John Phin.

Industrial recipes : a collection of useful, reliable, practical recipes, rules, processes, methods, wrinkles and practical hints : forming a reliable workshop companion for all engaged in the various industrial arts and trades online

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Online LibraryJohn PhinIndustrial recipes : a collection of useful, reliable, practical recipes, rules, processes, methods, wrinkles and practical hints : forming a reliable workshop companion for all engaged in the various industrial arts and trades → online text (page 1 of 27)
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Third Edition — Greatly Enlarged





Copyright Secured 1879, 1890 by John Phin.

Copyright Secured 1912 by Industrial Book Co.

Translation Riglits Reserved.


The following pages have been prepared with very great
care, the chief aim being to give none but recipes whicli
will not disappoint those who attempt to use them. Sev-
eral of the recipes here given are original, the formulae
having been worked out or improved by the author after
much labor and experiment. In searching for really good
formulfe, we have been astonished at the errors which
have crept into many of our standard books of recipes.
For example, in one case the two separate operations of a
well-known process for staining wood are given as distinct,
and, of course useless recipes ! In a seemingly favorite re-
cipe for a washing fluid, the reader is directed to add vine-
gar to the ammonia employed, thus entirely neutralizing it.
In the same way we find a I'ecipe for transferring printed
engravings to wood, in which the alkali (potash) is neutral-
ized with vitriol ! We suppose that in the last case, the
author of this recipe thought that two strong liquids must
be better than one, forgetting or not knowing the fact that
one destroys the effect of the other. A very slight knowl-
edge of technological science would have enabled the com-
pilers of these books to avoid such blunders. In addition
to these defects, however, most of our large books of re-
cipes contain so much that is entirely useless to the
practical man, and so many mere repetitions of the same
recipe in different language and terms, that their cost is
greatly increased while their value instead of being en-
hanced, is actually lessened. We have, therefore, en-
deavored to combine in the following pages all that is
really of practical value to the professional or amateur
mechanic, and at the same time by giving only one or two


of the best recipes under each head, we have not only sim-
plified the work, but we have brought it to suc>i a size and
price that every one can afford to buy it.

The subjects treated of in this work are arrarged alpha-
betically, so as to avoid the necessity of constant reference
to the index. A few words in regard to tlie method pursued
in arranging the matter may, however, not be out of place.
As we believe that the greatest advantage will be derived
from bringing together at one place not only the special
instructions in regard to particular processes, but the
general information relating to the materials, etc., em-
ployed, we have in most cases collected all such matter
together under one head. Thus, under the head of " Steel "
will be fouml not only a description of the different kinds
of steel, but directions for forging, tempering, etc., but as
most persons who consult this book would most likely look
under the head " Tempering " for information on that par-
ticular subject, we have entered the word "Tempering"
and under it give a cross-reference to " Steel. " This is the
reason why we have introduced so many cross references,
every one of which was put in after the book was written,
so that the reader will not be disappointed when he turns
to the heading to which he is directed. Many of our read-
ers, doubtless, know that in too many volumes of this kind,
cross references are inserted merely for the pvirpose of
swelling the apparent amount of information contained in
the volume, and very often when the reader turns to the
heading to which he is directed, he finds that the subject
which he is looking for has been omitted. In the present
case, the utmost care has been taken to prevent disappoint-
ment of every kind, and whenever information is promised
we have endeavored to give it fully, accurately, and in the
simplest possible language.


The extraordinary favor which has been accorded to the
first part of The Workshop Companion — over twenty-five
thousand copies having been sold without any special effort —
has induced the author to prepare a second part, containing
matter for which he has received numerous inquiries from
readers of the first part.

In doing this he has received aid from some of the best
practical writers in the country, and feels assured that the
matter now given will prove as thorough, as reliable, and as
clearly expressed as that which preceded it. So that the work
now forms a compact and convenient cyclopedia of informa-
tion for everyday life.

In collecting the information here given great care has
been taken to offer nothing but what is thoroughly reliable.
It is a fact well known to all intelligent technologists that a
very large proportion of our best recipes are to be found in
volumes published many years ago, whence they have been
copied and recopied by different compilers. And it is also
a fact, though one less generally known, that the sources of
new information upon which tliese same compilers depend are
just the ones in which the most recent knowledge is not to
be found. As a general rule the authors or compilers of our
modern collections of recipes have gone to the "Question and
Answer" columns of the popular scientific and technical
journals, ignorant of the fact that even when these questions



are bona fide, the answers are usually taken from some one
of the old recipe-books. Indeed it often happens that even
when the questions are the genuine inquirings of some seeker
after special knowledge, and the answers are given by fellow-
subscribers, the latter obtain their replies from commonplace
and easily accessible books of recipes, and send them to the
journal more for the sake of seeing themselves in print than
from any other motive. Now and then we find a reply which
is based upon the actual and intelligent experience of the
correspondent, and such replies are beyond all value. But
unfortunately such information is as rare as it is valuable.

The difficulty of attaining simplicity and trustworthiness
in a work of this kind is best illustrated by the statement
of the compiler of one of the most extensive collections of
recipes published in this country. He tells us that he set
out with the intention of carefully sifting the vast accumula-
tion at his command, and preparing a collection of popular
and domestic recipes which should contain only those whose
practical utility had been established, either by actual trial
or by the guarantee of undoubted authorities. But he further
tells us that as the work progressed this was found to be
impracticable ; and those who are competent to examine his
book critically will find that he has ended by publishing
everything — good, bad, and indifferent, — the same recipe
frequently appearing in a slightly different form half a dozen

Several of the articles in this volume, although original
with the editor, have appeared in the mechanical journals of
the day, and have been thence copied into other publications,
and generally without credit. This is notably the case with


the articles Cements, Soldering and Brazing, Weight of Pat-
terns for Castings, Nails, Glue, and some others, which have
been copied not only into contemporary journals but into
numerous books of recipes and works on mechanics. These
articles were written for the first volume of The Manufacturer
and Builder, of which the author of this volume was editor-in-
chief, and for The Technologist. As for The Workshop Com-
panion itself, it has simply served as a mine from which
editors and contributors might draw short and valuable
articles when their pages were otherwise destitute of sound
practical matter. In fact, one rather pretentious English
periodical has published nearly the whole of it, piece by piece,
and without the least credit!

All this, however, is offered in a spirit of explanation, — not
of petulant complaint.

The size of the present work has been greatly reduced and
its act-ual intrinsic value proportionately increased, by adher-
ing strictly to the dictionary form. In works which are
divided into so-called "Departments," the same information
is given over and over again, in almost the same words, imder
the different heads. Thus in one of the $5 books now in the
market we find the same recipe repeated at five different
places! The absurdity of having "Departments" for Black-
smiths, Gunsmiths, Machinists, Painters, Cabinetmakers, etc.,
is seen at once when we ask the compilers to point out the
difference between the process for casehardening as used by
blacksmiths and that employed by gunsmiths; or the varnish-
ing of wood as applied by painters and by cabinetmakers.
Tell us how to caseharden, and place the information under
the letter C; or, if you choose, under the word "Iron," with


a croas-reference from "Casehardeu," and then blacksmiths,
cutlers, engineers, gunsmiths, machinists, amateurs, and every
one else can use it, and no space is wasted by giving the same
information in half a dozen different places to as many differ-
ent artisans. And by a liberal use of cross-references, as is
done in this work, no difficulty need be met in finding any
particular item of information.

Before closing this preface there is one point concerning
which we can not refrain from expressing a hope, — and that
is in regard to the aid which amateurs and young people will
derive from the volume. There are a hundred little things
which may be done in every household to an advantage greater
than that arising from any mere saving of money or actual
convenience. Boys who occupy themselves in the evenings
binding books and decorating glass will not be likely to long
for the saloon and the billiard-table; and girls who have some
pleasant occupation will not break their hearts because they
are not taken every week to the theater or the concert. As
a protection to young people there is nothing like giving them
something to do that will interest them. But in order that
they may be interested they must be able to do well whatever
they undertake to do at all; and it is hoped that this book
will on many occasions aid them in securing the necessary



Abyssinian Gold.

This compound was so called because it was brought out
in England during the recent war with Abyssinia. It consists
of copper, 90-74 ; zinc, 8-33. This aUoy, if of good materials
and not heated too highly, has a fine yellow color, resembling
gold, and does not tarnish easily.


As those who are engaged in mechanical pursuits are pecu-
liarly liable to accidents, we have introduced under the proper
heads (Burns, Eye, Fires, Poisons) such brief suggestions as
we thought might prove vahxable to our readers. For more
minute dii-ections in regard to drowning, severe cuts, gunshot
wounds, sprains, dislocations, etc. , we must refer the reader
to some one of the numerous treatises which have been pub-
lished on this subject . The following general rules will be
found useful in all cases :

General Rides. 1. The first thing to be done in all cases
is to send for a physician. While the messenger is gone,
endeavor to make the patient as comfortable as possible, and
save him from all exertion, remembering that he needs all his
strength. 2. If there be any severe bleeding, stanch the
blood by means of compresses api^lied to the veins or arteries,
as the case may be. 3. If the patient be insensible, place him
on the ground or floor, lying rather over to or directly on one
side, and with the head slightly raised. Remove necktie,
collar, etc. , and unbutton or split open any clothing pressing


tightly upon the neck, chest, or abdomen. 4. As a restora-
tive, sjjrinkle the face with cold water, and then wipe it dry.
Some cold water may be given to drink, if the power of swal-
lowing be i^resent, bxxt do not jaoxir stimulants down the
throat, unless there be clear evidence that they are needed.
5. Do not move the j^atient, unless to get him to a jjlace of
shelter, and when he has reached it, make him lie down and
seek quiet. 6. Allow no useless talking, either to the patient,
or in his presence. 7. Cause the bystanders to move back
and leave a clear space of at least ten feet in every direction
around the patient. One of the best restoratives is fresh air,
and a crowd cuts this off completely.

Stimulants should be avoided, except in cases urgently de-
manding their administration, bxit they are agents of much
value in the treatment of that condition of collapse and faint-
ness which very commonly occurs after some physical injur-
ies. The symi)toms may be briefly sketched : The face is
pale sjnd bedewed with cold or clammy perspiration ; the
surface of the body generally cold ; the pulse flickering, per-
haps hardly perceptible ; the jDatient complains of the feeling
of faintness, and may have nausea, or even actual sicknefis ;
the breathing is sighing and irregular, and for a time there
may be actual insensibility. Now under such conditions
there can be no question as to the propriety of inducing re-
action by the administration of stimulants.

Coflfee given hot and strong, and in small quantities, is a
safe and useful remedy.

Spirituous liquors are more potent in their effects, and the
good effect is produced more speedily. Brandy is the best
spirit, given in more or less diluted form ; failing this, rum
or wine may be given. If the spirits can be obtained only
from some low grog shop, then whiskey is to be jireferred to
brandy or wine, as being less liable to adulteration. In ad-
ministering tliese articles the best jiractical rule is to give a
small quantity at first and watch the effect ; if the surface
becomes warmer, the breathing deeper and more regular, and
the pulse at the wrist more jierceptible, then there can be no
question as to the advantage of giving even a little more ; but
if these signs of improvement are wanting — if there be in-
crease of insensibility, and deepening of color about the face,
with access of heat of skin — withhold alcohol entii-ely ; it '>\ ill
but add to the mischief.



This material is so common and yields siicli beautiful re-
sults when worked, that a few hints in regard to working and
mending it may not be out of place.

There are two distinct chemical comijounds to which the
name of alabaster has been applied, the most common being
the sulphate of lime, while that known as oriental alabaster is
a stalagmitic carbonate of lime, compact or fibrous, generally
white, but of all colors from white to brown, and sometimes
veined with colored zones ; it is of the same hardness as
marble, is used for similar purposes, and is wrought by the
same means.

Of the common alabaster (sulphate of lime) there are several
varieties. The finest white alabaster is obtained from Italy,
but veiy excellent specimens are found near Derby in Eng-
land. (They must not, however, be confounded with Derby-
shire or fluor spar which is a calcic fluoride. ) The variegated
kinds are turned into pillars, vases and varioiis ornamental
forms, the tools used being very simple, namely, points for
roughing out, flat chisels for smoothing, and one or two
common firmer chisels, gi'ound convex and concave for
curved lines. After being brought to the proper shape, the
work is polished as follows : Take a piece of very fine, soft
sandstone, and apply it with water to the work while in quick
motion, moving the stone all over until there is worked up a
body of mild. Then take a clean rag and work this sludge
well on the alabaster, after which wash the work clean.
Apply a rag charged with putty powder and water until there
is a gloss upon the work, after which apply another rag
charged with a mixture of putty powder, soap and water for
a short time, and wipe the alabaster diy. If carefully per-
formed the polish will be very beautiful.

Alabaster readily absorbs gi-ease and dirt, and as it is dif-
ficult to clean, great care should be taken to prevent it from
coming in contact with anything that will stain it. Dust,
etc. , may be removed by means of pure water to which a little
ammonia has been added. Grease and similar stains may be
removed by allowing the alabaster to lie for some time in
contact with a jDaste of jjowdered chalk moistened with a solu-
tion of potash or soda Soap should never be used for clean-
ing alabaster, as it leaves a greasy stain. Unlike marble,


alabaster is not affected by common acids, and therefore tliey
may be used for extracting stains of common ink, etc.

The proper cement for uniting j^ieces of alabaster is plaster
of paris made into a cream with water as for making ordinary
casts. The surfaces to be joined must J^e moistened with


This familiar liquid requires no description, but it may not
be out of jjlace to caution our readers that failure in the mak-
ing of varnishes, etc., very often arises from the use of alcohol
which by standing has lost its strength. Ordinary alcohol is
a mixture of alcohol and water, and as the alcohol evaporates
more readily than the water, when the mixture is allowed to
stand for any length of time it becomes reduced in strength,
that is to say the proportion of alcohol becomes less and that
of the water more.


In making alloys, especially where the comjDonent metals
vary greatly in fusibility and volatility, the following rules
must be observed :

1. Melt the least fusible, oxidable and volatile first, and
then add the others heated to their point of fusion or near it.
Thus if we desire to make an alloy of exactly one part copper
and three zinc, it will be impossible to do so by putting these
l^roj^ortions of the metals in a crucible and exjaosing the
whole to heat. Much of the zinc woiild fly off in vapor be-
fore the copper was melted. First melt the coj^per and add
the zinc which has been melted in another crucible. The
zinc should be in excess, as some of it will be lost anyway.

2. Some alloys, as copj^er and zinc, copper and arsenic,
may be formed by exposing heated plates of the least fusible
metal to the vapor of the other. In making brass in the
large way, thin plates of copper are dissolved as it were in
melted zinc until the j^roper proportions have been obtained.

3. The surface of all oxidable metals should be covered
with some protecting agent, as tallow for very fusible ones ;
resin for lead and tin ; charcoal for zinc, copper, etc.

4. Stir the metal before casting, and, if jjossible, when
casting, with a whitewood stick ; this is much better for the
purpose than an iron rod.


5. If possible, add a small portion of old alloy to the new
one. If the alloy is required to make sharji castings, and
strength is not a very great object, the propoi-tion of old alloy
to the new shonld be increased. In all cases a new or
thoroughly well cleaned criicible shonld be used.

7l/6ato.— Known also as "British jDlate," "electrum," etc.
It is a favorite material for making articles that are to be
electrotyped. The best proportions of the ingi'edients are
'•opper, 20 ; nickel, 4 ; zinc, 16.

Alloy for filling holes in Iron. — Lead, 9 ; antimony, 2 ; bis-
muth, 1. This alloy is sometimes called "mock iron;" it
exjjands in cooling, so that when a hole is filled with the
melted alloy, the plug is not loose when it is cold.

Alloy for Uniting Iron, Steel and Brass. — The following com-
position may be cast on steel or iron, and will adhere firmly
thereto. Its rate of expansion is nearer that of iron and steel
than any similar compound. When cast around iron or steel
therefore, it closes firmly around them and does not become
loose by alternate expansion and contraction. It consists of
tin, 3 ; copj^er, 39^ ; zinc, 7^. Since the last metal is partly
converted into vapor at a high temperature, the above pro-
jDortion may be sHghtly increased.

Aluminium 5ron2e. —Copper, 90 ; aluminium, 10. Eesem-
bles gold in color, and is very strong and durable.

Aluminium Silver. — Coj^per, 70 ; nickel, 23 ; aluminium, 7.
Has a beautiful color and takes a high polish.

Amalgam for Silvering the insides of Globes, etc. — 1. Lead,
2 oz. ; tin, 2 oz. ; bismuth, 2 oz. ; mercury, 4 oz. Melt the first
three and add the mercury. The glass being well cleaned,
is carefully warmed and the melted amalgam is poured in and
the vessel turned round until all jjarts are coated. At a cer-
tain temperature this amalgam adheres readily to glass.

2. Bismuth, 8 ; lead, 5 ; tin, 3 ; mercury, 8. Use as directed
for No. 1.

Amalgam fm- Electrical Machines. — 1. Tin, 1 oz. ; zinc, 1 oz. ;
mercury, 2 oz.

2. Boettger's Amalgam. — Zinc, 2 oz. ; mercury, 1 oz. At a
certain temperature (easily found by experiment) it powders
readily, and should be kept in a tightly corked bottle. Said
to be very good.

Cock Metal. — Copper, 10 ; lead, 4. Used for casting cocks.

Copped' Amalgam. — Dissolve 3 oz. sulphate of copper in


water and add 1 oz. siilpliuric acid. Hang clean iron scraps in
the solution until the copper has fallen down in fine powder.
Wash this powder, moisten it with a solution of protonitrate
of mercury, and then to each ounce of the powder add 2i oz.
mercury, and rub up in a mortar. When thoroughly mixed,
wash well with hot water. This amalgam is easily moulded,
adheres readily to glass, porcelain and some metals, takes a
fine polish, and in 10 to 12 hours it becomes so hard that it
will scratch gold or tin. When heated it softens, and may be
easily moulded. As it does not contract on cooling, it has
been used by dentists for filling teeth, and it might be used
to good advantage for inlaying lines in dark wood.

Protonitrate of mercury is easily made by dissoh-ing
mercury in nitric acid.

Babbitt's Ant i- Attrition Metal fm- lining Boxes. — First melt
four pounds of copper, and, when melted, add, by degrees,
twelve pounds best quality Banca tin ; then add eight pounds
regulus of antimony, and then twelve pounds more of tin,
while the composition is in a melted state. After the copper
is melted and four or five pounds of tin have been added,
the heat should be lowered to a dull red heat, in order to
prevent oxidation ; then add the remainder of the metal.
In melting the composition it is better to keep a small
quantity of powdered charcoal in the pot, on the surface of
the metal.

The above composition is made in the first place, and is
called hardening ; for lining work take one pound of the
hardening and melt with two pounds Banca tin, which pro-
duces the very best lining metal. So that the proportions
for lining metal are four pounds copper, eight regulus of anti-
mony and ninety-six pounds tin.

The object in first preparing the hardening is economy, for
when the whole is melted together there is a great waste of
metal, as the hardening is melted at a much less degree of
heat than the copper and antimony separately.

Belgian Antifriction Metals. — For work exposed to great
lieat : Copper, 17 ; zinc, 1 ; tin, 0-5 ; lead, 0-25.

For parts liable to much concussion : Copper, 20 ; zinc, 6 ;
tin, 1.

For parts exposed to much friction : Copper, 20 ; tm, 4 ;
antimony, 0-5 ; lead, 0-25.

Cheap Antifriction Metal. — Equal parts of zinc and lead


melted together, and well stin-ed at the time of pouring into
the box or bearing.

Fusible Metals. — These are chiefly used as a means of amuse-
ment, spoons formed of them melting readily in hot tea or
coffee. They have also been used to make plugs for steam
boilers, the intention being that they should melt and allow
the steam to escape when the pressure became too great. No.
4 has been used for making casts of coins and medals, and the
beautiful French cliche moulds were made of it.

1. Newton's fusible metal : Bismuth, 8 ; lead, 5 ; tin, 3.
Melts with the heat of boiling water.

Online LibraryJohn PhinIndustrial recipes : a collection of useful, reliable, practical recipes, rules, processes, methods, wrinkles and practical hints : forming a reliable workshop companion for all engaged in the various industrial arts and trades → online text (page 1 of 27)