ROBERT ARCfflEy WOOUB
Two thousand and sixty-two copies of this
edition of which two thousand are for sale in
England and America have been printed at the
Ballantyne Press, Edinburgh, and the type has
THE WORKS OF
E. T. COOK
GEORGE ALLEN, 156, CHARING CROSS ROAD
NEW YORK : LONGMANS, GREEN, AND CO.
All rights reserved
THE LETTERS OF
G!-*Y <-%->, .r>
elseif (getClientWidth() > 430)
. I ( j 1 1 1 1 1\ M s k i ii
THE LETTERS OF
I 8271 869
GEORGE ALLEN, 156, CHARING CROSS ROAD
NEW YORK : LONGMANS, GREEN, AND CO,
CONTENTS OF VOLUME XXXVI
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS ......... xii
INTRODUCTION TO VOLUMES XXXVI. AND XXXVII. . . xv
THE LETTERS OF RUSKIN : 1827 TO 186'9 :
LIST OF THE CORRESPONDENTS TO WHOM THE LETTERS ARE AD-
DRESSED .......... cxiii
EARLY LETTERS, 1827-1843 ....... 1
1846 . 60
1848 . .85
1859 .... 297
1861 ... 353
1863 .... 429
1865 . 479
THE LETTERS OF RUSKIN : Continued:
. xlix, 500
THE FOLLOWING MINOR RUSKINIANA ARE ALSO INCLUDED IN THIS
EXTRACTS FROM LKTTKRS BY RUSKIN :
TO HIS FATHER (ARONA, JULY 14, 1858)
TO THK KKV. W. L. BROWx'g SON (.IANUARY 31, 1862) .
o:s A. c. SWINBURNE (SEPTKMBKR 14, 17, 1860) .
EXTRACTS FROM RuSKIN's DlARY :
PICTfRES BY GIOTTO AT SANTA CROCK (1845)
WINTER ON THE SALEVE (JANUARY 2, 1863)
TALK WITH CARLYLE (APRIL 24, 1875)
"FRIENDS OF LIVING CREATURES" (JANUARY 1885)
NOTE ox A DRAWING BY G. ALLEN .....
ADDRESS TO "THE FRIENDS OK LIVING CREATURES" (1885)
LETTERS TO Ri SKIN FROM :
ins FATHER (OCTOBER 4, 1847) .....
,, (FEBRUARY 8, 1850) ....
HIS .MOTHER (jUNE 12, 1843)
(AUGUST 23, 18G9)
DR. JOHN BROWN (DECEMBER 27, 1881)
RAWDON BROWN (SEPTEMBER 13, 1878)
MRS. BROWNING (MARCH 17, 1855) ....
(JUNK 2, 1855) .
,, (NOVEMBER 5, 1855) .
., ,, (DECEMBER 24, 1855) .
(JUNE 3, 1859) .
ROBERT BROWNING (DECEMBER 10, 1855)
,, (JANUARY ,30, 1865)
EDWARD BIRNE-.TONES ......
MIIS. BURNE-JONES (1863) .....
THOMAS CARLYLE (SEPTEMBER 27, 1866)
,, ,, (OCTOBER 11, 1866) .
,, (DECEMBER 6, 1871) .
RT. HON. W. COWPER-TEMPLE (OCTOBER 4, 1875) .
195 n., 197 n.,
. 47 n.
215 n., 216 H.
MINOR RUSKINIANA : Continued :
J. A. FROUDE
HOLMAN HUNT (FEBRUARY 8, 1899) ....
H.R.H. PRINCE LEOPOLD (OCTOBER 12, 1883)
CARDINAL MANNING (OCTOBER 21, 1873)
BERNARD QUARITCH (FEBRUARY 28, 1882) .
SIR JOHN SIMON (JULY 7, 1884, MARCH 5, 1894) .
LADY SIMON (MAY 12, 1884, MARCH 5, 1894)
A. C. SWINBURNE (AUGUST 11, 1865) ....
LOUISA, LADY WATERFORD (NOVEMBER 30, 1863) .
REMINISCENCES OF RUSKIN (CONVERSATIONS, ETC.) :
BY HENRY ACLAND (1841) ......
BY MISS MITFORD (1847, 1848)
BY FREDERIC HARRISON (RUSKIN AND HIS FATHER)
BY WILLIAM WARD (WORKING MEN'S COLLEGE, 1854) .
BY A. P. ELMSLIE (WORKING MEN*S COLLEGE, 1856)
BY LOWES DICKINSON .......
BY CHARLES ELIOT NORTON (1856) ...
BY MRS. BEECHER STOWE (.JUNE 1857) ....
3Y D. G. ROSSETTI .......
BY WILLIAM MICHAEL ROSSETTI (FEBRUARY 8, 1859) .
BY LORD LE1GHTON (1861) ......
BY EDWARD BURNE-JONES ......
BY LADY BURNE-JONES (RUSKIN's .MOTHER, 1864)
BY SIR CHARLES HALLE (WINNINGTON, 1864)
BY F. J. SHIELDS (1865)
BY CHARLES ELIOT NORTON (RUSKIN AND DARWIN, ETC.,
BY THOMAS CAHLYLE .......
BY WILLIAM ALLINGHAM (llUSKIN AND CARLYLi;) .
BY COVENTRY PATMORE ......
BY RAWDON BROWN (VENICE, 1877) ....
AT HAWARDEN, BY CANON SCOTT HOLLAND AND OTHEHS
BY HALLAM, LORD TENNYSON .....
BY LADY MOUNT-TEMPLE ......
BY H. STACY MARKS, R.A. .
BY MISS KATIE MACDONALD (1885) ....
BY SELWYN IMAGE .......
BY DR. GEORGE HARLEY, F.ll.S. .....
BY MISS KATE GREENAWAY ......
LETTERS FROM J. J. RUSKIN TO :
CHARLES ELIOT NORTON (MAY 31, 1858)
E. S. DALLAS (OCTOBER 31, 1859) ....
CHARLES ELIOT NORTON (AUGUST 3, 1861)
xxix, 86 n.
. Iviii, 186 11.
. . 178 71.
.. 246 71.
.. 321 11.
. xlvi, 209 77.
. . 292 11,
lii, lili, Hv, 410 71.
. . 468 77.
.. 477 n.
553 H., 564
. XCV, XCVi
. Ixxix S6q.
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
JOHN RUSKIN, circa 1856 (Photogravure from a photo-
graph taken at the Working Men's College] . Frontispiece
A. JOHN RUSKIN, 18.53 (Photogravure from a portrait
by Sir J. E. Millaix, P.R.A.) . . . To face page xxvi
B. JOHN RUSKIN (Photogravure from a crayon draw-
ing by D. G. Rossetti, 1861} , Hi
C. JOHN RUSKIN (Photogravure from a portrait by
George Richmond, R.A.} .....,, ,, Iviii
I. A STREET IN ST. GAI.LEN (Phofogi'avnre from a
drawing by Ruskin, 1835} . . . . ,, ,, 2
II. THE TOMBS OF THE SCALIGEUS AT VERONA (Line
block from a drawing by Riiskin, 1835} . . ,, ,, 4
III. THE PORTA CAPUANA, NAPLES (Photogravure from a
(Iran-ing by Ruskin, 18J f l} . . . . ,, ,,23
IV. FOUNTAIN AT VERONA (Photogravure from a drair-
ing by Ruskin, 18.' f l} ., ,,26
V. VIEW FROM VOGOGNA (Photogravure from a dra/rhig
by Ruskin, July 22, 1845} . ,,53
VI. THE ANTELAO, FROM VENICE (Half-tone block from
a drawing hi/ Rit.ikin, 1851) . . . ., ,,113
VII. STUDY OK PINES AT SESTRI (Dran-n and etched
by Ruskin} ... . .., ,,132
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS xiii
VIII. THE TOWERS OF THUN (Reproduction in three
colours from a drawing by Ruskin) . To face page ]6S
IX. FRIBOURG (Photogravure from two drawings by
Ruskin, August 6, 1854) ,, 172
X. THE HOLY GRAIL (Photogravure from a drawing
by Miss E. E. Siddal) 202
XI. SUSA (Photogravure from a drawing by Ruskin) . 232
XII. BEATRICE AT A MARRIAGE FEAST DENYING HER
SALUTATION TO DANTE (Photogravure from a
water-colour drawing by D. G. Rossetti) . 236
XIII. BONNEVILLE (Photogravure from a drawing by
Ruskin, August 14, 1856) . . . . 242
XIV. GENEVA (Etching by G. Allen from a copy,
by William Ward, of a pencil drawing by
Turner) ..... Between pages 282, 283
XV. GENEVA (Etching by G. Allen from a pencil
drawing by Ruskin, 1861) . . Between pages 282, 283
XVI. " NEAR BELLINZONA " (Photogravure from a draw-
ing by Ruskin, 1858) .... To face page 284
XVII. STUDY OF ROCKS AND TREES, NEAR CHAMOUNI
(Photogravure from a drawing by Ruskin) . ,, 294
XVIII. WILLIAM BELL SCOTT, JOHN RUSKIN, AND DANTE
GABRIEL ROSSETTI (Photogravure from a photo-
graph by Messrs. Downey, 1863) . . . ., ,, 454
XIX. BADEN, SWITZERLAND (Photogravure from a draw-
ing by Ruskin, 1863) . . . . . ,, ,,456
XX. THE PIED PIPER (Etching, hitherto unpublished,
by George Cruikshank, 1866) ....,, }) 505
XXI. THE SOLDIER AND THE WITCH (Etching, hitherto
unpublished, by George Cruikshank, 1S66) ., ,, 514
xiv LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
A PAGE OF A LETTER TO C. E. NORTON (DECEMBER 28,
1856) ........ To face page 251
Two PAGES FROM A NOTE-BOOK BY TURNER (ENCLOSED
IN A LETTER TO C. E. NORTON, FEBRUARY 28,
1858) Between pages 276, 277
A PAGE OF A LETTER TO THOMAS CARLYLE (FEBRUARY 17,
1867) To face page 524
Note. Of the drawings by Ruskin included in this volume, eight have
been published before: No. I. at p. 242 of the Magazine of Art, April 1900.
No. II. at vol. i. p. 51 of W. G. Collingwood's Life and Work of John Ihiskin,
1893. No. IV. at p. 3 (Plate ii.) of Verona and other Lectures, 1894. No. VI.
at p. 22 of Josiah Gilbert's ('adore, or Titian's Country, 1869. No. IX. in
the Leisure Hour, April 1900, pp. 540, 541 (where the sketches are wrongly
described as "Scene in Lucerne"). No. XIII. at p. (50 (Plate viii.) of Studies
in Both Arts, 1895. No. XVI. at p. 241 of the Magazine of Art, April 1900,
and again at vol. iv. p. 295 of E. Gosse's English Literature, an Illustrated
Record, 1903. No. XVII. at p. 666 of Scribner's .Magazine, December 1898.
Of the drawings by Ruskin, nine have been exhibited : That shown on
Plate II. in the lluskin Exhibition at the Royal Society of Painters in Water
Colours, 1901, No. 416, and at Manchester, 1904, No. 85. No. III. at Coniston,
No. 47, and the Water-Colour Society, No. 290. No. IV. at the same exhibi-
tion, No. 176. No. V. at Manchester, No. 336. No. IX. is in the Fitzwilliam
Museum, Cambridge. No. XI. was exhibited at Manchester, No. 324. No.
XVI. at Manchester, No. 340. No. XVII. at the Fine Art Society, 1878, and
at Boston, 1879. No. XIX. at the Water-Colour Society, No. 191, at Man-
chester, No. 350, and at the Fine Art Society, 1907, No. 126.
VOLS. XXXVI. AND XXXVII
THESE two volumes contain a collection of letters from Ruskin to his
friends. They are arranged chronologically, the dividing line between
the two volumes corresponding with a division in his life namely, his ac-
ceptance of the Professorship of Fine Art at Oxford. Volume XXXVI.
thus contains Letters written from his earliest years up to, and includ-
ing, 1869; Volume XXXVII., Letters from 1870 to the end.
The mass of Letters which have been at the disposal of the
editors is very great. Some explanation may be desirable of the
principles which have guided the selection.
In the first place, a large number of Ruskin's Letters have pre-
viously appeared, and it was an essential condition of this Complete
Edition to include them all. The letters, or extracts from letters,
hitherto published are, however, of very varying interest. It has, there-
fore, seemed well to place in the main body of these two volumes (here-
after called the " Principal Collection ") only such as are of general
interest ; the remainder being printed in a " Bibliographical Appendix "
at the end of Volume XXXVII.
The selection, from printed and hitherto unprinted sources, of
letters for the Principal Collection has been governed by three factors.
The first is biographical interest, and the endeavour has been made
to leave no year, or important episode, in Buskin's life or work and
no aspect of his character or interests, nor any of his principal friend-
ships without its illustrative letter. These volumes contain, therefore,
an Autobiography of Ruskin as told in his Letters from his earliest
childhood to extreme old age. They assist towards a full appreciation
of the feelings and impulses of the man that Ruskin was, with his
singularly delicate nature and responsive genius ; they reveal the gift
that was in him for receiving clear and true impressions, for thinking
these through and out, and then for clothing them in the right and
adequate words whether it is conduct, or whether it is art, with which
he has to deal, or the experiences and emotions, bitter and sweet, of his
own innermost heart and brain and soul. Another factor governing
the selection has been, of course, the intrinsic interest of the letters
themselves. The third factor is what may be called incidental interest.
Many letters are included of which the interest lies, less in any revela-
tion of character or literary skill, than in incidental topic, allusion, or
information. Some of the letters to Dante Gabriel Rossetti may be
taken as an illustration of what is here meant. Among these are many
which are entertaining and important; but they comprise also some
short notes, hurriedly written and very slight yet containing matter
which is of value in connexion with that artist's drawings. Often,
also, they are interesting for Ruskin's criticisms by the way. No hard
and fast line can be drawn between letters included for one reason
and for another. In the case of a life such as Ruskin's, the incidental
interest of the letters belongs mainly to the field of art and letters ; but
here and there personages from other worlds pass across the page. We are
given glimpses, for instance, of the Emperor Francis Joseph and Marshal
Radetsky; of Austrian Archdukes nnd Russian Grand Duchesses and
English Royal Highnesses ; of Rubini and Jenny Lind and Taglioni ; of
James Forbes, of Buckland and of Darwin ; of Manning and of Gladstone.
At the beginning of each volume is a List of the Correspondents,
with references to the places where letters to them will be found. It
has not seemed worth while to give in these volumes a Chronological
List of the letters also. For, in the first place, the arrangement of
the letters themselves is chronological. Moreover, it should be remem-
bered that many other letters have been printed, in whole or in part, 1
in previous volumes. References to some of the more important of
these are supplied either in footnotes or in the brief biographical
summaries which precede the first letter in each year. A complete
Chronological List of all Personal Letters contained in the edition
is given in the Final Bibliography (Vol. XXXVIIL).
Of the Letters in the Principal Collection the large majority are
either printed here for the first time or collected into these volumes
from privately-printed sources not available to the public. Particulars
of previous appearance are in each case supplied in a footnote.
In the following Introduction, an account is given, with many in-
cidental reminiscences, of Ruskin^s principal friendships and acquaint-
ances, as disclosed in the letters. In the case of letters to occasional
correspondents, such explanations as may be needful are given in
Ruskin's earliest letters are naturally to his father, and the series
to him extends up to 1863. There are, I think, few in the whole
Collection which, for all the three reasons given above, are of greater
1 Occasionally, although an extract has previously been made from it, a letter
has now seemed worth giving in its entirety ; whilst sometimes the rest of the
letter is now given, and a reference supplied to the previously printed extract.
interest. John James Ruskin was himself a somewhat remarkable man,
respected and beloved by all who came in contact with him :
" The biographers," says Mr. Frederic Harrison, " have not said enough
of John James Ruskin the father. He certainly seemed to me a man of
rare force of character ; shrewd, practical, generous, with pure ideals both
in art and in life. With unbounded trust in the genius of his son, he felt
deeply how much the son had yet to learn. I heard the father ask an
Oxford tutor if he could not 'put John in the way of some scientific
study of Political Economy.' 'John! John!' I have heard him cry out,
' what nonsense you're talking ! ' when John was off on one of his magni-
ficent paradoxes, unintelligible as Pindar to the sober Scotch merchant.
John Ruskin certainly inherited from his father some of the noblest qualities
and much of his delicate sense of art. But intellectually the father was
the very antithesis of the son. He seemed to be strongest where his bril-
liant son was weakest. There were moments when the father seemed the
stronger in sense, breadth, and hold on realities. And when John was
turned of forty, the father still seemed something of his tutor, his guide,
his support. The relations between John Ruskin and his parents were
among the most beautiful things that dwell in my memory. . . . This
man, well past middle life, in all the renown of his principal works, who,
for a score of years, had been one of the chief forces in the literature
of our century, continued to show an almost child-like docility towards his
father and his mother, respecting their complaints and remonstrances, and
gracefully submitting to be corrected by their worldly wisdom and larger
experience. The consciousness of his own public mission and the bound-
less love and duty that he owed to his parents could not be expressed in
a way more beautiful. One could almost imagine it was in the spirit of
the youthful Christ when he said to his mother, ' Wist ye not that I must
be about my Father's business ? ' " l
This is one side, and the more constant, of the relations between
father and son ; but there was another, which appears in the Letters
and incidentally in Prceterita. Ruskin, always more dictatorial with
the pen than in personal intercourse, could sometimes lecture his father
rather severely. The grievance, to which he confesses in Prceterita,
that his father did not buy as many Turner drawings as he would
like, appears in several of the letters, 2 but the rift went deeper,
and Ruskin found in their relations the elements of "an exquisite
tragedy"" (p. 471). 3 A letter from his father, which the son preserved,
1 " Memories of John Ruskin," in Literature, February 3, 1900. Ruskin himself
cites Christ's words as " having to be spoken to all parents, some day or other " :
see Vol. XXXVII. p. 203.
2 See, e.g., below, pp. 443, 600-1. 3 Compare pp. 414, 415, 420, 460, 555.
is worth giving, for it illustrates very beautifully the elder man's
"(FOLKESTONE, 4M Oct., 1847.) I have already said that the tone of
your later letters was so much more cheerful and confiding, and expressive
of some, if not continued, at least frequent snatches of enjoyment, that
they were most agreeable. Out of the cold and barren country your more
healthy feelings were gleaming a little. The blues and purples and
mountain shades and moist heather were making themselves seen and felt ;
and I guessed you were better at Macdonald's than at Leamington or Dunbar,
from whence a few letters rather dulled my spirits, for they disclosed that,
more than I had had an idea of, we had been, from defects perhaps on
both sides, in a state of progression by antagonism, 1 each discerning half
the truth, and supposing it the whole. I suppose we may have mutually
defrauded each other's character of its right and merit. In some of these
letters I read more of the suffering and unpleasantness I had unwittingly in
part inflicted on you in past hours. To my memory they are burdened
with no greater share of troubles than attaches, I believe, to most families
since the fall. I have, however, no fear for the future, for tho' I have no
prospect of becoming greatly changed, a circumstance has made me reflect
that I was exceedingly wrong and short-sighted in all interruptions occasioned
to your pursuits. Mama says I am very exacting, and so I was about the
Book-revising, but never more after it was done. Whilst reading now this
unlucky first volume for press I had by me some loose proof sheets for
second, and I have been so struck with the superiority of second volume,
and so positively surprised at the work, that I became angry with myself
for having by my impatience and obstinacy about the one thing in any
way checked the flight or embarrassed the course of thoughts like these,
and arrested such a mind in its progress in the track and through the
means which to itself seemed best for aiming at its end. You will find me
from conviction done with asking you to do anything not thought proper
by yourself to do. I call this reading with profit and to the purpose. Two
points in your letters I only remember half-distressed me, and perhaps
they were merely illustrative as used by you. You say we could not by a
whole summer give you a tenth of the pleasure that to have left you a
month in the Highlands in 1838 would have done, nor by buying Turner
and Windus's gallery the pleasure that two Turners would have done in
1848, you having passed two or three years with a sick longing for Turner.
I take blame to myself for not sending you to the Highlands in 18.'>8 and
not buying you a few more Turners; but the first I was not at all aware
of, and the second I freely confess I have been restrained in from my very
constitutional prudence. ... I have, you know, my dearest John, two things
1 A reference to the title of Lord Lindsay's Essay reviewed by Ruskin in
the (juurti'rli/ : see Vol. XII. p. 1G9.
to do, to indulge you and to leave you and Mama comfortably provided for
. . . but if you have any longings like 1842 I should still be glad to know
them, whilst I honour you for the delicacy of before suppressing the expres-
sion of them. . . . On the subject noticed in one of your letters on our
different regard for public opinion, this is a malady or weakness with me,
arising from want of self-respect. The latter causes much of my ill-temper,
and when from misunderstanding or want of information I was losing some
respect for you my temper got doubly bad. We are all wanting in our
relations towards the Supreme Being, the only source of peace and self-
respect. But I never can open my soul to human beings on holy
subjects. . . ."
It is impossible, I think, to read the letter without being impressed
with its mingling of good sense and deep affection, and without finding
something eminently lovable in the elder man. The affection appears
incidentally in many a passage of the letters. If Ruskin's father took
undue pride in the son's more popular accomplishments, the weakness
was amiable; and there is something touching in the picture of the
old man finding " romance in a dull life,"" in going over his son's
poetical effusions an amusement for which we may be grateful, since
it elicited from the son an entertaining essay in criticism (below,
pp. 387, 388). The reserve on "holy subjects" to which the father
confesses did not restrain him from occasional discussions with his
son, and some of Buskin's most interesting letters deal with such
topics (e.g., pp. 126-127). There was here a closer touch of sympathy
with his father than with his mother ; one thinks of the statement
in Prceterita that both father and son "had alike a subdued con-
sciousness of being profane and rebellious characters" compared to
A second letter from his father is one of those which, as men-
tioned in the preceding volume, 2 Ruskin put into type for use in
"LONDON, 8th February, 1850. MY DEAREST JOHN, You see by the date,
I write on your birthday, and you are, I hope, as happy in it as your
mamma and I are. I can truly say that with all remains of illness or
weakness left, I never felt my heart more rejoicing in the unmingled
.blessings heaped upon my undeserving head, unmingled with a single
sorrow or a single want ; and the completion of this happiness, owing to
that son who, during thirty-one years, has scarcely given his father a single
pang beyond the anxieties for his safety, and these engendered only by
that parent's own mistrusting and impatient temperament.
1 Vol. XXXV. p. 95. 2 Vol. XXXV. p. 465 n.
"If I am thankful, I feel I never am thankful enough, and surely you
should be so, that God has given you the powers and dispositions to render
happy those whom you are commanded to honour, and so to have done
your duty as to give joy to a parent to whom joy has been from other
causes often a stranger. My present recovery, as far as it has yet gone,
has, under God, in its second causes numbered the pleasures daily flowing
into my soul from the letters of my son, and the hopes of his speedy
restoration to our sight, and the delights which his pursuits and his pro-
ductions bring to my exulting heart. My daily feeling now is of surprise
and wonder why I am so dealt with, and I ask myself whr.t should I,
what can I do, to evince the gratitude which I seem to sink under a
powerlessness of expressing to my God."
" City. I had hurriedly put down above few lines betwixt prayers and
breakfast, and before the latter was over arrived your two letters of 1st and
2nd February, and Effie's * beautifully written and graphically given account
of the ball. Here was a bouquet for a birthday morning ! Our gardener
is not a Keel, and no flowers met our eyes till these three letters came so
apropos to fill their place.
" I must go over Effie's several times, and then I will send it to
" I shall not write again to Venice, hoping my next may find you at
Verona, where I should like Effie to have the chance of being with the