John R Tudor.

The Orkneys and Shetland; their past and present state online

. (page 1 of 59)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook

i||pi!lgpfPlilfSiSil"i



Columbia 2BnttJem'tp

intiieCttpoflftugork



THE LIBRARIES




THE

ORKNEYS AND SHETLAND.



III s I Ji;




i






THE



ORKNEYS AND SHETLAND;

^bcir past au^ present State^



By JOHN R. TUDOR,

" Old Wick," of " The Field."



WITH CHAPTERS ON GEOLOGY

By BENJAMIN N. PEACH, F.R.S.E., F.G.S.,

And JOHN HORNE, F.R.S.E., F.G.S.,

Of the Geological Survey of Scotland.

AND

NOTES ON THE FLORA OF THE ORKNEYS,
By WILLIAM IRVINE FORTESCUE,

The Yr. of Kin^causie and Swanbister.

AND

NOTES ON THE FLORA OF SHETLAND,
By PETER WKITE, L.R.T S.E.



EDWARD STANFORD, 55, CHARING CROSS, SAV.
Kirkwall: Wm. Peace & Son. Lerwick: C. & A. Sandison,

1883.



LONDON :

K. Clay, Sons and Tavlok,

BREAD STREET HILL.



r.-...-A^



^






PREFACE.



Whilst writing a series of papers, which, during the years
1878, 79, and 80, appeared in the columns of The Field
under the title of Rambling and Angling Notes from Shetland,
I was struck by the fact, that there was no book in existence
that brought the past and present condition of that northern
group before the reader. The works of Drs. Edmonston and
Hibbert, admirable as both were at the time they were pub-
lished, are not only, at the present day, out of date, but also
out of print. Such being the case I at first thought of
compiling a book on Shetland alone ; however, on going more
fully into the matter I found that any historical description
of Shetland must constantly refer to the Orkneys, and that,
in addition, the southern group required writing up to date
nearly as much as the northern one. I therefore spent
several months in the autumn of 1880 amongst the different
islands of the Orcadian group, and embodied the results of my
rambles in some papers which, under the title of Orcadian
Jottings, appeared in the columns of The Field in the course
of the following year.

Whilst wandering over Shetland I several times fell in
with my old friend Mr. Peach, of the Scottish Geological



130158



vi PREFACE.

Survey, and his colleague Mr. Home, who, for many years,
spent their yearly vacations in examining into the much vexed
(till settled by them) question as to the glaciation of Shetland,
the Orkneys, and the North of Scotland. They kindly
promised, if ever I went to press, to aid me by writing the
chapters on the geology of these northern isles, a promise
which they have most admirably kept, as the reader himself
can see.

To Mr. Irvine Fortescue, the Yr. of Kingcausie and Swanbister,
and Mr, White, I am indebted for the chapters on the Flora
of the Orkneys and Shetland respectively ; Dr. Anderson, the
Curator of the National Museum of Scotland and editor of
the translation of the Orkneyinga Saga, was kind enough to
read over in MS. the chapters on the Pictish and Norse
Periods ; and Sir Henry E. L. Dryden, Bart., Flonorary
Member of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, kindly
perused the chapter on St. Magnus' Cathedral (Chapter
XVin.), checked the various architectural descriptions through-
out the book, and also kindly placed the collection of water-
colour drawings and sketches he had made, during the many
visits he had paid to the Orkneys and Shetland, at my disposal
for reproduction. I have also to thank Ivlr. James Walls Cursiter,
F.S.A.S., Messrs. Christopher and Andrew Sandison, of Lerwick,
Mr. Lewis, F. U. Garriock, of Berry, The Rev. George Gibson,
M.A., the English Chaplain at Dieppe, and many other
gentlemen in Shetland, the Orkneys, and elsewhere for
information and assistance kindly rendered or for hospitality
shown me when wandering over the islands. To the Society
of Antiquaries of Scotland I am indebted for the permission
to reproduce such of the woodcuts as have already appeared
in the Proceedings of the Society ; to Herr Cammermeyer,



PREFACE, vii

of Christiania, for permission to copy on a reduced scale
the engraving of the Viking Ship from Gokstad ; to the
proprietors of Tlie Illustrated Loudon Neius, for kindly
permitting me to copy A Westerly Gale in the Orkneys, Roray
Head, Hoy, and to Mr. Samuel Read the artist for putting
the finishing touches to the block ; to Mr. Thomas S. Peace,
of Kirkwall, for the sketch of the Gentlemen's Ha', Westray ;
and to Mr. J. T. Irvine, F.S.A.S., for the etching of Muness
Castle, Unst. I should also state that, in addition to what has
already appeared in the columns of The Field, a good deal
of the subject-matter of Chapter XII. The Fisherman-Crofter
Ashore, appeared last year in Tlie Dundee Advertiser.

Except where, as before mentioned. I am indebted to
Messrs. Peach, Home, Fortescue, and White, for the chapters
on the Geology and the Flora, and to Dr. Anderson and
Sir Henry Dr3^den, for looking over and checking portions
of the MS., I alone am responsible for any opinions
expressed or statements made, and none of the gentlemen
who have so kindly aided me must, in any way, be held
liable for any of the views I have put forth. That the book
in many respects is not what I should have wished it to have
been, I am painfully aware, as owing to circumstances out
of my own control, the greater portion had to be drafted,
so to speak, when out of reach of any reference library,
and a considerable portion has, in consequence, practically
had to be rewritten as the sheets were passing through the
press, and to this cause the reader must kindly attribute any
shortcomings, inaccuracies, or discrepancies he may discover.

John R. Tudor.
London, 1883.




Woollen Hood, 32 inches long, 17 mches broad, and with a fringe of two-ply cord,
35 inches ,n depth, found in the mo^s in St. Andrew's Par.sh, on the Mainland
of the Orkneys. 'Jo/ace Table of Contents.



CONTENTS.



PACK

INTRODUCTION xxxi — xxxiii



CHAPTER I.

THE PICTISH OR PREHISTORIC PERIOD.

Early Notices of the Groups — Christianity of the Celtic Population — •
Description of the Bressay and Papil Tombstones — Description of the
Brochs — List of Brochs — Age of Brochs — Brochs Celtic not Norse —
Picts Houses — Stone Circles — Standing Stones — Burial Mounds.

Pages 3 — 1 6



CHAPTER .II.

THE NORSE PERIOD.

Land Tenure of the Norsemen — The Althing — Local or Parochial Things
— Sigurd becomes first Jarl — Torf Einar slays Halfdan Halegg — Con-
version of Sigurd the Stout — Battle of Clontarf — Gray's Fatal
Sisters Pages 17 — 29



CHAPTER III.

THE NORSE PERIOD — THE NORSE JARLS (continuea).

Yht Great Jarl Thorfinn — Sir Edmund Head's Verses describing Thorfinn's
interview with King Magnus — Paul and Erlend joint Jarls — Deposed
by Magnus Barelegs — Battleof the Mcnai Straits — Hakon and Magnus



CONTENTS.

become Jarls — Death of Jarl Magnus — Hakon visits the Holy Land —
Harald SlettmaH dies from poisoned garment and succeeded in the
Jarldom by his brother Paul — Early Life of Kali Kol's son, is created
Jarl, and renamed Rognvald — Futile attempts on the Orkneys.

Pages 30 — 40



CHAPTER IV.

THE NORSE PERIOD — THE NORSE JARI.S {cflntinucd).

Swein Asleif's son, slays Swein Briostreip at Orphir — ^Jarl Rognvald lands
in Westray — Kidnapping of Jarl Paul — Landing of Harald Maddad's
son — Burning of Frakork — Siege of Lambaborg — Rognvald and
Harald visit Norway — Jorsalafaring — Erlend Harald's son becomes
Jarl and slain — Rognvald murdered by Thorbiorn Klerk — Swein slain
in Dublin — Mutilation of Bishop Jon — -Burning of Bishop Adam —
Jon the last of the Norse Jarls . Pages 41 — 53



CHAPTER V.

THE NORSE PERIOD {continued).
The Earldom in the Angfts, Stratherne, and St. Clair Lines.

llakon Hakon's son ; Defeat at Largs, and Death in Kirkwall — Maid of
Norway— False Maid of Norway — Earldom in the Stratherne Line —
Earldom in the St. Clair Line ; Slaughter of Malise Sperra — Raids of
the Lewismen — Marriage of Margaret, daughter of Christian the
First of Denmark, to James the Third Pages 54 — 60

CHAPTER VL

THE ORKNEYS UNDER SCOTTISH AND BRITISH RULE.

The Orkneys under Scottish and British Rule — State on Transfer from
Denmark — Earldom annexed to Scottish Crown and Farmed out —
Flodden, Battle of — Summerdale, Battle of — ^James the Fifth in Kirk-
wall — Reid, Robert Bishop — Lord Robert Stewart obtains Tacks —
Bothwell, James Earl of, marries Mary, flies to Norway, and dies there
— Lord Robert accused of Oppression, created Earl of Orkney and dies
— Earl Patrick's Career — Siege of Kirkwall Castle — Bishop Graham
renounces Episcopacy — Montrose's Expedition — Cromwellian Troops
iu the Islands Pjges 61 — 76



COXTENTS. xi

.CHAPTER VII.

THE ORKNEYS UNDER SCOTTISH AND BRITISH RULE {continued).

Ecclesiastical.

Ministers eiected by General Assembly — Bishops Honeyman and Mac-
kenzie — Mode of Worship under Episcopacy — Presbyterianism Estab-
lished — Survival of Roman Catholic Customs and Beliefs — Mein of
Cross and Burness — Sands of Birsay, charged with Sheep-stealing^ —
Blaw of Westray, the Cat-killer — Song from Jacobite Relics — Con-
cordat betvFeen Ministers and Justices — Leading Horses through and
tethering them in Cathedral — Nisbet of Firth, banished to Plantations
for Adultery — Lyell of Lady Parish — Liddell of Orphir — Anti-
Patronage Movement — Commencement of the United Presbyterian
Church in Islands — Free Church — Bishopric Estates sold.

Pages 77—88

CHAPTER VIII.

THE ORKNEYS UNDER SCOTTISH AND BRITISH RULE (continued).

The Old Country Acts.

Islands under Norse Laws till 1611 — Country Acts: Stock — Swine —
Sheep — Butchers — Publicans — Forestalling — Restrictions on Sale of
Produce — Servants — Parochial /^j-jt' — Baihes . . . Pages "if) — 94



CHAPTER IX.

THE ORKNEYS UNDER SCOTTISH AND BRITISH RULE {cOJltinued).

Agriculture at the coin/neiueiiient of the Century, Superstitions, &^r.

Backward state of Agriculture, causes of — Superstitions — Witchcraft Trials ;
Jonet Dever, Katherine Bigland, Elspeth Reoch, Marabel Couper,
Anie Tailzeour, Marion Richart, Katherine Craigie, and Jonet Reid —
General Superstitious Beliefs and Customs — Hudson's Bay Company
— The FiAeries — Linen Manufacture — Straw Plaiting — Kelp Trade —
Agriculture at the Present Day Pages 95 — loS



CONTENTS.



CHAPTER X.

SHETLAND UNDER SCOTTISH AND BRITISH RULE.

lutercourse with Norway up to Late Date — Will of Sir David Synclar —
Respite of Edward Sinclare — How Skat and Rents Paid — Weights
and Measures — Oppressions of Laurence Bruce — Earl Patrick
petitioned against — Trial of the Faws — Houses at Lerwick ordered
to be Demolished — Visits of Fleets to Bressay Sound— Tlie Kise and
Fall of " The Great Fishoy" ; Early History of, Laws, Regulations,
Herring Time-Table, Dutch Jack Ashore, Decline of Great Fishery —
Shetland Herring Fishery Pages 109 — 128



CHAPTER XL

SHETLAND UNDER SCOTTISH AND BRITISH RULE {continued).

The Ling or Haaf; and Cod, Smack, or Faroe Fishings.

Formerly in the hands of German Merchants — Proprietors compelled to
take up — Description of Boats — Norse Words still in Use — Haaf
Stations — How Fishing carried on — Method of Curing Fish — Mode
of Payment — Opposition to Large Boats — Boats Molested by Whales,
&c. — The Cod, Smack, or Faroe Fishery — History of — How Conducted
— Loss of Smacks — Shetlanders m Merchant Service — Naval Reserve

Pages 129—145



CHAPTER XIL

SHETLAND UNDER SCOTTISH AND BRITISH RULE {continued].

The Fisherman- Crofter Ashore.

Causes retarding Agricultural Improvement — Holdings or Crofts- — Old
Wooden Plough described— Tillage of Crofts — Shetland Water Mill —
Crops Grown — Scatholds— Shetland Cattle — Sheep — Ponies — Swine —
Geese— Crofter's Cottage — Mode of Life — Kelp Making— Hosiery —
Shetland Tweed or " Claith " Pages \/ifi—\(iO



CONTENTS. xiii

CHAPTER XIII.

SHETLAND UNDER SCOTTISH AND BRITISH RULE {continued).

General Characteristics of the Shetlanders, Folk lore, &^c.

Physical and mental characteristics — Report to Gifford — Morale — Religion
— " Convulsion Fits " — Drinking very prevalent in Former Years
— Superstitious Beliefs and Customs ; concerning Boats, Fishing, the
Rescue of Drowning Persons, Aquatic Monsters, Freemasonry, King's
Evil, Childbirth, and "Cutting abiin da Breath " — Charms ; Tooth-
ache, Sprains, Burns, Ringworm, and Sparrows — Hair- eel —Mice —
Pilgrimages — Counting — Small-pox — Funerals — Weddings — Love
for Old Rock — General Summary of Social State — Suggestions.

Pages i6i — 179

CHAPTER XIV.

THE GEOLOGY OF THE ORKNEYS.

BY B. N. PEACH, F.R.S.E., F.G.S., AND JOHN HORNE, F.R.S.E., F.G.S.

0/ the Geological Surz'ey of Scotla?id.

Crystalline Rocks — Lower Old Red Sandstone, Characteristics of — General
Arrangement of Strata — Westray — Eday — Sanday — Shapinsay —
Rousay — North Coast of Hoy — Mainland — Cava — Fara — Flotta —
South Ronaldsay — Burray — Organic Remains — Upper Old Red Sand-
stone of Hoy— Volcanic Rocks — History of the Old Red Sandstone in
the Orkneys — Basalt, Dykes of — Glaciation, Double System of — Shelly
Boulder Clay — Moraines — Savil Boulder — Raised Beaches, none in
the Orkneys Pages 180 — 194



CHAPTER XV.

THE ORKNEYS.
Tipyn Bob Pdh.

General Bird's-eye View of the Islands — Tides — Swelkie, Bore of Papa —
Gales — Climate — Representation — Population and Rental — Old
Families — Norse Place-names and Patronymics, Dialect, &c. — Tee
Names — Mammalia — Ornithology Pages 195 — 218



CONTEN'TS.



CHAPTER XVI.

NOTES ON THE FLORA OF THE ORKNEYS.
BY WILLIAM IRVINE FORTESCUE.

General Description of — List of Rare Plants .... Pages 219 — 222



CHAPTER XVII.

THE ORKNEYS — KIRKWALL AND THE EAST MAINLAND.

Routes to the Orkneys — Charters of the Borough — General Description —
Church of St. Ola — Scene of the Slaughter of Captain Moodie —
Town Hall, How Erected, &c. — Market Cross — Annual Game of
Football on New Year's Day Pages 223 — 234



CHAPTER XVIII.

THE ORKNEYS — KIRK^VALL AND THE EAST MAINLAND {continued).

The Cathedral Church dedicated to St. Magytus.

General Description of — Dimensions of Kirkwall and other Cathedrals
— Neale's Opinion- — Dryden as to Traditionary History — Choir, present
condition — East Window — Doorways at West End and South Tran-
sept — Masons' Marks — Tombstones, niort brod, S:c. — Alms' Dishes —
Tower — Destruction of Steeple — Bells .... Pages 235 — 243



CHAPTER XIX.

THE ORKNEYS — KIRKWALL AND THE EAST MAINLAND {continued).

Historical Incidents connected with the Cathedral Church dedicated to St.

Magnus.

Removal of the Relics of the Saint from St. Ola's to Cathedral — Interments
of Jarl Rognvald, Bishop William, and Hakon Hakon's son — Visit
of James V. to Kirkwall — Bishop Reid ; Founds Cathedral Chapter
Death at Dieppe, Monument to — Relics of Saint Magnus — Ministers
Feuing away the Teinds, &c. — Death of Eai-1 Robert — Attempted



CONTENTS. XV

Demolition of Cathedral by Earl of Caithness — Cathedral Register
commences — " Bigging" of Seats — Act against Promiscuous Bathing —
Solemn League and Covenant — Tombstones torn up by Lord Morti m
with Sanction of Session — Bishop William Tulloch's Tomb broken
open by CromwelHans — Brawl between Mudie the Yr. of Melsetter
and Douglas the Yr. of Spynie — Administration of the Sacrament —
The Town-guard — Scene between Baikie and Wilson — Loutit Leases
and Ploughs up Portion of the Churchyard — Principal Gordon's
Account of State of Cathedral — Meason's Mortification — Shirreffs
Account — Reredos, Bishop's Throne, and Earl's Pew — Tombs of
William the Old and the Great Bishop Tulloch Robbed — Petrie's
Account — Cathedral fitted up again for Presbyterian Worship —
William the Old's remains carted away with the rubbish — Suggested
Commemorative Inscription Pages 244 — 265



CHAPTER XX-

THE ORKNEYS — KIRKWALL AND THE EAST MAINLAND [continUc'd ) .

The Bishop's and the EarVs Palaces.

Bishop's Palace, Description of — Earl's Palace, Description of — Banque
to the Earl of Sutherland — Trial of Elspeth Reoch. Pages 266 — 273

CHAPTER XXI.

THE ORKNEYS — KIRKWALL AND THE EAST MAINLAND {cofUillUed).

Deej-ness, Holm St. Mary, Shapinsay, Wideford Hill, and Orphir.

Clay Loan, place of Execution — Copin«ay and Corn Holm — Church of
Deerness — Sandside — < Uoup of Deerness — Broughof Deerness — Ship-
wreck of the Croivn and Drowning of Whig Prisoners — Holm St. Mary
— Village of — Graemeshall — Shapinsay — Balfour Castle — Ruined
Church Dedicated to Sr. Catherine— Ruins on EUer Holm — Wid,ford
Hill — Heather and Bees — View from Summit — Chambered Mounds
on Wideford Hill and at Quanternes'- — Eirde House at Saveroch —
Orphir — Lammas-Fair — Corse— Caldale Coins — ^Broch of Lingrow-
Kirbuster Loch — Circular Church Pages 274 — 290



xvi CONTENTS.

CHAPTER XXII.

THE ORKNEYS — STROMNESS AND THE WEST MAINLAND.

Firth Oysters — Damisay — Summerdale, Battle of, Tradition concerning —
Stromness — Gow the Pirate — George Stewart of the Bounty — Bessy
Millie — As'erolepis — Black Craig Pages 291 — 298

CHAPTER XXIII.

THE ORKNEYS — STROMNESS AND THE WEST MAINLAND [continued).

The Lochs of Stenness and Harray ; Maes Hoive ; The Rings of Slenness
and Brogar, and the Weem of Skara Brae.

Loch of Sternest — The Bush — Fishes and Aquatic Plants — Loch of Harray
— Lythe Fishing — Maes Howe and Runes — Ring of Stenness, Stone
of Odin, and Watchstone — Rings of Brogar and Bukan, and Tumuli —
Remains'Celtic not Scandinavian — Customs connected with them in last
Century — Destructvon of Stone of Odin by Highland Goth — Stones
of Via — Weem of Skara Brae — Hole of Row . . Pages 299 — 311

CHAPTER XXIV.

THE ORKNEYS — STROMNESS AND THE WEST MAINLAND {continued}.

Bii'say.

Palace of — Church and Churchyard — Disgraceful state of most Orcadian
and Shetlandic Graveyards — Brough of Birsay and the Ruins of the
Old Nor.-e Church — Knowe of Saverough — Costa and Bir.'jay Heads
— Lochs of Birsay, Hundland, and Swannay . . . Pages 312 — 318

CHAPTER XXV.

THE ORKNEYS — THE SOUTH ISLES.

Hoy and Walls.

Description of — Orcadian Small Boats — The Kaim — Braebrough — Old
Man — Wreck of the Albion — The Manse — Dwarfie Stone — Ward
Hill — Pulpit in Church — Meadow of the Kaitn — The Kaim — Brae-



CONTENTS. xvii

rough — Old Man — Rackwick — Berriedale — "A far better coo and a
far bonnier wife" — Longhope — Garth Head — Gloups of Snelsetter —
Mummies of Osmondwall — Melsetter — Lyres — Berry Head — Hoglins
and Helliel Waters — Oysters Faoes 319 — 332

chaptp:r XXVI.

THE ORKNEYS — THE SOUTH ISLES {continued).

Flotta, South Konaldsay, and Burray.

Crosses — Marriage Customs — Mammie Scott — South Konaldsay : How to
get there — Broch of Hoxa — Standing Stone — Tomison's Academy
— Stone in Burwick Church — Old Chapels — Rental of Provestrie —
Gloup of Halcro — Ferry to Huna — Burray; East and West Brouhs
— Mills and Thirling — Decree against Hand Querns — Finn-men

^^s^'-'s 333—3+-

CHAPTER XXVH.

THE ORKNEYS — THE WESTERN ISLES.

How to reach them — Gainay ; Old Man-ion House of the Craigies — The
Hen — Swine Holm — Veira ; Cobbe Row's Castle — Church — Egilsay ;
Church of — Scene of Murder of St. Magnus — Rousay ; General De-
scription of — Goukheads — Camp of Jupiter Fring — Westness —
Swendro Church — Church on Eynhallow — Paradise Geo — Sinions
of Cutclaws — Kiln of Dusty — Stack of the Lobest — Kilns of Brin
Never — Loch of Wasbister — Old Chapels — Urn found at Corquoy

Pa^s 343—353

CHAPTER XXVin.

THE NORTH ISLES.

Stronsay, Sunday, and North Ronahhay.

Route to — Stronsay ;.V^-\^ Stronsay, Chapels on — Well of Kildin'^uie —
Broch at I.amb Head — Geo of Odin — Vat of K rbuster — Story
about a Tr'>w — Sanday ; Descrijjti >n of — Runabral^e — Brochs — West
Brugh — Helzie Geo — Legend about Holy Cross Parish — Purgatory
and Hell — Golf — Wrecks — North Ronaldsay ; Post-boat — Descri|)iion
of the Lland — Kelji-making — Old Orkney Sheep — Broch of Burria;i —
Mounds — >ail Fluke — Seals Skerry — Alexander Smith — New Zealand

Flax /'"^'v, 354—366





xviii CONTENTS.

CHAPTER XXTX.

THE ORK>JEYS— THE NORTH ISLES [continued).

EJay — Carrick — Earl of Carrick Tried for vSorcery — Torturing Pri?;oners —
Roasting an Abbot — How " the landis of Glenluce wes conqueist "
— Peat — Red Head — Calf of Eday — Gow the Pirate — John Fea —
Bell at Carrick

Westray — Grave Mounds — Farmer Kugi — Parishes and Endowments —
Eirde House — Gloup= — Noltland Castle — Gentlemen's Ha' — Noup
Head — Lochs of Saintear and Burness — ^ Bloody Tuacks — High-
landman's Hamar — Cross Kirk

Papa Westray — St. Tred wall's Chapel — St. Boniface — Habra Plellyer —
Auks and Dundus — Deers' Antlers — Chambered Mound — Great Auk
— " I could na afford to lose baith wife and whales the same day"

Pages 367—383

CHAPTER XXX.

THE GEOLOGY OF SHETLAND.

Rock Formations in Shetland — Distribution of Metamorphic Rocks on the
Mainland — Mineralogical Localities in Northmaven — Geological
Structure of Unst and Fetlar — Igneous Rocks in the Metamorphic
Series — Old Red Sandstone Order of Succession on the East side of
the Mainland — Organic Remains — Area of altered Old Red Sandstone
West of Weisdale — Representatives in Foula — Contemporaneous
Igneous Rocks — Intrusive Igneous Rocks — Double System of Glacia-
tion — Direction of Ice Markings — Boulder Clay — Moraine Deposits —
Explanation of the Glacial Phenomena of the Orkneys and Shetland —
Rock-basins — Origin of Voes — Peat — Absence of Raised Beaches

Pages 384 — 40S

CHAPTER XXXI.

SHETLAND.

Central, TopographkaU and Statistical with N'otes on Afammah and Birds.

Contrast to the Orkneys — Divisions for Descriptive Purposes — Climate —
Population — Commissioners of Supply — Surnames — Mammals —
Whales, Divi-ion of— Ornithology Pages /^og— ^21



CONTENTS.



chaptp:r XXXII.



Notes on the Flora of Shetland by Peter White, L.K.C.S.E.

Pages 422 — j\



CHAPTER XXXIII.

S H E T L A N D — F AIR ISLE.

As to Landing &c. — Fair Isle a Mistake — General Description — Stewarts
of Erugh — Wreck of El Gran Grifon — Melvill's Account — Description
of Vessel, Crew, &c. — Contract as to Raising Guns — Chairs and Cup —
Parish and Inhabitants — Fair Isle Skiffs — Hosiery — Wreck of the
Duncan — Malcolm's Head — Wreck of the Carl Constantine — Holes of
Reeva — ^View from Ward Hill — Kirn of the Skroo — Sheep Craig —
Wreck of the Lessing — Roar of Tide at Night — Puffins and Northern
Lights Pages 429 — 444



CHAPTER XXXIV.

SHETLAND — LERWICK.

Sumhurgh Roost — The Bay of Lerwick on a Midsummer's Night — Want
of a Pier — Hotels and Lodging-houses — Description of town — Whalers
and Dutch Sailors — Fort Charlotte — New Town Hall — Town Arms —
('hurches — The Knali — Regatta Pages 445 — 453



CHAPTER XXXV.

SHETLAND — LERWICK AND ITS NEIGHBOURHOOD.

Br essay and Ness.

Ward Hill of Bressay — Pony Farm — Church at Culbinsbrough — Chapef on
Noss — Holmof Noss — Noup of Noss — Kirkabister Ness — Orkneyman's

Cave — Giant's Leg Pages 454 — 459

fi 2



XX CONTENrS.

CHAPTER XXXVI.

SHETLANn — LERWICK AND ITS NEIGHBOURHOOD [coniiniiect).

To Scalloway and Back,

Broch of Click-em-in — Village of Sound — Sandy Loch — Mile-posts — Flossy
Loch — Scord of Scalloway — Scalloway Castle — Pier of Blackness —
Westshoi'e — Standing Stone at Asta — Holm on Tingwall Loch and
Althing — ^Old Tingwall Church — The Rev. John Turnbull — View from
Churchyard — Veensgarth — Windy Grind — Stony Hill — Shetland
Knitters Pages 460 — ^470



CHAPTER XXXVH.

SHETLAND, CUNNINGSBURGH, MAISES, AND DUNROSSNESS.

Gulber Wick — Broch of Burland — Loch of Brindister — East Quarff — Place
for Sea-trout — Laxdale Burn — Cunningsburgh Church — Ogham and