance of Maj.
Malcolm.

Maj. Malcolm was sent, in Jan. 1804, from the camp of Maj.-
Gen. Wellesley on a mission to the court of Dowlut Rao Scindia, in
whose camp he arrived on the 11th of that month, and with whom,
on the 27th Feb. following, he concluded a treaty of defensive alliance
and subsidy. Lord Wellesley, after communicating this event to the
Secret Committee, adds, " I beg leave to offer my most sincere con-
gratulations to the Hon. Committee and the Hon. Court, u[>on the
prosperous conclusion of this important treaty, which has been
established on principles highly advantageous to the British interests
and honourable to the firitish characters."

On the 14th May, Maj. M. was compelled, by ill health, to quit
Scindia's camp, but not till he had vindicated the honour of the
British government upon the occasion of an insult being offered to it
by Scindia's Durbar. He obtained the particular commendation of
the Gov.-Gen. for the " judgment and firmness'' he evinced on this
occasion. Maj. M. proceeded to Mysore, whence he was called to
Calcutta with all possible dispatch, on the lllh March 1805, for
the reasons assigned in the following extract of a letter from the
Bengal government to the Secret Committee, dated May 31, 1805 : —

'^ The Gov ..Gen. in Council deems it proper to intimate to your Hon.
Committee, in this place, that the Gov.-Gen. being desirous of receiving
personally from Lieut.-Col. Malcolm, the Resident at Mysore, information
on various points connected with the political interests of the British govern-
ment, which that officer's employment in the field with Maj .-Gen. the Hon.
Sir A. Wellesley, and subsequently at the Court of Dowlut Rao Scindia,



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476 THE EAST INDIA

has enabled him to acquire, had directed Lieut.-Col. M., in the month of
March, to proceed to Fort William with the least practicable delay ; and
that, in consequence of Col. Close's detention at Nagpore, and the probabi-
lity that circumstances might occur to prevent the prosecution of his journey
to the camp of Dowlut Rao Scindia, the Gov.-Gen. had determined to
supply the eventual defect of Col. Close's able agency at the court of Dovelut
Rao Scindia, by dispatching Lieut.-Col. Malcolm to his Highness's camp.
Lieut.-Col. M. arrived at the presidency of Fort William on the 15th April ;
and the Gov.-Gen. having judged it proper, previously to that date, to invest
Col. Close with the general controul of military and political affairs in the
Deccan, Lieut.-Col. M. was directed to proceed to the head-quarters of the
British army, eventually to be dispatched to the Court of Dowlut Rao
Scindia, for the purpose of conducting such negociations as might be pre-
scribed directly by the orders of the Gov.-Gen., or by the instructions of his
Eic. the Com.-in-Chief, under the Gov.-Gen. 's authority."

Lieut.-Col. M., shortly after his arrival at the head-quarters of the
Bengal army, received instructions from Lord Lake to take charge
of the oflBce of the Gov.-Gen/s agent, vacant by the departure of
Mr. Mercer for Fort William ; and from this time, June 1805, to
March 1806, he continued with the Bengal army, occupied in the
performance of the most active and responsible political duties,
among which were the following : — The conclusion, on the 22d Nov.
1805, under the direction of Lord Lake, of a new treaty of amity and
alliance with Dowlut Rao Scindia, which stipulated the cession of
Gualior and Gohud to Scindia; and, by the final adjustment of boun-
daries, removed some doubts and misunderstandings which had arisen
respecting the meaning of the former treaty. The conclusion, on
the 24th Dec. fpllowing, of a treaty of peace and alliance with Jes-
wunt Rao Holkar ; and, in Jan. 1806, of a treaty of amity with the
Sikh chieftains, Rumjeet Sing and Futtch Sing, with a view to induce
the Sikhs to break oflf their connexion with Holkar. In a letter to
Lord Wellesley, upon the former of these treaties, Lord Lake ob-
served, " Though aware how unnecessary it is to call j^our attention