John Philippart.

The East India military calendar: containing the services of ..., Volume 1 online

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to the merits of Lieutenant-Colonel Malcolm, I feel it a justice to
that officer to slate the very high sense I entertain of his services



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MILITARY CALENDAR. 477

on this important occasion/' His lordship further observed, " To
the personal influence which Lieut-Col. M., had, during his former
residence at the Court of Dowlut Rao Scindia, established over the
mind of that chief and his principal officers, and to the full confi-
dence they repose in his character, I attribute, in a very great de-
gree, the happy commencement of the late negociation ; and, from
the documents I have already transmitted, you can perfectly judge
how much his experience and ability have contributed to its favour-
able conclusion ; and you will, I am sure, concur with me in thinking
that this officer has, on the present occasion, greatly augmented his
claims on the Hon. Company and his country, to whose favourable
notice I feel confident you will derive satisfaction in recommending
the distinguished services of this valuable officer/' Lord Wellesley,
in his reply, stated, that " He entertained a due sense of the exer-
tions of Lieut.-Col. Malcolm in eflfecting the adjustment of all sub-
jects of difference between the British government and Dowlut Rao
Scindia/' On the 2d treaty, that with Jeswunt Rao Holkar, Lord
Lake observed, " I feel it my duty again to call your attention to
the exertions of Lieut-Col. Malcolm, by whose knowledge and abi-
lities this treaty has been negociated under my direction, and whose
many and important services will, I trust, meet that recompense to
which I consider them so justly entitled."

Lord Lake, on the 29th March 1806, in a letter to the Gov-Gen.
in Council, stated, that several political discussions with Holkar, com-
bined with the numerous unsettled points respecting the irregulars,
had obliged him to detain Lieut.-Col. Malcolm at his head-quarters
longer than he intended, but that he was then enabled to permit him
to proceed to Fort William. In acknowledging this letter, the
Bengal government observed, " We have great pleasure in expressing
our high approbation of the activity, diligence, ability, and judgment,
manifested by Lieut-Col. Malcolm in the discharge of the arduous
and laborious duties connected with the arrangements for the reduc-
tion of the irregular troops, and for the assignment of rewards and
provisions for such individuals as had received promises or had esla-



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478 THE EAST INDIA

Wished claims upon the government, by their conduct during the
war ; and we concur in opinion with your lordship, that Lieut.-Col.
M. has accomplished the objects of your lordship's orders in a manner
highly honourable to the reputation, and advantageous to the in-
terests of the British government, and we consider that oflScer to
have rendered important public services, by his indefatigable and
successful exertions in the accomplishment of these important ar-
rangements. We entirely approve of your lordship's intention of
permitting Lieut.-Col. M. to return to the presidency when his ser-
vices shall no longer be required by your lordship/'

On his return to the presidency, Lieut.-Col. M. having addressed
to the Bengal government a statement, shewing the great amount of
extra expences which he had been obliged to incur during the various
missions and diplomatic duties he had been called upon to perform
in the preceding five years, and soliciting some remuneration, a brief
review* of his services was submitted, by Sir George Barlow and

* " On the occasion of Lieut.-Col. Malcolm's return to the presidency, preparatory to
his proceeding to resume his situation of Resident at Mysore, after having been an active
instrument in the conclusion of peace with the Mahrattas, and in the complete settle-
ment of afikirs in Hindostan, we consider it an act of justice to that meritorious officer, to
submit to the recollection of your honourable Committee the various important duties in
which he has been engaged during the last five years. Since his return from his embassy
to Persia in 1801, independently of private secretary to the Gov.-Gen., to which he was
appointed in Sept. 1801, and which he resigned in March 1803, andof hb present situation
of Resident at Mysore, to which he was nominated on resigning the former office, Lieut.-
Col. M. has been employed in the following extra missions: — A mission to Fort St.
George, in Jan. 1802, for the purpose of explaining to the government of that presidency
the sentiments of the Gov.-Gen. on a variety of important points connected with the general
affairs of India at that period. A mission to Bombay, in Sept. 1802, for the purpose of
consoling the relations and attendants of the late Persian ambassador, Rajee Khuleel Khan,
and of making every arrangement necessary for their return to their own country, and
every communication regarding the melancholy occurrence of the ambassador's death to
the king of Persia and his ministers. In Feb. 1803 Lieut.-Col. M. was deputed to Fort
St. George, charged with communications of the highest importance to the government of
that presidency, by which he was immediately nominated Resident at Mysore, and di-
rected to join Lieut.-Col. Stuart,' who was with the army on the frontier of that pro-
vince. On his arrival Lieut.-Col. M. was directed to join the Hon. Maj.-Gen. Wel-
lesley, then on his march towards Poonah, with a considerable force under his com-
mand. Lieut.-Col. M. continued with the Hon. Maj.-Gen. Weliesley during the war.



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MILITARY CALENDAR- 479

Council, to the Secret Committee, and accompanied by a recom-
mendation for some extra allowance, in consideration of the expences
to which he had been subjected by his exertions in the public service ;
and in compliance with which, and a subsequent recommendation
transmitted to the Court of Directors, when he came to England in
1812, they resolved to present him with the sum of 50,000 Sicca
rupees, with interest from the period of his quitting India- This sum
was accordingly presented to him in 1814, thegrant having previously
received the sanction of the general court of proprietors.

In March 1807, Lieut-Col. M. arrived at Fort St. George, on the
way to the resumption of his residency of Mysore; in the performance
of the duties of which appointment he did not long continue, the po-
litical state of Europe, and the increased power and extensive pro-
jects of Buonaparte, having, towards the close of the year, furnished
fresh occasion for his employment as a diplomatist. Intelligence of
the French design of invading India through Persia, and that the in-
vaders would probably be supported in it by the Turkish and Persian
states, reached the Gov".-Gen., Lord Minto, late in 1807 ; in conse-
quence of which, his lordship appointed Lieut .-CoL M. to be the
Gbv.-Gen.'s political agent, and to be vested with plenipotentiary
powers in Persia, the Persian Gulph, and in Turkish Arabia. By

except about three months, during which period he was compelled to be absent by se-
vere illness, solely occasioned by excessive fatigue, and great exposure to the climate.
At the conclusion of the peace with Dowlut Rao Scindia, Lieut.-Col. M. was deputed to
the court of that chieftain, in Jan. 1904, and remained in the exercise of the duties of
Resident at Scinidia's court till June of the same year, when he was relieved by the late Mr.
Webbe. In April 1805, a few weeks after bis return to Mysore, Lieut.-Col. Malcolm
was called to this presidency^ and on his arrival was appointed to proceed on a mission to
the court of Dowlut Rao Scindia^ but directed immediately to join tbe Right Hon. Lord
Lake, and to place himself under his lordship's orders. Lieut,-Col. M. joined his lord-
ship in the beginning of June 1805, and continued with the army during the ensuing cam-
paign. The records of the government, and the distinguished approbation of the several
authorities under whom Lieut.-Col. M. has acted, afford an honourable testimony of the
value of his services, and we cannot, in justice, withhold the expression of our opinion, that
the zeal and exertions of Lieut.-Col. M., in the discharge of the arduous duties of those
various employments, entitle him to some public mark of the ftivourable consideration of
the Honourable Court."



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480 THE EAST INDIA

this appointment, the powers of separate political agency possessed
by the Residents at Bagdad, Bussorah, and Bushire, were suspended,
and Lieut-Col. M. was authorized, at any time when he might judge
it to be expedient for the benefit of the public service, to take upon
himself the powers of Resident at any of those stations. He was also, in
addition to his powers as political agent, furnished with credentials as
envoy or ambassador to the court of Persia, and to the Pacha of Bagdad,
in the event of his finding it practicable or expedient, to repair in per-
son to either or both of those courts. In proposing this appointment.
Lord Minto described Lieut-Col. M. as an oflScer " in whose talents,
zeal, judgment, and ability, entire confidence might be reposed,'' and
as one, who, in his lordship's opinion, if vested with special powers,
might be enabled, " by means of personal influence and address, and
by negociation on the part of the British government in India, to
alienate from their attachment to the interests of France those states of
Persia which appeared disposed to support the designs of that nation
against the British government in India."

Lieut.-Col. M., on the 17th April 1808, quitted Bombay for the
Persian Gulph, and arrived at Bushire on the 10th May, from which
place he transmitted to the Bengal government a paper, by them con-
sidered and represented to the Court of Directors as " a very able his-
torical review of the late intrigues of the French in Persia, and of the
military operations of Russia in the north-west frontier of that king-
dom." The ascendancy which the French government had acquired
in the councils of the Persian monarch having, however, rendered all
attempts to procure the reception of the British mission unavailing,
except through means, which Lieut.-Col. M. stated at full length in
his despatches, he deemed derogatory to the British character, this
oflScer resolved on immediately quitting Bushire, and returning to
Calcutta (leaving his Sec. Capt. Pasley, to act in any emergency) for
the purpose of affording the Gov.-Gen., in person, full information
respecting the then existing state of affairs in Persia, and of consulting
with his lordship upon the most expedient measures to be adopted in
consequence thereof by the British government in India. On the



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MILITARY CALENDAR. 48t

20th Aug. Lieut.-Col. M. arrived at Calcutta : his return was approved
by the Bengal government, although they did not concur in the pro-
priety of some of his anterior proceedings. The Gov.-Gen. in
council, nevertheless, observed as follows : — " Notwithstanding the
total failure of our views in Persia, the general tone of his (Lieut.-CoI.
M/s) measures has vindicated the dignity and honour of the British
government/'

The Bengal government having, in Nov. 1808, determined to send
an expedition to the Persian Gulph, consisting of a military force of
about 2000 men, Lieut.-Col. M. was selected to conduct it^ and vested
with the same diplomatic powers as were conferred upon him on his
former mission. In addition thereto the separate commission of Brig.-
Gen., which had also been given to him on his former mission to the
Persian Gulph, was ordered to be considered as being still in force,
and he was invested with the command of the troops to be employed
upon this occasion. When the expedition, in Feb. 18099 was on the
point of sailing from Bombay, advices were received from Europe,
which Lieut-Col. M. conceived might cause an alteration in the views
of the Bengal government, and he therefore resolved to delay his de-
parture until the arrival of further instructions from that presidency.
Lord Minto on the 27th Feb. transmitted to Lieut.-Col« M. the required
instructions, which directed the entire abandonment of the projected
expedition, to which his lordship added an expression of ^ his high
sense of the disinterested regard for the good of the public service,
evinced by Brig.-Gen. M., in resolving to suspend his departure from
Bombay until apprized of the Gov.-Gen.'s sentiments regarding the
expediency of prosecuting the expedition, under the altered state of
circumstances which had taken place/' His lordship further com-
plimented him for " having manifested the prevalence of a solicitude
for the interests of the public service, over a natural and laudable
incitement to exercise the duties of a high and important station, and
preferred considerations of public expediency to the allurements of a
just and honourable ambition.'' He was then directed to proceed tq
his residency at Mysore, and hovd Minto in thus dispensing with his

3 9



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482 THE EAST INDIA

services, again declared it to be ^ an obligation of justice to express
the acknowledgments of the Bengal government for the zeal and
alacrity with which he had undertaken and discharged the arduous
and responsible duties assigned to him, and the high sense entertained
of his distinguished talents and abilities, and of the ardent spirit of
patriotism with which he had employed them in the service of his
country, and 6f the benefits which government had derived from his
knowledge^ experience, and active exertions/' The Secret Committee,
advartiiig to the circumstance of his having suspaoded his departure
from Bdmbay, until the receipt of the further instructions from Bengal,
declared it to be " a determination which they noticed with great
satisfactioo, as founded in the exercise of a sound judgment and dis-
cretion.

The state of affairs in Persia being considered by the Gov.-Gen,,
in Oct. 1809, to be such as again to render the presence of Brig-Gen.
Malcolm in that country expedient, provided that assurances were
received of his suitable reception, he was reappointed Envoy to the
Persian and Arabian courts, and early in 1810 quitted Bombay for
Persia. Upon his arrival, in Feb., at Bushire, he assumed, in obedi-
ence to his instructions, the functions of Envoy Plenii>otentiary on the
part of the British government in India, to the court of his Persian
majesty, where he met with a most gracious and distinguished recep-
tion. He remained, however, but a short time in the Persian camp,
having requested leave to depart, on hearing the nomination, in
Europe, of Sir Gore Ouseley, to be H. M/s ambassador at the court
of Persia. The King of Persia expressed his regret at the early de-
parture of this oflScer, and instituted the Persian Order* of the Lion

* The Order of the Sud, which was the first of this description ever in Persia, was
presented to Gen. Gerdanne, the French ambassador^ and offered to Sir Harford Jones,
envoy from His Britannic Majesty, who refused it because it was created for the represen-
tative of an enemy. Sir J. Malcolm, on the same offer being made, declined it on the
ground that Sir Harford Jones had done so ; when the King of Persia^ declaring his first
English friend must have a mark of his favour^ instituted the Order of the Lion and Sun^
which is the arms of Persia.



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MILITARY CALENDAR. 483

and Sun, to bestow it upon him ; H. M. presented him with the star*
of this order, ornamented with diamonds, and a sword, and also nomi-
nated him to be a Khan and Sepahdar of the empire-f.

On the 6lh Oct. 1810, while at Bagdad, on his return from Persia,
Brig.-Gen. M, transmitted to the Bengal government his final report
on the affairs of that kingdom, with an account of its geography,
internal government, policy, resources, and condition, and accom-
panied by a map, geographical memoir, and abstracts of the merits
of different oflScers employed under his orders. The receipt of this
report was acknowledged by the Bengal government, in May 1811,
in terms expressive of their highest satisfaction. In addressing the
Secret Committee, they observed on " the highly meritorious qualities
of temper, moderation, discretion, and ability," manifested by this
officer, <' under circums^aces peculiarly delicate and embarrassing,''
and add, ^* while he hawRcessfully vindicated the just pretensions
of the local government of India to rank and consideration at the
court of Persia, he preserved a scrupulous regard to the dignity of
H. M. mission, and^^M; only established a concert and unity of pro-
ceeding with Sir Harford Jones, but afforded to him the lights of his
judgment and local knowledge, on points referred by Sir H. Jones to
his consideration, in a manner highly satisfactory to that gentleman,
and advantageous to the interests of the public service ; and we con-
fidentially trust that your Hon. Committee will appreciate in the same
degree the merits of Brig.-Gen. M.'s conduct in this situation."

Brig.-Gen. Malcolm reached Bombay, on his return from Persia,
29th Nov. 1810, at which presidency he obtained the permission of
the Bengal government to continue:]; till his embarkation from thence

^ His acceptaDce of the present was sanctioned in Feb. 1813.

t For the impression made throughout Persia, aikLapon all ranks, by Sir J. Malcolm in
his diSerent missions to that court, see the Tra^n of Sir Robert Ker Porter, vol i.
p. 379.

X The object of this officer's residence at Bombay was the compilation of aq historical
account of Persia, and of all the countries between the Araxes and InduSj which had
been visited by him, or travelled over by the officers attached to his missioo^ to be pre-:



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484 THE EAST INDIA

for Europe, iptt Jan. 1812. His arrival in this country in July fol-
lowing, was accompanied by a review* of his services, and recommert-

sented to His Majesty's mioistersr and to the Court of Directors. For this purpose, the
Bengal government granted him an allowance of 2000 rupees per month for an establish-
ment, which was afterwards approved by the Court of Directors ; and the materials thus
arranged were ultimately formed into a *' History of Persia from the most early periodi**
which was published by Sir John Malcolm, in England, in 2 vols. 4to., in 18 J 5.

The following works had been previously published by this officer : ^ Sketch of the Political
History of India, from the introduction of Mr. Pitt's Bill, A.D. 17^4, to the present
date, 1811/ 1 vol. 8vo; < Sketch of the Sikhs,' I vol. 8vo., 1812, (first published in the
11th vol. of the Asiatic Researches); and * Observations on the Disturbances in the Madras
Army in 1809,' in 2 parts, 8vo. He has just published Memoirs of < Central India, in-
cluding Malwa and the adjoining Provinces.'

* To the Hon. the Court of Directors, &c.

^ HoNouRABLK SiRs, — Ist. The high estimation in which we hold the merits and
services of Lieut.-Col. Malcolm coincides with the ordinary obligation of our public duty
in leading os to bring under the special notice of your Hon. Court the enclosed copy of a
letter addressed to us by that officer on the eve of his departure for Europe, stating hb
pretensions to a compensation for losses sustained by him in the execution of the various
and important duties assigned to him during the last thirteen years, and the grounds on
which he is led to hope that your Hon. Court may be disposed to entertain a favourable
opinion of his claim to reward, for his long, laborious, and successful exertions in the
service of the Hon. Company ; and soliciting the support of our recommendation of these
his claims and pretensions to the liberality of your Hon. Court.

'< 2d. The degree in which we have deemed it within the limits of our province to aflford
him that solicited support, will appear from the enclosed copy of the Gov.-Gen's reply to
the letter above described, and the object of this address might be perhaps essentially ful-
filled by simply referring your Hon. Court to a perusal of that document, and recognizing
the testimony therein afibrded to the high sense which we entertain of the extent and
value of his services ; but we should inadequately satisfy the impulse of our sentiments
by thus closing our communication on the subject now submitted to the consideration of
your Hon. Court ; and without exceeding the limits which we have prescribed to ourselves
on thb occasion, we may be permitted to manifest that degree of interest in Lieut.-Col.
Malcolm's prosperity, which is naturally excited in one's mind by a recollection of his
zealous, faithful, and able exertions in the ministerial duty of carrying into efiect many of
the most important measures and objects of the present administration, combined with a
retrospect of his antecedent labours and services in situations of peculiar delicacy, diffi-
culty, and responsibility, to which he was called by the discernment and confidence of our
predecessors.

" 3d. The whole course of our reports, and the addresses of the Oov.-Gen. to the Hon.
the Secret Committee of your Hon. Court, relative to the affiiirs of Persia, exhibit both the
arduous' nature of the duties in which Lieut.-Col. M. has been employed under the present



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MICITART CALENDAR. 485

datioQ for a reward, contained in a letter from the Bengal govern-
ment to the Court of Directors, dated 19th May 1812, which led to
the grant of the 50,000 rupees mentioned in p. 479- Shortly after his
arrival he received the honour of knighthood from His Majesty. He
continued in this country till 1816; and during his residence the
important subject of the renewal of the East India Companjr's
charter having come under the consideration of Parliament, he was
called to give evidence, in April and May 1813, before a committee
of the House of Lords, and before the House of Commons, upon the
various points then under discussion- The evidence which he gave
on these occasions appears, by the reports of it printed by order
of Parliament, to have embraced the following topics :— The religion,
character, and habits of the natives of Hindostan, both within and
without the Company's territories ; the effects of European intercourse
upon them ; the possible consequences of colonization ; the nature

government, and our sense of his ability and ardent zeal in the execution of them. The
pablic advantages of Lieut.-Col. M/s agency have also been enhanced by the extensive and
valuable ioformation relative to Persia, which his industry and talents enabled him to accu-
mulate under all the solicitude and occupation of his diplomatic duties. Much of it has al-
ready appeared on the records of this government, and been brought under the notice of the
Secret Committee and of your Hon. Court, and we are led to expect that a fsr greater mass
of historical and political information will have resulted from the literary labours, which
Lieut.-Col. M. was enabled to prosecute, by the indulgence granted to him of residing at
Bombay for the express purpose of arranging the materials acquired in Persia, as reported
in the Vice President in Council's address to your Hon. Court of 27th July 181 1.**

*^ 4th. The sentiments of the late Gov.-Gen. in Council, Sir G. Barlow, relative to the
merits and services of Lieut.-Col. M., were submitted to the Hon. Committee in the S90th
and following paragraphs of his address of 20th Aug. 1806 ; and the claim uhich^ at that
period of time, Lieut.-Col. M. preferred to a compensation for losses by the nature of his
public employments, were then submitted to the ftivonrable consideration of the Hon.
Committee, We advert to this recommendation merely as it contains (what perhaps we
are not strictly entitled to aflTord) an honourable testimony to the value of services, which
relate to the period of former administrations, and to which Lieut.-Col. M. has specifically
appealed."

'^ 5th. We hope we shall not presume too far, nor be thought disposed to encroach on
your Hon. Court, in the gracious office of distributing favour and reward to your old and
meritorious servants, if we so ht yield to the impulse of our own feelings, as to submit the
application of Lieut.-Col. Malcolm, transmitted with this despatch, to your favourable con-
sideration.

(Signed) «« Minto, G. Ndgbnt, J. Lumsobn, H. Colbbrookb."



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486 THE EAST INDIA



Sir John Malcolm having arrived in Bengal early in 1817, he was
immediately attached, as the Gov.-Gen/s political agent, to the force