John Phin.

The workshop companion. A collection of useful and reliable recipes, rules, processes, methods, wrinkles, and practical hints for the household and the shop online

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alcohol, take three or four thicknesses of linen rag and place
a few drops of polish in the centre ; lay over this a single
thickness of linen rag and and a drop or two of raw linseed
oil over the polish. The rubber is then applied with light
friction over the entire surface of the work while revolving
in the lathe, never allowing the hand or mandrel to remain
still for an instant, so as to spread the varnish as evenly as
possible, especially at the commencement, and paying par-
ticular attention to the internal angles, so as to prevent
either deficiency or excess of varnish at those parts The
oil, in some degree, retards the evaporation of the spirit
from the varnish and allows time for the process ; it also
presents a smooth surface and lessens the friction against
^he tender gum. When the varnish appears dry, a second.


third and even further quantities are applied in the same
manner, working, of course, more particularly upon those
parts at all slighted in the earlier steps.

Wood Staining.

In preparing any of the tinctures used for staining, it is of
importance to powder or mash all the dry stuffs previous to
dissolving or macerating them, and to purify all the liquids
by nitration before use. Their coloring powers, which
mainly depend on very accurate combinations of the re-
quisite ingredients, should always be carefully tested before
a free use is made of them, and the absorbent properties of
the materials intended to be stained should be tested like-
wise. It will be better for inexperienced hands to coat twice
of three times with a weak stain than only once with a very
strong one, as by adopting the first mode a particular tint
may be gradually effected, whereas, by pursuing the latter
course, an irremediable discoloration may be the result.
Coarse pieces of carving, spongy end, and cross-grained
woods, should be previously prepared for the reception of
stain ; this is best done by putting on a thin layer of varnish,
letting it dry, and then glass-papering it completely off
again. Fine work merely requires to be oiled and slightly
rubbed with the finest glass-paper. Thus prepared, the
woody fibre is enabled to take on the stain more regularly,
and to retain a high degree of smoothness. When stain is
put on with a flat hog-hair tool, it is usually softened by a
skilful but moderate application . of a badger-hair softener.
The steel comb is chiefly employed for streaking artificial
oak, and the mottler is used for variegating and uniting the
shades and tints of mahogany. Flannels and sponges are
often used instead of brushes," but the implements most ser
viceable for veining or engraining purposes are email badger
s.'ish tools and sable pencils. The effect produced by a coat
of stain cannot be asceiiained until it has been allowed suf-
ficient drying period.

This process may be used either for improving tL* natural
color of wood or for changing it so completely as to give it
the appearance of an entirely different kind of timber. Thus
a light mahogany may be greatly improved by being made
clarker, and there are many other kinds of timber tlia^ ftfe.


greatly improved by a slight change in their color. The fol-
lowing notes will be of use in the latter direction :

A solution of asphaltum in spirits of turpentine, makes
a good brown stain for coarse oaken work, which is only in-
tended to be varnished with boiled oil.

When discolored ebony has been sponged once or twice
with a strong decoction of gall-nuts, to which a quantity of
iron tilings or rust haa been added, its natural blackness
becomes more intense.

Tbe naturally pale ground and obscure grain of Honduras
mahogany is often well brought out by its being coated first
with spirits of hartshorn, and then with oil, which has been
tingod with madder or Venetian red.

Grayish maple may be whitened by carefully coating it
with a solution of oxalic acid to which a feAV drops of nitric
acid have been added.

Half a gallon of water in which J Ib. of oak bark and the
same quantity of walnut shells or peels have been thoroughly
boiled, makes an excellent improver of inferior rosewood ; it
is also far before any other of its kind for bringing out

Raw" oil, mixed with a little spirits of turpentine, is
universally allowed to be the most efficacious improver of
the greater number of materials. Beautiful artificial grain-
ing may be imparted to various specimens of timber by
means of a camel-hair pencil, with raw oil alone, that is,
certain portions may be coated two or three times very taste-
fully, so as to resemble the rich varying veins which con-
stitute the fibril figures ; while the" common, plain parts,
which constitute the ground shades, may only be once
coated with the oil, very much diluted with spirits of tur-
pentine. The following are a few useful stains :

Mahogany. 1. Water, 1 gallon ; madder, 8 oz. ; fustic,
4 oz. Boil. Lay on with a brush while hot, and while wet
streak it with black to vary the grain. This imitates Hon-
duras mahogany.

2. Madder, 8 oz. ; fustic, 1 oz. ; logwood, 2 oz. ; water,
1 gallon. Boil and lay on while hot. Resembles Spanish

3. A set of pine shelves, which were brushed two or three
times with a strong boiling decoction of logwood chips, and
varnished with solution of shellac in alcohol, appear almost



like mahogany both in color and hardness. After washing
with decoction of logwood and drying thoroughly, they re-
ceived two coats of varnish. They were then carefully sand-
papered and polished, and received a final coat of shellac

Imitation Ebony. There are two processes in use for giving
to very fine grained wood the appearance of ebony. One is
a mere varnish, and may be applied in a few minutes, as it
dries very rapidly. Either French polish, made black with
any fine coloring matter, or good " air-drying black varnish,"
may be applied. This, however, gives only a superficial
coloring, and when the edges and corners of the work wear
off, the light-colored wood shows. The other method is as
follows : Wash any compact wood with a boiling decoction
of logwood three or four times, allowing it to dry between
each application. Then wash it with a solution of acetate of
iron, which is made by dissolving iron filings in vinegar.
This stain is very black and penetrates to a considerable
depth into the wood, so that ordinary scratching or chipping
does not show the original color. Some recipes direct the
solutions of logwood and iron to be mixed before being ap-
plied, but this is a great mistake.

Black Walnut Stain. 1. Take asphaltum, pulverize it,
place it in a jar or bottle, pour over it about twice its bulk
of turpentine, put it in a warm place, and shake it from time
to time. When dissolved, strain it and apply it to the wood
with a cloth or stiff brush. If it should make too dark a
stain thin it with turpentine. This will dry in a few hours.
If it is desired to bring out the grain still more, apply a
mixture of boiled oil and turpentine ; this is better than oil
alone. Put no oil Avith the asphaltum mixture or it will
dry very slowly. When the oil is dry the wood can bo
polished with the following : Shellac varnish, of the usual
consistency, 2 parts ; boiled oil, 1 part. Shake it well before
using Apply it to the wood by putting a few drops on a
cloth and rubbing briskly on the Avood for a feAV moments.
This polish works \vell on*old varnished furniture.

2. The appearance of Avalnut may be given to white woods
by painting or sponging them with a concentrated warm
solution of permanganate of potassa. The effect is different
on different kinds of timber, some becoming stained very
rapidly, others requiring more time for the result, The peiv


manganate is decomposed by the woody fibre ; brown per-
oxide of manganese is precipitated, and the potash is after-
wards removed by washing with water. The wood, when
dry, may \>e varnished.

Brown Stain. Paint over the wood with a solution made
by boiling 1 part of catechu (cutch or gambier) with 30 parts
of water and a little soda. This must be allowed to dry in
the air, and then the wood is to be painted over with another
solution made of 1 part of bichromate of potash and 30 parts
of water. By a little difference in the mode of treatment
and by varying the strength of the solutions, various shades
of color may be given with these materials, which will be
permanent and tend to preserve the wood.

Staining Oak. According to Neidling, a beautiful orange-
yellow tone, much admired in a chest at the Vienna Exhibi-
tion, may be imparted to oak wood by rubbing it in a warm
room with a certain mixture until it acquires a dull polish,
and then coating it after an hour with thin polish, and re-
peating the coating of polish to improve the depth and
brilliancy of the tone. The ingredients for the rubbing
mixture are about three ounces of tallow, three-fourths of an
ounce of wax, add one pint of oil of turpentine, mixed by
heating together and stirring.

Darkening Oak Framing. Take one ounce of carbonate of
soda, and dissolve in half pint boiling water ; take a sponge
or piece of clean rag, saturate it in the solution and pass
gently over the wood to be darkened, so that it is wet evenly
all over ; let it dry for 24 hours. Try first on an odd piece
of wood to see color ; if too dark, make the solution weaker
by adding more water ; if not dark enough, give another
coat. This may always be kept ready for use in a bottle
corked up.

Imitation Rosewood. Boil one-half ^jound of logwood in
three pints of water till it is of a very dark red ; add one-half
ounce of salt of tartar. Stain the work with the liquor while
it is boiling hot, giving three coats ; then, with a painter's
graining brush, form streaks with the following liquor : Boil
one-half-pound of logwood chips in two quarts of water ; add
one ounce of peaiiash, and apply hot.



Zinc, when cast into plates or ingots, is a brittle metal,
easily broken by blows' from a hammer. In this state it is
evidently somewhat porous, as its specific gravity is only 6 '8,
while that of rolled zinc rises as high as 7*2. Zinc, when
heated to 212 Fall., or over, becomes malleable and ductile,
and when rolled into sheets it becomes exceedingly tough and
does not regain its brittle character on cooling. Hence, sheet
zinc has come into very extensive use in the arts.

To Pulverise Zinc. Zinc becomes exceedingly brittle when
heated to nearly its melting point. To reduce it to powder,
therefore, the best plan is to pour melted zinc into a dry and
warm cast-iron mortar, and as soon as it shows signs of
solidifying pound it with the pestle. In this way it may be
reduced to a very fine powder.

Black Varnish for Zinc. Professor Bottgor prepares a
black coating for zinc by dissolving two parts nitrate of cop-
per and three parts crystallized chloride of copper in sixty-
four parts of water, and adding eight parts of nitric acid. This,
however, is quite expensive ; and. in some places the copper
salts are very difficult to obtain. On this account Puscher
prepares black paint or varnish with the following simple
ingredients : Equal parts of chlorate of potash and blue
vitriol are dissolved in thirty-six times as much warm water,
and the solution left to cool. If the sulphate of copper used
contains iron, it is precipitated as a hydrated oxide, and can
be removed by decantation or filtration. The' zinc castings
are then immersed for a few seconds in the solution until
quite black, rinsed off with water, and dried. Even before it
is dry. the black coating adheres to the object so that it may
be wiped dry with a cloth. A more economical method,
since a much smaller quantity of the salt solution is required,
is to apply it repeatedly with a sponge, If copper-colored
spots appear during the operation, the solution is applied to
them a second time, and after a while they turn black. As
soon as the object becomes equally black all over, it is
washed with water and dried. On rubbing, the coating ac-
quires a glittering appearance like indigo, which disappears
on applying a few drops of linseed-oil varnish or " wax
milk;" and the zinc has then a deep black color pnd gloss,


Abyssinian gold, o.

Accidents, general rules in case of, 9.

Acids, stains of, to remove, 130.

Adhesive paper, 101.

Alabaster, 11, 108.

to work, ii.

to polish, ii.

to clean, ii.

cement for, 12.
Mbata, composition of, 13.
Alcohol for making varnish, 12.

as a stimulant in cases of accident, 10.
Alloy for filling holes in cast iron, 13.

for uniting iron, steel and brass, 13.

general rules for making, 12.
Aluminium, bronze, 13.

silver, 13.
Amalgam, Boettger's, 13.

copper, 13.

for silvering globes, etc., 13.

for electrical machines, 13.

silver, for mirrors, 90.
Amber, working and polishing, 15.

cement for, 16.
' imitation, 16.

solvents for, 119.
Aniline inks, 67.

stains, to remove, 130.
Annealing copper, brass, etc., 16.

steel, 133.
Anti-attrition lubricator, 90.

rnetal. Babbitt's, 14.
Anti-friction metals, Belgian, 14.

cheap, 14.

Antique bronze, 26.
Antiseptic preparations, 17.
Aquarium cement, 29.
Armenian cement, 29.
Arsenic, antidote for, in.
Arsenical soap, 17.

powder, 1 7.

Axle grease, Booth's, 90.
Bibbitt metal, how to make and apply, 14.
Balls for removing grease, 131.
Barometer paper, 102.
1'asketware, varnish for, 139.
Batteries, voltaic, 145.

zincs for, 146.

connections for, 145.
Beeswax, to bleach, 17.
Bolgian antifriction metals, 14.
Belting, learner, cement for, 35.
Bengal ji>;ht, 84,

Blackboards, to make, 18.

crayons for, 40.
Blazing off steel springs, 134.
Bleaching by means of sulphur, 137.

ivory, 78.

shellac, 122.

skeleton leaves, 84.
Blue color, to remove from iron and

steel, 76.

Blue light, 84, 86.
Bluing of steel, 136.
Booth's axle grease, 90.
Boxes, metal for lining, 14.
Brass, 1 8. _

to finish, 19.

to color and varnish, 19.

to bronze, 19, 25.

to blacken, 20.

to whiten, 21.

to deposit by electricity, 21.

to coat with copper, 22.

to coat with silver, 126.

to clean, 22.

to lacquer, 22.
Brazing, 22.
Brightening iron, 76.
British plate, composition of, 13
Bronze, aluminium, 13.
Bronze for brass, 25.

antique, 26, 105.
Bronzing, 25.
Bronzing liquid, 26.
Bronzing wood, leather, paper, etc., 26.
Browning gun barrels, 60.
Brovvning mixture for gun barrels, 60.
Buckland's cement, 29.
Buffing metals, etc., 94, 95.
Burnishing metHls, 94.
Burns, cure for, 27.
Calcimine, 149.
Canvas, to make waterproof, 147.

metallic soap for, 148.
Cap cement, Faraday's, 31.
Carmine ink, French process for mak-
ing, 67.

Case-hardening iron, 73.
Casein and soluble glass cement, 30.
Casein Mucilage. 30.
Cast steel see steel.
Catgut, how to make, 27.
Cats, to cure skins of, 129.
Cement for alabaster, 12,

aquarium, 29,



Cement, Armenian, 29.
Buckland's, 29.

cheese, 30.

Chinese (schio-15ao), 30.

Faraday's cap, 31.

electrical, 31.

for glass, earthenware, etc., 31.

glass, 31.

gutta percha, 33.

iron, for pipes, etc., 33.

Japanese, 34.
. for kerosene oil lamps, 34.

labels, 34.

for uniting leather and metal, _ '.

for leather belting, 35.

litharge and glycerine, 35.

for attaching metal to glass, 36.

Paris, for shells, etc., 36.

porcelain, 37.

soft, 37.

soluble glass, 37.

Sorel's, 38.

Steam boiler, 38.

transparent, 38.

turner's, 38.

Wollaston's, 38.

sulphur, 138.

Cements, general rules for using, 28.
Chalk for polishing, in>

prepared, 114.
Chatham light, 89.
Cheese cement, 30.
Chinese cement, 30.

glue, 30.

Chlorate of potassa, caution, 87.
Cleaning engravings, etc., 105.

glass, 57.

glass for mirrors, 97.

looking glasses, 99.

ivory, 78.

marble, 91.

silver, 125.
Cliche" metal, 15.
Cloth, to make waterproof, 147.
Clothes on fire, what to do, 48.
Cock metal 13.

Coffee as a stimulant in case of acci-
dent, 10.
Cold process for zincing iron, 75.

tinning iron, 75.
Color of tempered steel, 134.
Connection-; for voltaic batteries, 145.
Copal, solvents for, no.
Copper, 38...

amalgam, how to make, 13.
'' to polish, 38.

to weld, 39.
Coppering iron or steel, 39.

Coral, artificial, 40.
Cork, to cut, 40.

to make airtight, 40.
Corrosive sublimate, antidote for, 112.
Crayons, for blackboards, 40.

to preserve, 41.
Creases, to take out of engravings,

etc., 102.

Crocus martis, for polishing, 115.
Curing and tanning skins, 128.
Curling metal surfaces, 41.
Cuticle, liquid, 41.
Dammar, solvents for, 119.
Demons, tableaux light for, 86.
Dials, painting hours on, 101.
Diamond for drilling glass, 56.
Disinfecting by sulphur vapors, 137.

by pastils, etc.. 50.
Drawing paper, size for, 127.

to mount, 102.

Dresses, how to make fire-proof, 48.
Drilling glass, 55.
Dumoulin's liquid glue, 32.

Ebony, imitation, 156.
Electrical amalgam, 13.

Boettger's, 13.
Electrical cement, 31.
Electrum, composition of, 13.
Elemi, solvents for, 119.
Elutriation, how to perform, 113.
Engravings, to take creases out of, lot.

to take water stains out of, 105.
Eraser for ink; 70.
Etching copper, 42.

varnish for, 42.

acid for, 42.

steel, liquid for, 43.

glass, 44.
Eye, accidents to, 44.

to remove particles from, 45

lime in, 46.

Faraday's cap cement, 31.
Fire-proof dresses, 48.
Fire, clothes on, 48.
Fires, to prevent, 46.

what to do in case of, 47.
Fluxes for solders, 24.
Fly papers, to make, 49.
Forging iron, 72.
French polish, 152.
Freezing mixtures, various kinds, 50.
Freezing, to prevent ink from, 69.
Fruit stains, to remove, 130.
Fuller's earth for scouring, 131.
Fumigating pastils, how to make juH

use, 50,
Furs, skins, curing, 128,



Fusible metals, how to make and use, 15.

Ghosts, tableaux light for, 86.

Gilded ware, cleaning, 80.

Gilding metals, best methods, 51.

with gold leaf, 52.

picture frames, 52.

Wood, 54.

steel, 54.
Glass, soluble, cement, 30.

cement, 31.

earthenware, etc., cement for, 31.

working, 54.

cutting, 54.

cutting without a diamond, 55.

drilling, 55.

how to turn and bore in a lathe, 55.

stoppers, fitting, 56.

stoppers, to remove, when tight, 56.

to powder, 57.

ground, to imitate, 57.

vessels, to cleanse, 57.

paper, 103.

paper, waterproof, 103.
Glassware, to pack, 59.
Glue, how to choose, 31.

how to prepare, 32.

Chinese, 30.

liquid, 32.

marine, 35.
-mouth, 33.
* portable, 33.

Gold, Abyssinian, 9.

gilding with, 52.

ink, 63.

lacquer, 82.

size, preparation of, 127.
Grass, dried, to stain, 59.
Grease stains, to remove, 130.
Green light, 85, 86.
Ground glass, to imitate, 57.
Guns, to improve the shooting of, 59.

to keep barrels from rusting, 60.

to brown the barrels of, 60.

varnish for barrels, 61.
Gutta percha cement, 33.
Gypsum, 108.

Handles of knives to fasten, 62.

Hard solder, 23.

Hardening copper, brass, etc., 16.

steel, 133.

Heat used in forging iron, 72.
Hygrometric or barometer paper, 102.

Indelible aniline ink, 68.

Indian ink, 68.
Indestructible ink, 69.
Indian ink, how to choose, 63.

Ink, different kinds of, 62.

rules for selecting and using, 63,

black, recipe for, 66. ^

Runge's black ink, 66.

Hue ink, 66.

carmine ink, French process, 67.

red ink, 67.

aniline inks, general formula, 67.

aniline ink, violet, 67.

aniline ink, blue, 67.

aniline inks, aqueous solutions, 67.

gold, 68.

silver, 68.

marking ink for linen, 63.

indelible aniline, 68.

indelible Indian, 68,

indestructible, 69.

that will not freeze, 69.

sympathetic or secret, 69.

eraser, 70.

pencils, 106.

stains, to remove from silver, 125.

stains, to remove, 131.
Inks for rubber stamps and stencils, 70.
Inlaying, simple method of, 71.

imitation, 71.
Iron cement for joints, 33.

forging, different heats employed
for, 72.

welding, 72.

case hardening, 73.

rust, to prevent, 74.

zincing. 74.

cold process for zincing, 75.

tinning, 75.

tinning in the cold, 75.

brightening, 76.

to remove blue color from, 76.

mould, to remove, 131.

and tin, alloys of, 139.
Ivory, character "of as regards work, 76.

working and polishing, methods
for, 77.

bleaching and cleaning, 78.
Ivy, poisoning with, remedy, 113.

Japanese cement, 34.
Javelle water, 79.
Jewelry, cleaning, 80.

Kalsomine, 149.

Kerosene oil lamps, cement for, 34.

Labels, cement for, 34.

Lac, different kinds of, 121.

Lacquer, method of using, 81-

deep gold, 82.

bright gold, 82.

pale gold, 82.

ued by A. Ross, 82,


Lacquer, preservation of, 83.

Laundry gloss, 83.

Leather belting, cement for, 35.

Leather and metai, cement for, 35,

Leather, to make waterproof, 147.

Leaves, skeleton, 83.

Lights, signal and colored, 84.

Bengal, 84.

blue, 84, 86.

red, 85, 86.

white, 85.' 86.

crimson fire, 85.

green, 85, 86.

for indoor illumination, 85.

phosphorous, 88.

photographic, 88.

Chatham, 89.

Litharge and glycerine cement, 35.
Looking glasses, care of, 99.

how to clean, 99,
Lubricators, rules for selecting, 89.

plumbago, 90.

anti-attrition, 90.

fine lubricating oil, 90.

Booth's axle grease, 90.
Magnesium light, 85.
Mahogany, to improve, 155.

artificial, 155.
Maple, to whiten, 155.
Maps, varnish for, 141.
Marble, composition of, 90.

method of working, 91.

method of polishing, 92.

substances wlach injure it, 91.

to clean, 91.

sculpture, how finished, 93.
Marine glue, 35.
Marking ink, 68.
Mastic, solvents for, 119.
Mats, skins cured for, 128.
Mercury, bichloride or corrosive sub-
limate, 112.
Metal, fusible, 15.

anti-friction, 14.

Babbitt, 14.

Metal, to attach to glass, 36.
Metallic soap for canvas, 148.
Metals, to polish, 94, 95, 96.
Metals, bright, painting, 101.
Mexican onyx, 90.
Mildew, to remove, 131.
Mirrors, to make, 96.

for optical purposes, 96.
silver amalgam for, 98.
care of, 99.

Mono-chromatic light, 86.
Moulds made of sulphur, 138.
. Mouth glue, 33.

Mucilage, casein, 30.
Murderers, tableaux, light for, 86.
Newton's fusible metal, 15.
Nickel, characters of, 99.

to deposit without battery, too.
Noise, prevention of, 100.
Novargent, m6.

Oak, to stain, 157.
to darken, 157.
Oil, fine, for lubricating, 90.
Oilstone powder for polishing, 116.
Onion's fusible metal, 15.
Opium poisoning, remedy for, n3.
Oriental alabaster, 1 1.
Oxidized silver, 123.

Paint, to remove stains of, 132.
Painting bright metals, 101.
Painting metal dials, 101.
Paper, various uses of, 101.

adhesive, 101.

barometer, 102.

creases, to take out of, 102.

drawing, to mount, 102.

glass paper, 103.

to prepare for varnishing, 103.

pollen powder or paper powder, 104.

tracing, 104.

transfer, 104.

to remove water stains from, '05.

waxed, 105.

for pillows, 107.

size for, 127.

Paris cement for shells, etc., 36
Paris green, antidote for, in.
Paste, recipes tor, 36.
Pastils, fumigating, 50.
Patina or artificial bronze, 105.
Patterns, to trace, 105.
Pencil marks, to fix, 106.
Pencils, ink, to make, 106.
Peroxide of irt-n for polishing, 116.
Pewter, 15, 107.

hardened, 107.

for caps and polishing tools, 107.
Phosphorous light, 88.
Phosphorous as poison, antidote, 112.
Photographic light, 88.
Pillows for sick room, 107.
Plaster-of-Paris, preparation of, 108.

to harden, 108.

to cast, ic8.
Plate renovator, 126.
Plating without battery, 126.

nickel, 100.

Platinum, solder for, 25.
Plumbago as a lubricator, 90.
Poisons, cautions in regard to, 109,


Poisons, acids, no.

oxalic acid, no.

Prussic acid, in.

arsenic or Paris green, in.

corrosive sublimate, 112.

phosphorous, 112.

opium, 112.

strychnine, 113.

ivy poisoning, 113.'

stings, 113.
Polishing smoothing irons, 83.

metals, 94.

powders, selection of, 113.

elutriation of, 113.

chalk or whiting, 114.

prepared chalk, 114.

crocus or rouge, 115.

Andrew Ross's mode of prepar-
ing, 115-

oilstone powder, 116.

pumice-stone powder, 116.

putty powder, 117.

Vienna lime, 118.
Polishing powder, Lord Ross's mode of

preparing, 116.
Polishing powders, oilstone powder, 116.

pumice-stone powder, 117.

putty powder, 117.

Vienna lime, 118.
Polishing-wood, 151.

in the lathe, 153.
Pollen powder or paper, 104.
Porcelain cement, 37.
Powders, polishing, 113.
Printing in gold, silver and bronze, 52.
Prussic acid, antidote for, in.
Pumice-stone powder, 117.
Putty powder for polishing, 117.

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Online LibraryJohn PhinThe workshop companion. A collection of useful and reliable recipes, rules, processes, methods, wrinkles, and practical hints for the household and the shop → online text (page 15 of 16)