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WRITINGS



OF



JOHN QUINCY ADAMS



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THE MACMILLAN COMPANY

NEW VORK • BOSTON • CHICAGO • DALL4S
ATLANTA • SAN FEANCISCO

MACMILLAN & CO., Limited

LONDON • BOMBAY • CAICUTTA
MELBOCKNE

THE MACMILLAN CO. OF CANADA, Ltd.

TOEONTO



WRITINGS



OF



JOHN QUINCY ADAMS



EDITED BY

WORTHINGTON CHAUNCEY FORD



VOL. IV
1811-1813



53'rw f nrk
THE MACMILLAN COMPANY

1914

AH rights reserved



■ 8



St^



Copyright, 1Q14
By CHARLES FRANCIS ADAMS



Set up and electrotyped. Published October, igi4.



o



CONTENTS

1811

PAOX

January 27. To the Secretary of State .... I

Conduct of Captain Arnold. Situation of American
vessels in Baltic ports. French influence and the Rus-
sian tariff. Protest by Count Romanzoff. American
commerce favored.

February 5. To the Secretary of State .... 6
Pending release of detained American ships. French
charge that all are English vessels. Forged letter in
the Mofiiteur. Question of a reply. Papers from French
consuls in America. Interview with the French am-
bassador. American consul at Gothenburg.

February 12. To the Secretary of State . . . . 12
Action taken on detained American vessels. In-
creasing coolness between the cabinets of Russia and
France. Arrest of General Hitroff. Matters of differ-
ence. Russia's indecision.

February 19. To the Secretary of State . . . . 17
French ambassador on the consular certificates and
Russian protection of American commerce.

February 26. From the Secretary of State . . . 18

A suggestion on his return to the United States. Has
been appointed to the Supreme Court of the United
States.

March 19. To Joseph Pitcairn 20

Regulation of Russia's commerce. Independence, real
and nominal. Rumor of his going to Paris.



vi CONTENTS



PAGE



March 19. To Abigail Adams 22

Constitution of the corps diplomatique. Duke de
Mondragone. Count Einsiedel. Chevalier de Bray.
Chevalier Six d'Oterbeck. Count Stedingk. Count
St. Julien Wiggers. Chevalier Navarro d'Andrade.
Caulaincourt.

March 22. To Abigail Adams 27

A dinner at the French ambassador's.

March 26. To the Secretary of State .... 34
Admission of American ships and cargoes. Case of the
Eliza. Recall of the Duke de Vicence. His services
and influence.

April 3. To THE Secretary of State 39

Speyer as commercial agent and the situation at Goth-
enburg. Navigation in the Baltic. Russia, France and
Oldenburg. Denmark condemns vessels.

April 10. To Thomas Boylston Adams .... 43
Education of his children. Distribution of his Lec-
tures. Literary intentions on his return. Death of Jus-
tice Cushing and the succession.

April 13. To the Secretary of State 48

French consular certificates of origin. Napoleon's
complaint against Armstrong,

April 22. To THE Secretary of State 54

Contest between Russia and France. Napoleon's
marriage. Alission of Metternich. Prospect of war.
Preparation by Russia, and her generals.

April 29. To THE Secretary of State 59

Treaty of commerce between Russia and Portugal.
Commercial interests of the United States. War at hand.



CONTENTS vil



PACE



April 29. To Thomas Boylston Adams .... 63
Poor prospects for profitable trade with Russia. The
missions to France and Denmark. Foster's mission.

May 13. To Thomas Boylston Adams .... 65

Procession on May day. Opening of the waters.
War between Russia and France. Arrival of Count
Lauriston. American news. Policy of neutrality. A
letter from his son, George. Copley's portrait of John
Adams. Gilbert Stuart's misconduct.

May 6. To the Secretary of State 72

Threatened war between Russia and France. The
question of Oldenburg. Attitude of the Russian Em-
peror. Champagny out of office and the attack on
Chernicheff.

May 12. To the Secretary of State 'jd

The French consular certificates. Chernicheff's mis-
sion. Rupture with France deferred. Position of Aus-
tria. Arrival of Count Lauriston.

May 19. To the Secretary of State 81

Navigation of the Baltic and Danish privateers. The
system of licenses. British trade with Russia.

May 26. To the Secretary of State 84

War between the United States and Great Britain.
Napoleon's speech to his Council of Commerce. In-
fluences round the Emperor Alexander.

June 2. To the Secretary of State 89

Acknowledges dispatches. A treaty of commerce.
The Emperor's interest in the relations between the
United States and Great Britain. Hazard's commis-
sion. Ministerial organization.



viii CONTENTS



PAGE



June 3. To the President of the United States . . 93

Reasons for declining the appointment to the Supreme
Court. Judge Davis. His return.

June 7. To John Adams 98

The appointment to the Supreme Court. Why he
could not accept it.

June 9. To the Secretary of State 102

The proposed commercial treaty with Russia. Views
of Count Romanzoff. The Portuguese Convention.
Ministerial organization and Romanzoff's retirement.

June 15. To the Secretary of State 106

Count Romanzoff on the relations between Russia
and the United States. Count Pahlen. England and
the United States. Navigation in the Baltic. Grain
trade of the Black Sea.

June 18. To George William Erving Ill

Home politics. Consequences of the cabinet change.
British finance.

June 22. To the Secretary of State 112

Outrage committed on an American ship, the Horace,
by a British armed vessel, the Plover. The cargo liable
to seizure in Russia. Russia's interest in American
trade. Case of the Hercules. Peace with Turkey.

June 25. To John Adams 117

First American arrival and departure. Glutted mar-
kets. Publication of letters. Embarrassments likely to
arise. Speculations upon government. Balance in the
Constitution. Praise and censure.

June 29. To the Secretary of State 122

Action of the government on American vessels and
cargoes. Orders in Council and licenses favor the com-
merce of the United States. Napoleon's speech and war.
Arrival of a Portuguese minister.



CONTENTS k



PAGE



June 30. To Abigail Adams 126

Interest in the Massachusetts election. Involves
peace or war with England. Quincy and disunion.

July 5. To William Jones 129

Claude Gabriel and his employment by the Russian
Emperor.

July 6. To THE Secretary of State 131

Napoleon's speech to the legislative assembly of
France. His intentions in Spain and Portugal. Spanish
venture unpopular in France. Russia and Great Bri-
tain. The appointment of a successor.

July 10. To Thomas Boylston Adams 135

Learns of his service to the state. Review of his Lec-
tures in the Portfolio. Writings of Walsh and his English
leanings. Visiting Americans.

July 13. To the Secretary of State 138

Commission delivered to Hazard. The Courier on
English and Russian relations. No prospect of a north-
ern coalition against France. Emperor Alexander pre-
served the peace of Europe. Hope of a peace with Tur-
key. Return of Count Stedingk.

July 21. To John Adams 142

Markets in Russia glutted by Americans. His own
ambition and the Supreme Court appointment. Politi-
cal activities. The administration of justice in the
United States. Removal to a country seat. War be-
tween England and the United States imminent.

July 22. To THE Secretary of State 148

The President's appointment of a successor. Naviga-
iton in the Baltic. Stagnation in commerce and its
causes. Conquest of Spain by France. Equivocal
negotiations with Russia. Victory over the Turks.



CONTENTS



PAGE



July 28. To THE Secretary of State 153

Hazard's exequatur. Count Romanzoff's position and
possible retirement. Pahlen to be sent to Brazil. Affair
of the President and the Little Belt. The Turkish cam-
paign.

July 29. To Abigail Adams 157

Deaths of Francis Dana and William Emerson. Their
characters. Dana's intended reply to Mrs. Warren's
History.

July 31. To THOMAS BoYLSTON Adams 160

His excursion into Maine. War with Great Britain.
The non-intercourse law. Review of his own political
conduct. Capture of one of his letters.

August 2. To The Secretary of State .... 165
Hazard's office recognized by the Russian government.
Francis Dana had been vice consul. No exclusion of
American commerce. Seizure of Greek ships, Russian
confidence in her strength and friendliness to America.
Appointment of Daschkoff.

August 9. To the Secretary of State .... 170
The Thorndike ships. A commercial treaty with
Russia. Little prospect of a general peace. Relations
between France and Russia. Religion in France

August 13. To George William Frying .... 174
Success of his special mission. Politics in the United
States. Burr and Randolph. Policy of the Perceval-

Wellesley ministry. France and Russia.

August 16. To THE Secretary of State .... 177
The Rhenish confederacy. Calming assurances.
French ambassador wishes war between the United
States and Great Britain. The case of Captain Marks
and forged ship's papers.



CONTENTS



zi



PAGE

August 20. To John Adams 181

Plans for the future. Further service in Europe,
Passion of Americans for office. Quincy's speech. His
own position.

August 23. To THE Secretary of State .... 184

Captures by a French privateer. Two instances of
forged papers. English convoys.

August 24. To William Eustis 187

French policy a snare for America. The non-importa-
tion law. His own position and prospects. Political
changes in the United States obscure. The European
situation.

August 26. To George William Erving .... 192
French privateer and Danish weakness. Violation of
correspondence. France and Russia. English advances
for a reconciliation.

August 28. To Benjamin Waterhouse .... 195
"Leolin's" letters to Otis. Pickering's "Letters."
Danger of being drawn into European complications.
Republican Massachusetts. Activities of Waterhouse.

August 30. To the Secretary of State .... 199

The manufactured letter of the Duke de Cadore.
Outline of its history. English efforts for harmony with
Russia. Reception given to Captain Fenthan. Visit of
Prince Lubomirski.

August 31. To John Adams 204

The constitution and the admission of Louisiana.
Treatment given to his proposed amendment. Question
settled beyond recall. Quincy's arguments. Power
under the Union.



xii CONTENTS



PAGE



September 8. To William Plumer 210

Events show an approaching crisis.

September 1-8. To George Washington Adams . .211
The Bible.

September 14. To John Adams 218

The history of the Cadore letter. England ready to
continue the war. The Bonaparte panic. Use of his
name.

September 25. To Thomas Boylston Adams . . . 224
Robert Smith's defense. Censure of Pickering. Ques-
tion of oaths.

October 2. To Abigail Adams 226

Self-distrust. His own experience. Smith's contro-
versy with Colvin. His country residence. Count
Strogonoff's garden and the tomb of Achilles.

October 3. To the Secretary of State .... 232

American vessels sailing from Cronstadt. The French
ambassador on war with England. American and Eng-
lish trade with Russia. Admission of ships from English
ports.

October 11. To the Secretary of State .... 236

Napoleon's discourse to the Russian ambassador.
Call for troops. Confidence of Napoleon. Effect of war
on American commerce.

October 14. To John Adams 240

A navy as a remedy for the public ills. Dangers In-
volved, and the cost. Demands of commerce for pro-
tection. Smith's vindication. Seizure of letters.

October 15. To George William Erving .... 245

Visit from S. A. Wells. Smith's vindication and his
character. Claims of Colvin. Navigation in the Baltic.



CONTENTS xili



PAGE



October i6. To the Secretary of State .... 249

Arrival of American ships. Interference with Russian
commerce. War between the United States and Great
Britain. Russian export interests. Colonial merchan-
dize deemed English.

October 26. To the Secretary of State .... 253
Disquietude of Prussia and offer of mediation. Offi-
cial version of Napoleon's address to the Russian ambas-
sador. Russia and South America.

October 21. To Thomas Boylston Adams .... 257
Russell to take J. S. Smith's place in London. Bar-
low's chances of success in France. Change in England's
policy probable.

October 26. To William Eustis 259

Similarity of views in letters and Smith's vindication.
No satisfaction to be obtained from France. Pickering
and war with England. True policy for Congress. Im-
pressment as a cause for war.

October 31. To John Adams 263

A fellow-pupil at Passy, Mr. David. Political treason
and rebellion. Littleness behind the movement. Possi-
ble results of a civil war. Has much exercised his
thoughts. His return to America.

November 2. To the Secretary of State .... 268
An early winter. American ships and cargoes at
Cronstadt. English participation in the trade. French
agents in German custom houses. The Turkish cam-
paign.

November 6. To Thomas Boylston Adams . . . 272

Congress and the European situation. The French
decrees and tariffs. The non-importation act.



xiv CONTENTS



PAGE



November 9. To the Secretary of State .... 275
Crew of the Hercules. Sale of Danish prizes. The
Turkish defeat. Franco-Russian position.

December 10. To the Secretary of State . . . 277

French orders on Baltic trade. Difference with
Sweden. Visit of Prince Lubomirski to England.
Poland's grain interests. Peace between Russia and
Turkey.

December 22. To Thomas Boylston Adams . . . 281
Napoleon's opposition to colonial sugar and coffee.
American carriers. Cotton. Foreign exchange. Ef-
fect of war.

1812

January i. To Abigail Adams 284

Comparative weakness of the United States. Rights
must be defended by force. European policy imprac-
ticable.

January 12. To the Secretary of State .... 287

Russian peace with Turkey. Threatening prepara-
tions in France. Labensky not permitted to go to Brazil.
Sweden leaning towards England. American consuls in
Russia. Commendation of Sylvanus Bourne.

January 24. To Thomas Boylston Adams .... 290
The correspondence on the Chesapeake. Is doubt-
ful of complete reparation by England. Barlow in
France.

January 25. To the Secretary of State .... 292

Uncertainty in Russia's relations with France. Nego-
tiating for the favor of Austria. Prussia's dangerous
situation.



CONTENTS



XV

PAGE



February 29. To the Secretary of State . . . .295
Count Romanzoff on the possible war with France.
The Prince Regent's speech. Rumored negotiations be-
tween France and England. Napoleon and commerce.
Not a man of peace. Grain scarcity. Count Pahlen's
removal to Brazil. The South American countries.
French intrigues.

March 30. To Abigail Adams 302

Congress and war with Great Britain. Erroneous
ideas of policy. An adequate force and revenue. Pros-
pect of a new war in Europe

March 31. To the Secretary of State .... 305
Beginnings of hostile operations. Negotiations still
continued. Profitable commerce involved. England
will not benefit by war. Disconcerting course of Sweden.
Banishment of officials.

April 10. To Alexander Hill Everett . . . .310

English opinion on America. Comparison with condi-
tions in Great Britain. Why the Orders in Council are
maintained. The Edinburgh reviewers and their
methods. Death of the Anthology.

April 28. To THE Secretary OF State . . . .314

Count Romanzoff's inquiries on the relations between
England and the United States. Measures of Con-
gress of defense. Perceval and the Catholic question.
Russia and the approaching war. Total exclusion of
commerce.

April 30. To Abigail Adams 318

Non-importation and supply of bread. Want in
France. The United States must fight for the neutrality
of the ocean. Trade with Russia and profits.



xvi CONTENTS



PAGE



May 9. To the Secretary of State 323

Austria and Prussia to act with France. Uncar-
tainty of results. Neutrality of Sweden. Divisions of
the Russian army.

May 13. To William Plumer 327

American reviews. Talents of Walsh. Policy of a
war with England. Neutral commerce.

May 22. To Thomas Boylston Adams .... 330

Want of American newspapers. The Massachusetts
election. The British Orders in Council and the harvest.

May 24. To William Gray 334

Exchange on England. His cotton sent to Vienna.
Possible failure of the speculation. House of Raimbert.

May 27. To the Secretary of State 336

Possible visit of John Henry. Course of Sweden. Her
relations with France and neutrality.

May 28. To Abigail Adams 340

Reasons for returning to America. The education of
his sons. Jefferson on British policies.

June 4. To Levett Harris 343

Has misunderstood his statement on some American
ships.

June 4. To the Crew^ of the Monticello .... 344
Advice as to wages and shipping.

June 4. To Levett Harris 344

Refuses to give written statement of differences.

June 4. To Levett Harris 345

No accusation made. The case of the seamen of the
Monticello.



CONTENTS xvi;



PAGE



June II. To THE Secretary OF State 347

Gathering of the hostile forces and movements of in-
dividuals. Position of Count Romanzoff. Influence of
Baron Armfeldt. Events in Sweden.

June 12. To John Adams 352

His letter read in England. The common law. Libel
in Massachusetts. His Lectures.

June 25. To the Secretary of State 355

Passports refused to ambassadors. Agreement be-
tween Russia and England. French demands on Russia.

June 29. To John Adams 358

Warlike news from the United States. Effect of the
assassination of Perceval. Hostilities opened in Poland.
Attitude of Russia. Henry's mission and letters. Works
of Fisher Ames.

July II. To THE Secretary OF State 362

A correction. Reception by Napoleon of Russia's
demand. Tone of Russian opinion. Stoppage of mails.

July 13. To Abigail Adams 366

Prospect of wars. Orders in Council revoked. Ap-
pearance of insincerity. Fear of precipitate action.

July 13. To John Adams 369

Massachusetts election. Conduct of the extreme
federalists. Truckling to England for war with France.
Separation or a navy. Quincy and Lloyd.

July 14. To Thomas Boylston Adams . . . -373

Intercepted letters. Indolence against toil. Russia
involved in war. Probability of war between Great
Britain and the United States. Debate in the House of
Commons.



xviii CONTENTS



PAGE



July 25. To THE Secretary of State 376

Departure of foreign representatives by land and by
sea. Sweden's negotiations. Relations with Spain.

July 31. To Benjamin Waterhouse . . . . ,. 379

John Henry and the faction in Massachusetts. Er-
skine and Foster. Admissions by the British. Harvard
Board of Overseers and politics.

August I. To THE Secretary of State .... 382

Latest intelligence from the armies. Proclamation of
Emperor Alexander. The Turkish peace. Prohibition
still on English vessels. Arrival of the Emperor. Swe-
den makes a treaty.

August 4. To George Joy 385

Reparation for the Chesapeake affair. Berkeley un-
punished. Does not despair of peace.

August 10. To Abigail Adams 388

Repeal of the Orders in Council and war. Approves
the conduct of the American government. Peace may
be restored.

September 30. To the Secretary of State . . '389
The Emperor offers his mediation.

October 2. To the Secretary of State .... 392
His wish to return in the spring. His removal from
St. Petersburg.

October 4. To John Adams 393

Progress of military courts uncertain. Impressions
produced on the public mind. Napoleon at Moscow.
No peace with the French in Russia.



CONTENTS xix



PAGE



October I2. To the Secretary of State .... 396

Sends official documents on the war. Russia on the
defensive. No fit time for negotiation. Russia and
Sweden. Appointment of foreign missions.

October 17. To the Secretary of State 401

Russell has left England. The Russian offer of media-
tion. Offer to be made through Daschkoff.

October 19. To the Count de Romanzoff . . . 402

On the application of Robert Fulton.

October 19. To Robert Fulton 405

Has made application for a concession by the Emperor.

November 24. To Thomas Boylston Adams . . . 406
Progress of the war in the United States. The ac-
quisition of Canada. Weakness of Great Britain. Dis-
aster to the French invasion. Universal monarchy im-
possible.

November 27. To Robert Fulton 409

His privilege granted under a condition. Will accept
no remuneration.

November 30. To Abigail Adams 411

Total reverse of Napoleon's fortune. His disastrous
retreat. Revolts against his domination.

December II. To the Secretary of State . . . 413

Has communicated to the Count Romanzoff the rea-
sons for war with Great Britain. Relations with Russia
not to be affected. Emperor's wishes and objects in
proposing mediation. Opinions on France to be com-
municated to Great Britain.



XX



CONTENTS



PAGE

December i6. To the Secretary of State . . . 418

New Russian levy. Results of the recent campaign.
Count Romanzoff still in office.

December 31. To Abigail Adams 419

News from the United States. Surrenders In Canada.
Situation of Napoleon the Great. Success of the Fabian
method. Cold of the season.

1813

January 12. To John Adams 424

Possibility of being forgotten by his countrymen.
Canning and Liverpool's hostility to the United States.
Their expectation of peace. Russia the arbitress of
Europe.

January 31. To Thomas Boylston Adams .... 427
Impressment the cause of the war. Captains should
cheer men going into action. The Guerriere and Mace-
donian. The line of battle ship and frigate.

February 2. To the Secretary of State . . . 430

Russia has gained the position of arbitress by land In
Europe. The fall of Napoleon. Measure of his genius.
Conduct of Russia.

February 18. To Abigail Adams 433

Increasing rigor of England against the United States.
All parties that support the war. Dismemberment of
the Union the real object. War against impressment a
righteous war. Influence of peace.

February 15. To John Adams 437

Opportunities for sending letters. Little hope for
peace. The presldental election. Policy of the British
ministry. Peace in Europe.



i



CONTENTS



XXI



PAGE



February i6. To the Secretary of State .... 441
Explanations given of Barlow's journey. His death
at Cracow. The archives of the legation at Paris. Pro-
gress of the Russian army.

February 27. To Abigail Adams 445

Direction for letters. Death of Barlow.

February 28. To R. G. Beasley 446

Volatile popular voice in England. No doubt where
justice stands. Size of ships. Spirit of English parties
against the United States.

March 22. To John Adams 450

Arrival of d'lvernois and Madame de Stael. Sum-
mons from the latter and a visit to her salon. Her con-
versation with the English representative. Her Amer-
ican investments. Discussion on politics. Questions on
America's position. Napoleon. British pretensions to
sea-control.

March 25. To Abigail Adams 455

The election of President and the candidates. Madi-
son and the war. Randolph's statement of a religious
motive. Example from Russia. Hope of returning
within the year.

April 3. To Thomas Boylston Adams 460

Education of his sons. Remembrance of infancy.
Affection for country and her cause. Aladison's re-
election and the difficult questions to be met. Counter
revolution in Europe.

April 7. To Abigail Adams 463

Breaking open of letters. Prospect of his return.
Example of Count Stedingk. National spirit of the
British. Napoleon and France.



xxii CONTENTS



PAGE



April lo. James Monroe to John Adams .... 468
The mission to London to be offered to his son. Ap-
proval of his conduct and the Russian offer of media-
tion.

April 19. James Monroe to John Adams .... 468

The special missions for a peace and treaty of com-
merce.

April 19. To John Adams 469

Sir Francis d'lvernois. Lord Cathcart's politeness.
Doctor d'lvernois and his republicanism. His opinion
on the war. Perceval's statement disproved. Madame
de Stael in Sweden.

April 20. To John Speyer 474

Difference between young Barlow and Warden on
Paris legation records.

April 22. Commission for Treaty of Commerce . . 475

April 26. James Monroe to John Quincy Adams . . 476

Mediation under Russia and a treaty of commerce
with Russia. Reasons for giving effect to the media-
tion. Approval of his conduct. The English mission.

April 29. To R. G. Beasley 478

Law excluding foreign seamen from American vessels
and impressment. No concession should be made. Dis-
position to chastise America. The Catholic question.



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