John Phin.

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or harden, and this is particularly the case in oil cements
such as copsil varnish, boiled oil, white lead, etc. When two
surfaces, each half an inch across, are joined by means of a
layer of white lead placed between them, six months may
elapse before the cement in the middle of the joint has be-
come hard. In such cases a few days or weeks are of no
account; at the end of a month the joint will be weak and
easily separated, while at the end of two or three years it may
be so firm that the material will part anywhere else than at
the joint. Hence, where the article is to be used immediately,
the only safe cements are those which are liquified by heat
and which become hard when ccld. A joint made with
marine glue is firm an hour after it has been made. Next
to cements that are liquified by heat, are those which consist

"Technologist, Vol. I (1870), pa^e iss,



THE WOK SHOP COMPANION. 20

of substances dissolved in water or alcohol. A glue joint sets
firmly in twenty-four hours; a joint made with shellac var-
nish Becomes dry in two or three days. Oil cements, which
do not dry by evaporation, but harden by oxidation (boiled
oil, white lead, red lead, etc.), are the slowest of all.

Aquarium Cement. Litharge; fine, white, dry sand and
plaster of paris, each 1 gill; finely pulverized resin, gill.
Mix thoroughly and make into a paste with boiled linseed
oil to which dryer has been added. Beat it well, and let it
stand four or five hours before using it. After it has stood
for 15 hours, however, it loses its strength. Glass cemented
into its frame with this cement is good for either salt or
fresh water. It has been used at the Zoological Gardens,
London, with great success. It might be useful for con-
structing tanks for other purposes or for stopping leaks.

Armenian Cement. The jewellers of Turkey, who are
mostly Armenians, have a singular method of ornamenting
watch cases, etc., with diamonds and other precious stones
by simply gluing or cementing them on. The stone is set in
gold or silver, and the lower part of the metal made flat or
to correspond with that part to which it is to be fixed. It is
then warmed gently and the glue applied, which is so very
strong that the parts thus cemented never separate. This
glue, which will firmly unite bits of glass and even polished
steel, and?may, of course, be applied to a vast variety of useful
purposes, is thus made : Dissolve five or six bits of gum
mastic, each the size of a large pea, in as much alcohol as
will suffice to render it liquid; in another vessel dissolve as
much isinglass, previously a little softened in water, (though
none of the water must be used,) in good brandy or rum, as
will make a two-ounce phial of very strong glue, adding two
small bits of gum galbanum, or ammoniacum, which must
be rubbed or ground until they are dissolved. Then mix
the whole with a sufficient heat, keep the glue in a phial
closely stopped, and when it is to be used set the phial in
/boiling water. To avoid the cracking of the phial by ex-
posure to such sudden heat, use a thin green glass phial, and
hold it in the steam for a few seconds before ir^mersin^ it in
the hot water. /

Bucklantfs Cement. Finely powdered white sugar, 1 oz. ;
finely powdered starch, 3 oz. ; finely powdered gum arable,
4 oz. Bub well together in a dry mortar; then little by little



30 THE WORKSHOP COMPANION.

add cold water until it is of the thickness of melted glue; put
in a wide mouthed bottle and cork closely. The powder,
thoroughly ground and mixed, may be kept for any length of
time in a wide mouthed bottle, and when wanted a little may
be mixed with water with a stiff brush. It answers ordinarily
for all the purposes for which mucilage is used, and as a
cement for labels it is specially good, as it does not become
brittle and crack off.

Casein Mucilage. Take the curd of skim-milk (carefully
freed from cream or oil), wafth it thoroughly and dissolve it
to saturation in a cold concentrated solution of borax. This
mucilage keeps well, and as regards adhesive power far sur-
passes the mucilage of gum arabic.

Casein and Soluble Glass. Casein dissolved in soluble
silicate of soda or potassa, makes r very strong cement for
glass or porcelain.

Cheese Cement for mcnclhifj C/t./ia, etc. Take skim milk
cheese, cut it in slices and boil it in water. Wash it in cold
water and knead it in warm water several times. Place it
warm on a levigating stone and knead it with quicklime. It
will join marble, stone or earthenware so tli^t the joining is
scarcely to be discovered.

Chinese Cement (Schio-liao). To three parts of fresh beaten
blood are added four parts of slaked lime and a little alum;
a thin, pasty mass is produced, which can be used imme-
diately. Objects which are to be made specially water-proof
are painted by the Chinese twice, or at the most three times.
Dr. Scherzer saw in Pekin a wooclen box which had travelled
the tedious road via Siberia to St. Petersburg and back,
which was found to be perfectly sound and water-proof.
Even baskets made of straw became, by the use of this
cement, perfectly serviceable in the transportation of oil.
Pasteboard treated therewith receives the appearance and
strength of wood. Most of the wooden public buildings of
China are painted with schio-liao, which gives them an un-
pleasant reddish appearance, but adds to their durability.
This cement was tried in the Austrian department of Agri-
culture, and by the " Vienna Association of Industry," and
in both cases the statements of Dr. Scherzer were found to
be strictly accurate.

Chinese Glue. Shellac dissolved in alcohol. Used for
joining wood, earthenware, glass, etc. This cement requires



THE WORKSHOP COMPANION. 31

considerable time to become thoroughly hard, and even then
is not as strong as good glue. Its portability is its only
recommendation.

Faraday's Cap Cement. Electrical Cement. Resin, 5 oz. ;
beeswax 1 oz. ; red ochre or Venetian red in powder, 1 oz.
Dry the earth thoroughly on a stove at a temperature above
212. Melt the wax and resin together and stir in the
powder by degrees. Stir until cold, lest the earthy matter
settle to the bottom. Used for fastening brass work to glass
tubes, flasks, etc.

Glass, Earthenware, etc., Cement for. Dilute white of egg
with its bulk of water and beat up thoroughly. Mix to the
consistence of thin paste with powdered quicklime. Must
be used immediately.

Glass Cement. Take pulverized glass, 10 parts; powdered
fluorspar, 20 parts; soluble silicate of soda, 60 parts. Both
glass and fluorspar must be in the finest possible condition,
which is best done by shaking each, in fine powder, with
water, allowing the coarser particles to deposit, and then to
pour off the remainder which holds the finest particles in
suspension. The mixture must be made very rapidly, by
quick stirring, and when thoroughly mixed must be at once
applied. This is said to yield an excellent cement.

Glue is undoubtedly the most important cement used in
the arts! Good glue is hard, clear (not necessarily light-
colored, however, ) and free from bad taste and smell. Glue
which is easily dissolved in cold water is not strong. Good
glue merely swells in cold water and must be heated to the
boiling point before it will dissolve thoroughly.

Good glue requires more water than poor, consequently
you cannot dissolve six pounds of good glue in the same
quantity of water you can six pounds of poor. The best glue,
which is clear and red, will require from one-half to more
than double the water that is required with poor glue, and
the quality of which can be discovered by breaking a piece.
If good, it will break hard and tough, and when broken
will be irregular on the broken edge. If poor, it will break
0ornparatively easy, leaving a smooth, straight edge.

In dissolving glue, it is beet to weigh the glue, and weigh
or measure the water. If not done there is a liability of get-
ting more glue than the water can properly dissolve. It is a
good plan, when once the quantity of water that any sample



82 THE WORKSHOP COMPANION.

of glue will take up lias been ascertained, to put the glue and
water together at least six hours before heat is applied, and
if it is not soft enough then, let it remain longer in soak, for
there is no danger of good glue remaining in pure water, even
for forty-eight hours.

From careful experiments with dry glue immersed for
twenty -four hours in water at 60 Fah., and thereby trans-
formed into a jelly, it was found that the finest ordinary glue,
or that made from white bones, absorbs twelve times its
weight of water in twenty -four hours; from dark bones, the
glue absorbs nine times its weight of water; while the ordi-
nary glue made from animal refuse, absorbs but three to five
times its weight of water.

Glue, being an animal substance, it must be kept sweet;
to do this it is necessary to keep it cool after it is once dis-
solved, and not in use. In all cases keep the glue-kettle clean
and sweet, by cleansing it often.

Great care must be taken not to bum it, and, therefore, it
should always be prepared in a water bath.

Carpenters should remember that fresh glue dries more
readily than that which has been once or twice melted.

The advantage of frozen glue is that it can be made up at
once, on account of its being so porous. Frozen giuo of
same grade is as strong as if dried.

If glue is of first-rate quality, it can be used on most kinds
of wood work very thin, and make the joint as strong as the
original. "White glue is only made white by bleaching.

Glue, Liquid. -1. A very strong glue may be made by dis-
solving 4 oz. of glue in 16 ounces of strong acetic acid by the
aid of heat. It is semi-solid at ordinary temperatures, but
needs only to be warmed, by placing the vessel containing it
into hot water, to be ready for use.

2. Dilute officinal phosphoric -acid with two parts, by
weight of water, and saturate with carbonate of ammonia;
dilute the resulting liquid, which must be still somewhat
acid, with another part of distilled water, warm it on a water-
bath, and dissolve in it enough good glue to form a thick,
syrupy liquid. It must be kept in well-closed bottles.

3. A most excellent form is also Dumoulin's Liquid and
Unalterable Glue. This is made as follows : Dissolve 8 oz. of
best glue in pint of water in a wide-mouthed bottle, by
Jieating the bottle in a water-bath. Then add slowly 2J oz.



THE WORKSHOP COMPANION. 33

of nitric acid, spec. gr. 1330, htirring constantly. Effer-
vescence takes place under escape of nitox "<s acid gas. When
all the acid has been added, the liquid is allowed to cool.
Keep it well corked, and it will be ready for use at any
moment. It does not gelatinize, or putrefy or ferment. It
is applicable to many domestic uses, such as mending china,
wood, etc.

Glue, Mouth. Good glue, 1 Ib. ; isin>lass, 4- 02, Soften in
water, boil and add Ib. fine brown sugar. Boil till pretty
thick and pour into moulds.

Glue, Portable. Put a pinch of shredded gelatine into a
wide-mouthed bottle; put on it a very little water, and about
one-fourth part of glacial acetic acid; put in a well -fitting
cork. If the right quantity of water and acid be used, the
gelatine will swell up into worm-like pieces, quite elastic, but
at the same time, firm enough to be handled comfortably.
The acid will make the preparation keep indefinitely. When
required for use, take a small fragment of the swelled gela-
tine, and warm the end of it in the flame of a match or candle;
it will immediately "run" into a fine clear glue, which can
be applied at once direct to the article to be mended. The
thing is done in half a minute, and is, moreover, done well,
for the gelatine so treated makes the very best and finest glue
that can^be had. This plan might be modified by dissolving
a trace of chrome alum in the water used for moistening the
gelatine, in which case, no doubt, the glue would becomo
insoluble when set. But for general purposes } there is no
need for s-ubsequent insolubility in glue.

Gutta-Percha Cement. This highly recommended cement
is made by melting together, in an iron pan, 2 parts common
pitch and 1 part gutta-percha, stirring them well together
until thoroughly incorporated, and then pouring the liquid
into cold water. When cold it is black, solid, and elastic;
but it softens with heat, and at 100 Fahr. is a thin fluid.
It may be used as a soft paste, or in the liquid state, and
answers an excellent purpose in cementing metal, glass,
porcelain, ivory, &c. It may be used instead of putty for
glazing windows.

Iron Cement foi* closing the Joints of Iron Pipes. Take of
coarsely powdered iron borings, 5 pounds; powdered sal ^
ammoniac, 2 oz. ; sulphur, 1 oz. ; and water sufficient to"
moisten it. This composition hardens rapidly; but if timo



84 THE WORKSHOP COMPANION.

can be allowed it sets more firmly without the sulphur. It
must be used as st'.n as mixed and rammed tightly into the
joints.

2. Take sal-amm^mwo, 2 02. ; sublimed sulphur, 1 oz. ; cast-
iron filings or fine turnings, 1 Ib. Mix in a mortar and keep
the powder dry. When it is to be used, mix it with twenty
times its weight of clean iron turnings, or filings, and grind
the whole in a mortar; then wet it with water until it becomes
of convenient consistence, when it is to be applied to the
joint. After a time it becomes as hard and strong as any
part of the metal.

Japanese Cement. Paste made of fine rice flour.

Kerosene Oil Lamps. The cement commonly used for
fastening the tops on kerosene lamps is plaster of paris,
which is porous and quickly penetrated by the kerosene.
Another cement which has not this defect is made with three
parts of resin, one of caustic soda and five of water. This
composition is mixed with half its weight of plaster of paris.
It sets firmly in about three-quarters of an hour. It is said
to be of great adhesive power, not permeable to kerosene, a
low conductor of heat and but superficially attacked by hot
water.

Labels, Cement for.\. Macerate 5 parts of good glue in
18 parts of water. Boil and add 9 parts rock candy and o
parts gum arabic.

2. Mix dextrine with water and add a drop or two of
glycerine.

3 A mixture of 1 part of dry chloride of calcium, or 2 parts
of the same salt in the crystallized form, and 36 parts of gum
arabic, dissolved in water to a proper consistency, forms a
mucilage w r hich holds well, does not crack by drying, and
yet does not attract sufficient moisture from the air to become
wet in damp weather.

4. For attaching labels to tin and other bright metallic
surfaces, first rub the surface with a mixture of muriatic acid
and alcohol; then apply the label with a very thin coating of
the paste, and it will adhere almost as well as on glass.

5. To make cement for attaching labels to metals, take ten
parts tragacanth mucilage, ten parts of honey, and one part
flour. The flour appears to hasten the drying, and renders
it less susceptible to damp. Another cement that will resist
the damp still better, but will not adhere if the surface is



THE WORKSHOP COMPANION. 35

greasy, is made by boiling together two parts shellac, one
part borax, and sixteen par. is water. Flour paste to which a
certain proportion of nitric acid has been added, and heat
applied, makes a lasting cement, but the acid often acts
upon the metals. The acid converts the starch into dextrine.

6. The Archives of Pharmacy gives the following recipe for
damp-proof mucilage for labels : Macerate five parts of good
glue in eighteen to twenty parts of water for a day, and to
the liquid add nine parts of rock candy and three parts of
gum arabic. The mixture can be brushed upon paper while
lukewarm; it keeps well, does not stick together, and, when
moistened, adheres firmly to bottles. For the labels of soda
or seltzer-water bottles, it is well to prepare a paste of good
rye flour and glue, to which linseed-oil, varnish, and turpen-
tine have been added, in the proportion of half an ounce each
to the pound. Labels prepared in the latter way do not fall
off in damp cellars.

Leather and Metal, Cement for Uniting. Wash the metal
with hot gelatine; steep the leather in an infusion of nut
galls (hot) and bring the two together.

Leather Belting, Cement for. One who has tried everything
says that after an experience of fifteen years he has found
nothing to equal the following: Common glue and isinglass,
equal parts, soaked for 10 hours in just enough water to
cover them. \ Bring gradually to a boiling heat and add pure
tannin until the whole becomes ropy or appears like the
white of eggs Buff off the surfaces to be joined, apply this
cement warm, and clamp firmly.

Litharge and Grlycerim Cement. A cement made of very
finely powdered oxide of lead (litharge) and concentrated
glycerine, unites wood to iron with remarkable efficiency.
The composition is insoluble in most acids, is unaffected by
the action of moderate heat, sets rapidly, and acquires an
extraordinary hardness.

Marine Glue. The true maiine glue is a combination of
shellac and caoutchouc in proportions which vary according
to the purposes for which the cement is to be used. Some is
very hard, others quite soft. The degree of softness is also
regulated by the proportion of benzole used for dissolving
the caoutchouc. Marine glue is more easily purchased than
made, but where a small quantity is needed the following re-
cipe is said to give very good results : Dissolve one part of



36 THE WORKSHOP COMPANION.

India-rubber in 12 parts of benzole, and to the solution add
20 parts of powdered shellac, heating the mixture cavt-iousty
over the fire. Apply with a brush.

The following recipe, taken from New Remedies, is said to
yield a strong cement: 10 parts of caoutchouc or India-rub-
ber are dissolved in 120 parts of benzine or petroleum (?)
naphtha with the aid of a gentle heat. When the solution is
complete, which sometimes requires 10 to 14 days, 20 parts
of asphalt are melted in an iron vessel, and the caoutchouc
solution is poured in very slowly, in a fine stream, and under
continued heating, until the mass has become homogeneous,
and nearly all of the solvent has been driven off. It is then
poured out and cast into greased tin moulds. It forms dark-
brown or black cakes, which are very hard to break. This
cement requires considerable heat to melt it; and to prevent
it from being burnt, it is best to heat a capsule containing a
piece of it first on a water-bath, until the cake softens and
begins to be liquid. It is then carefully wiped dry, and
heated over a naked flame, under constant stirring, up to
about 300 F. The edges of the article to be mended should,
if possible, also be heated to at least 212 F., so as to permit
the cement to be applied at leisure and with care. The
thinner the cement is applied, the better it binds.

Metal, Cement for attaching to Glass. Copal varnish, 15;
drying oil, 5; turpentine, 3. Melt in a water-bath, and add
10 parts slaked lime.

Paris Cement for mending Shells and otlift 'w'meiis. Gum
arabic, 5; sugar candy, 2. White lead, enough to color.

Paste. The best paste is made of good flour, well boiled.
Eesin, etc., do more harm than good.

2. An excellent white paste may be made by dissolving 2J
oz. gum arabic in 2 quarts hot water and thickening with
wheat flour. To this is added a solution of alum and sugar
of lead; the mixture is heated and stirred till about to boil,
when it is allowed to cool.

3. Four parts, by weight, of glue are allow ^ to noften in
15 parts of cold water for some hours, and then moderately
heated till the solution becomes quite clear. 65 parts of
boiling water are now added with stirring. In another vessel
80 parts of starch paste are stirred up with 20 parts of cold
water, so that a thin milky fluid is obtained without lumps.
Into this the boiling glue solution is poured, with constant



THE WORKSHOP COMPANION. 37

stirring, and the whole is kept at the boiling temperature.
After cooling, 10 drops of carbolic acid are' added to the
paste. This paste is of extraordinary adhesive power, and
may be used for leather, paper, or cardboard with great suc-
cess. It must be preserved in closed bottles to prevent
evaporation of the water, and will, in this way, keep good
for years.

4. Rice flour makes an excellent paste for fine paper work.

5. Gum tragacanth and water make an ever ready paste.
A few drops of any kind of acid should be added to the water
before putting in the gum, to prevent fermentation. This
paste will not give that semi-transparent look to thin paper,
that gam arable sometimes gives, when used for mucilage.

Porcelain Cement. Add plaster of paris to a strong solu-
tion of alum till the mixture is of the consistency of cream.
It sets readily, and is said to unite glass, metal, porcelain,
etc., quite firmly. It is probably suited for cases in which
large rather than small surfaces are to be united.

Soft Cement. Melt yellow beeswax with its weight of tur-
pentine and color with finely powdered Venetian red. When
cold it has the hardness of soap, but is easily softened and
moulded with the fingers, and for sticking things together
temporarily it is invaluable.

Soluble Glass Cements. When finely-pulverized chalk is
stirred into a solution of soluble glass of 30 B until the
mixture is fine and plastic, a cement is obtained which will
harden in between six and eight hours, possessing an ex-
traordinary durability, and alike applicable for domestic and
industrial purposes. If any of the following substances be
emplo} r ed besides chalk, differently-colored cements of the
same general character are obtained : 1. Finely pulverized or
levigated stibnite (grey antimony, or black sulphide of anti-
mony) will produce a dark cement, which, after burnishing
with an agate, will present a metallic appearance. 2. Pulver-
ized cast iron, a grey cement. 3. Zinc dust (so-called zinc
grey), an exceedingly hard grey cement, which, after burnish-
ing, will exhibit the white and brilliant appearance of metallic
zinc. This cement may be employed with advantage in
mending ornaments and vessels of zinc, sticking alike well to
metals, stone, and wood. 4. Carbonate of copper, a bright
green cement. 5. Sesquioxide of chromium, a dark green
cement. 6. Thenard's blue (cobalt blue), a blue cement.



38 THE WORKSHOP COMPANION.

7. Minium, an orange-colored cement. 8. Vermilion,
splendid red cement. 9. Carmine red, a violet cement.

SoreFs Cement. Mix commercial zinc white with its bulk
of fine sand, adding a solution of chloride of zinc of 1'2(5
specific gravity, and rub the whole thoroughly together in a
mortar. The mixture must be applied at once, as it hardens
very quickly.

Steam Boiler Cement. Mix two parts of finely powdered
litharge with one part of very fine sand, and one part of
quicklime which has been allowed to slack spontaneously
by exposure to the air. This mixture may be kept for any
length of time without injuring. In using it a portion is
mixed into paste with linseed oil, or, still better, boiled lin-
seed oil. In this state it must be quickly applied, as it soon
becomes hard.

Transparent Cement for Glass. Fine Canada balsam.

Turner's Cement. Melt 1 Ib. of resin in a pan over the fire,
and, when melted, add a \ of a Ib. of pitch. While these
are boiling add brick dust until, by dropping a little on a
cold stone, you think it hard enough. In winter it may be
necessary to add a little tallow. By means of this cement a
piece of wood may be fastened to the chuck, which will hold
when cool ; and when the work is finished it may be removed
by a smart stroke with the tool. Any traces of the cement
may be removed from the work by means of benzine.

Wollaston's While Cement for large objects. Beeswax, 1 oz. ;
resin, 4 oz. ; powdered plaster of paris, 5 oz. Melt together.
To use, warm the edges of the specimen and use the cement
warm.

Copper.

Copper is probably the most difficult of all the metals to
work by the file or lathe, but pure copper may be cut liko
cheese with a graver, and consequently it is extensively used
for plates where the number of impressions required is not
very large. In filing copper the file should be well chalked,
and in cutting it in the lathe use plenty of soapy water, and
let the solution of soap be pretty strong* In polishing copper
it will be found that owing to its softness, it burnishes easily
(see article on polishing metals), but where it is polished by
means of abrasive processes, that is, by the use of powders
which grind it or wear it down, great care must be taken to


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Online LibraryJohn PhinThe workshop companion. A collection of useful and reliable recipes, rules, processes, methods, wrinkles, and practical hints for the household and the shop → online text (page 3 of 16)