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the good fortune which is to be derived
from such talismans your Venice may be
' mourning in Carnival for many a day to

come. For the Marco Polo door 3 appears to me not one whit more

[For lluskin's friendship with Rawdon Ilrown, sec the Introduction (above).]
! [Probably the door shown in Plate 12 of Examples of Venetian Architecture,
Vol. XI. p. .'542.]

[The door of Marco Polo's house ; the house is mentioned in None* of Venire,
Vol. XI. p. :?!!).]




inclined to the true horseshoe form than numbers of other doors in
Venice, which have been originally nothing more than common stilted
arches of which the perpendicular sides have been, by mere pressure
from above and yielding below, slightly forced outwards so as to

approach to the form

Of these latter, one good instance is the door in Corte del Remer, 1
near the Rialto, which you so kindly inquired about and diligently
scrutinized for me : and this Polo
door appears to me only another ex-
ample, the more so as Signer Vason
mentions no peculiarity of form about
it. But M. Selvatico does: and in
order that I may be quite sure of
what I am about I need two measures


Signer Vason states this " lar-
ghezza interim" of the arch to be
6 feet lOf inches, English measure;
this I presume to be the distance ab
from spring to spring within the
soffit. Now, if the arch be horse-
shoe, the maximum breadth cd of the

arch above must be considerably greater than this I have never found
the excess more than an inch or an inch and a half, but I should be
glad to know it accurately in this arch.

Farther, is the plan a section of the carved portions of the arch
i.e., architrave and soffit thus :

or thus

the dotted lines, of course, standing for the sculptures? Farther,
1 [Noticed, and illustrated, in Stones of Venice, Vol. X. pp. 292, 293.]


on the soffit the circles which enclose the beasts appear dentiled

Is this so, for I never saw it in these running ornaments ? I should be
thankful for one of these circles, drawn separate. Farther, I want
the section of the pilaster head i.e., the profile ab clearly; at least if

it is ancient : I can't see by the drawing if it be or not. And finally I
want the section of your chain cable arch the Morosini one it looks

but I cannot make it quite out. I write in great haste, but cannot
close my letter without begging you very earnestly to believe in our
most affectionate remembrance of you EffiVs sincere regards to you
ought to go in a separate packet. Ever gratefully yours,



To Dr. F. J. FuRNivALL 1

[LONDON, 1850.]

DEAR FURNIVALL, I set out after church to find you, if I could
but I found New Square must be your office, not your house, and I
had no other address, so I had to give up and let you come here
to-day ; though I am going to be so rude as to break my engagement
with you, for I want to go with Effie to hear Gavazzi 2 lecture this
afternoon, and I may not have another opportunity. He lectures at
two, so I can only leave this note for you: pray pardon me. You
will have a letter from me to-morrow or next day. Yours ever affec-
tionately, J. RUSKIN.


31 PARK STREET, Monday, 2 > 7th May [1850].

My DEAR MRS. BLACKBURN, I met your friends the Misses Clerk on
Friday evening last, and waited on them in haste on Saturday morning
to possess myself of your drawings. I am very grateful to you both
for these and for your renewal of correspondence, and account of your
doings. Touching the drawings, I think the Mazeppa the best realiza-
tion of the thing I have ever seen. The quiet fierceness of the man's
distress is very good the " give it up " look without the smallest
appearance of lost courage or resoluteness a Horse Prometheus; and
the fatigued horse is as fine in its way. So [is] the dog at the door.
The other is not, I think, so fine as your first sketch but I could
not look at it nor keep it, if it were. I saw one of the Siege of
Corinth at your friends 1 with your love of the ghastly at its height^
and showing even more than your usual power; but I cannot under-
stand the make of your mind. I think this love of horror has generally
in us British people risen out of distress of mind, mixed with (I pray
your pardon) some slight affectation, and love of surprising people^

1 [No. 3 in Letters upon Subjects of General Interest from John Rusfcin to
Various Correspondents, privately printed, 1892 (see Bibliographical Appendix,
Vol. XXXVII.) ; hereafter referred to as Various Correspondents. For Raskin's
friendship with Dr. Furnivall, see the Introduction (ahove).]

2 [Father Gavazzi, leader of the democratic revolt in Bologna in 1848 ; afterwards
went on lecturing tours in Great Britain, denouncing Papal Aggression. There is
an interesting reminiscence of his theatrical eloquence hy Dr. Spence Watson in
G. M. Trevelyan's Garibaldi's Defence of the Roman Republic, 1907, p. 76 n.]

3 [Formerly Miss Wedderburn (see above, p. 96). From English Female Artists,
by E. C. Clayton, 1876, vol. ii. pp. 405-408, where it is explained that the letter
refers to lithographs drawn on stone by the artist (1) illustrations to Byron, (2)
of a dog seen by her on the quay at Woolwich. "It had been thrown into the
river with a stone round its neck ; but the string was too long, or the tide too
low, and the victim was able to get its head and shoulders above the water and
cling on to a wall, looking piteously for help and howling dismally."]


but it seems to be natural to you, and to some of the Germans.
You and Biirger 1 would have trumped each others best tricks to some
purpose. We have had one grand man of the same school William
Blake whose " Book of Job " fail not to possess yourself of if it
come in your way ; but there is a deep morality in his horror as
in Dante's: in yours there is little but desperation. I am glad you
have been to Switzerland and did not, among its other shows, see the
grand show of the dead-house of St. Bernard, which was far too much
in your way. The first time I crossed that pass, I was walking in the fall
of the twilight, half a mile ahead of my people (then a boy of fourteen).
I went into a small cottage by the wayside I forget exactly why or
wherefore and straight up to a man sitting on the floor in the dark,
at the end of it, who, when I came near, I saw had wonderfully white
large eyes, and no under jaw. So I said nothing to him, and walked
out again. But I am glad you had fine weather on the Faulhorn. It
is a nasty, spongy, flat-headed hill itself, and so I never thoroughly
enjoy it. But the view is a noble one. I agree with you in thinking
the Jura quite as good. The Jardin is interesting, but to my mind
particularly ugly. There is nothing so fine as the Montanvert view
which everybody sees.

I forget whether I asked you if you liked Dante. I think if you
could go through a little ordinary academy discipline first, and then
dwell some time with Michael Angelo, and other such men who had
Jest in them in its place and time, associated with divine seriousness,
and no jockey ism" that you might produce such a series of illustra-
tions of Dante as would give the poem new life. I should like you to
try Chiron on the trot, dividing his beard with his arrow 3 or the
black dog hunt in the wood, 13th Canto 4 by way of a beginning.

I have been all the winter at Venice, taking measures very prosaic
work. I was the whole summer in Switzerland, and am grieved I did
not meet you ; but 1 was living among the Central Alps, up at
Zermatt, when you passed. If you do not come up to town, I must
come to Glasgow some day in autumn for I want to talk to you. . . .
Believe me ever, my dear Madam, faithfully yours, J. RISKJX.

1 [For references to Biirger's Lenore, see Vol. XXXIII. p. 334, and Vol. XXXIV.
p. 324.]

2 [A reference to Miss Wedderburn's fondness for painting horses.]

3 [" We to those beasts, that rapid strode along,
Drew near; when Chiron took an arrow forth,
And with the notch push'd back his shaggy beard "-

Inferno, vii. 73 (C'ary) ; referred to in Modern I'aintfrs, vol. iii. (Vol. V. p. 11.5).]
* [' Behind them was the wood, Full of black female mastiffs," etc. (Inferno,
xiii. 120).]



PARK STREET, 5th July [1850].

DEAR MR. ROGERS, I have long been wishing to write to you, and
have suffered day after day to pass by, thinking that you would be
not a little tormented by notes of condolence; which, however, I do
not intend mine to be for I have not the least doubt that you will
be just as happy upon your sofa in your quiet drawing-room (with a
little companionship from your once despised pensioners, the sparrows
outside) for such time as it may be expedient for you to stay there,
as ever you were in making your way to the doors of the unquiet
drawing-rooms full of larger sparrows inside into which I used to
see you look in pity, then retire in all haste. I am quite sure you
will always even in pain or confinement be happy in your own
good and countless ways ; and so I am only writing to you to thank
you for making me happy in the possession of the two volumes which
I found upon your hall table the first time that I came to inquire for
you, and which make me some amendment even for not being able to
see you, since the kind inscription of them enables me now to read
them as if every line in them were addressed to myself with special
purpose and glance of the eyes such as I have so often met when
I was going to be instructed or encouraged (or, when it was good
for me, extinguished). And so helped, though I will not say that I
can " pass the shut door without a sigh," 2 I can, at least, look for-
ward patiently to the time when I may be allowed once more to sit
beside you.

Believe me ever, dear Mr. Rogers, respectfully and affectionately
yours, J. RUSKIN.

To G. F. WArrs 3


I was thinking, after I left you yesterday, that you were mistaken
in the botany of one of your pictures. Forget-me-nots do not grow

1 [Rogers and his Contemporaries, by P. W. Clayden, vol. ii. pp. 371-372. Re-
printed in Igdrasil, March 1890, vol. i. pp. 84-85, aud thence in Ruskiniana,
part i., 1890, p. 6. Rogers had in his eighty-eighth year met with an accident
which, as it turned out, lamed him for the remaining five years of his life.]

5 [Poems, " An Epistle to a Friend."]

3 [This and the following letter are from the Reminiscences of G. F. Watts, by
Mrs. Russell Barrington, 1905, p. 24. In another letter he adds, ' ' Study botany
with all your might and main." The picture referred to in the second letter is
" Satan walketh to and fro on the Earth seeking whom he may devour." For
Ruskin's friendship with Watts, see the Introduction (above).]


on graves : anyichere but on a grave. Neither do they grow among
thorns, but by sweet, quiet streams and in fair pastures (Psalm xxii. 2-3).
Ever affectionately yours, J. RUSKIK.

[1850 ?]

DEAR WATTS, Can you dine with us on Wednesday at six day
after to-morrow, at Denmark Hill ? I haven't been able to come to
see you before. I don^t understand the new picture, but it is glorious,
and Satan has his cheek-bone all right. Ever yours, J. HUSKIN.


[? November 1850.]

MY DEAR PATMORE, I have been much interested by reading your
paper, and concur most heartily in it all except my being fit to write an
essay on Religious Art, which I shall not be these ten years at least :
and what you say of Spanish painters whom I think a thoroughly irre-
ligious, rascally set only Velasquez a noble painter : a great man, but
no more piety in him, I believe, than in Lord John Russell (though I
like his last letter exceedingly si sic omnia, it is a Godsend indeed
but on his part a mere piece of scientific play). I think, however, from
some passages in this paper of yours, that you cannot have met with,
and might perhaps be interested in, some passages in the book I wrote
about Turner Modern Painters the second vol. If you have not seen
it, I will send it you, as it bears much on my present work, marking
the bits which I think would interest you. Never think of calling at
D. Hill, my mother never expects anything of the kind, and your
holidays may be much better spent. When you have time you must
come and dine there again, the best way of calling. Yours most truly,


1 [Memoirs and Correspondence of Coventry Patniore, vol. ii. p. 287, where the
letter is conjecturally dated " 1853." There was, however, no Public Letter of
Lord John Russell's in that year to which Raskin's remarks would apply. The
reference is presumably to the famous Letter to the Jiixhop of l>urhnm in reference
to the. Usurpation of the Pope of Rome, first printed in the Times of November 7 ,
1850. Patmore's paper was entitled "The Ethics of Art/' and appeared in the
British Quarterly for November 1840, vol. x. pp. 441-402. At the beginning of it
(p. 441) Patmore says : " Mr. lluskin, although he knows more of the matter than
most people, admits that he is in almost total darkness concerning the practical
result of art upon the moral and religious condition of men and nations. We
trust, before long, to welcome some carefully-considered treatise upon this magni-
ficent theme : may we hope that Mr. Ruskin himself will be induced to take up
and thoroughly sift a question, the importance of which it is evident he very
deeply feels? N'o other living writer could so well perform the task." On p. 417
he says : " Properly devotional art flourished most extensively in Spain." For
Ruskin's friendship with Patmore, see the Introduction (above).]



[? I860.]

MY DEAR PATMORE, Many thanks for your kind note about arches,
etc. quite what I wanted. I shall tell Smith and Elder to send you
the books, and will Avrite your name in them if you like to have them.
The parts of Modern Painters which I think will interest you are the
chapters about ideal beauty, 12th, 13th, and 14th, and the account of
Tintoret, pp. 168 et seq., and the end of " superhuman ideal." 2

I will return you the paper on Ethics, but alas ! I have torn off
last page, intending to paste part of it in for a quotation on one of
mine, so excuse fragmentary form. You shall know time of publica-
tion early. 3 I am not yet in press, and it will take at least a month
after I am. Ever yours, J. RUSKIX.


[December, 1850.]

DEAR NEWTON, I think the whole paper so valuable that I cannot
part with any of its matter. The first two pages repeat some things
I have noticed in the main text, but cannot be separated from the
rest. I leave you to look over it and to cut out every zvord you can
spare, but no thing. When you have thus dressed it, I shall put it in
type and send it you, marking the passages, if there be any, which I
should desire to miss and put stars for, and if you wish to keep them
you shall but I don't think there will be many; unless there be some
repetitions of examples of similar treatment, which without describing
you might refer to as on such and such coins. Do you really go
to-morrow? If you are enjoying yourself in the country, don't trouble
about those papers, as it will be a fortnight before I am readv for
this appendix. Yours ever affectionately, J. RUSKIN.

EffiVs best wishes and mine for a Merry Xmas to you. Breakfast
here to-morrow if you can.

1 [Memoirs and Correspondence of Coventry Patmore, by Basil Champneys, vol. ii.
pp. 287-288, where, again, the date "1853" is erroneously suggested.]
z [See in this edition, Vol. IV. pp. 140-207, 262 seq., 328-332.]

3 [The Stones of Venice, vol. i., issued March 1851.1

4 [For Ruskiu's friendship with Charles Thomas Newton (181G-1894), see the
Introduction (above). The present letter refers to Newton's paper on <{ Ancient
Representations of Water," printed as Appendix 21 in vol. i. of The Stones of
Venice (issued on March 3,, 1851).]




[The first half of this year was spent by Ruskin in London. The first
volume of Stones of Venice was published in March ; letters from Ruskin on
reviews of the book have been given in Vol. IX. pp. xxxix.-xlii. The Example*
of Venetian Architecture, and new editions of Modern Painters, vols. i. and ii.,
were also issued. In March he issued his theological Notes on the Construc-
tion of Sheepfolds. In May Ruskin wrote to the Times in defence of the Pre-
Raphaelites, and in August published his pamphlet on Pre-Raphaelitism. Letters
to Coventry Patmore, at whose instance lie had undertaken this crusade, are
given in Vol. XII. pp. xlvi., xlviii. In August he and his wife travelled with
friends in Switzerland (see Vol. X. p. xxiv.), afterwards settling at Venice for the
winter. Some letters to his father written on that tour are given in Vol. X.
pp. xxiv.-xxix. The drawing of "the Antelao from Venice," here introduced,
(Plato VI. p. 118), may have been made at this time.]


CHELTENHAM, 24th May [1851].

I was very glad to have your letter, for though I believed that
you had not written for such reasons as both you and I well know
the weight of, such as you give in your letter, I was a little afraid
that you had been so much shocked by the pamphlet 1 as to be
unable to write at all, except in terms which you would not willingly
have used to an old friend. I assure you, I am heartily glad it is
no worse.

I was very sorry to miss you the other day in town, but surely
you are coming to see our Show ? 2 if not, come and see me. I won't
take you to the Exposition (for so indeed it is, for the most part)
unless you like it. For we have at last a bed in Park St. EfhVs
Father and Mother are to be with us for about ten days from the
date hereof, and after that time I believe our Front Dining-room,
which we have made a Dormitory, will be vacant. I need not say ho\v
happy we shall be to see you and Sarah ; 3 whom pray thank for
getting through, or over, the Stones.

And then we will talk over practicabilities. I did not mean to sug-
gest anything as at present practicable surely I said so, somewhere 4
but as seemingly fit and right ; and to direct meifs thoughts, as far

The Notes on the Construction of Xheepfofds, Vol. XII.]

The International Exhibition.]

Mrs. Acland.]

See 34 n. of Sheepfohlf , Vol. XII. p. o53 n.]


as I could, to the discovery of the reasons why what is right should
be Impracticable. Of which there is surely one evident reason : it is
said that " the Just shall live " and that " We " (meaning all Christians)
" walk by faith." l Now very surely the World at present neither lives
nor walks by anything of the kind, and therefore to move mountains
is very impracticable indeed. You speak of the Flimsiness of your
own faith. Mine, which was never strong, is being beaten into mere
gold leaf, and flutters in weak rags from the letter of its old forms;
but the only letters it can hold by at all are the old Evangelical
formulae. If only the Geologists would let me alone, I could do very
well, but those dreadful Hammers ! I hear the clink of them at the
end of every cadence of the Bible verses and on the other side, these
unhappy, blinking Puseyisms ; men trying to do right and losing their
very Humanity.

But all this comes upon us very justly, because as a nation, or as
a group of nations, we do not make it our first, and for a time our
only object to find out what we are to believe, and what is to be the
future root of our life. So making this the second or third object,
we shall only, I think, find out what roots we have got, by the edge
of the axe laid to them. 2

I am glad you like the large plates ; 3 they have given me more
trouble than they ought I mean, than any man's work ought to
give him. I am going to give up drawing, as you told me I should.
I came down here with my father to see a collection of pictures, and
shall be in town again, D.V., to-morrow, there to stay until 1st
August, about which time I hope to leave England for Venice, and
to finish my book there. . . .


Monday [June, 1851].

DEAR ACLAND, I was going to write to your wife about you, but
I don't like to frighten her as you say she is sad enough already :
but I icill frighten her unless I hear that you are going to leave
Oxford directly. You cannot work less if you stay there or if you

1 [Habakkuk ii. 4 ; 2 Corinthians v. 7.]

2 'Matthew iii. 10.]

* Those in the first Part of Examples of Venetian Ardiifecture.]

* [From Sir Henri/ Wcntworth Aclcmd, a Memoir, by J. B. Atlay, 1903, pp. 167-
168, where it is explained that the letter was written after a visit in June to
Acland, whose multifarious work was at this time causing much alarm to his


do, it will be at the cost of continual vexation and annoyance just
as bad for you as work. I never saw such a life as you live there
you never were able so much as to put a piece of meat in your
mouth without writing a note at the side of your plate you were
everlastingly going somewhere and going somewhere else on the wav
to it and doing something on the way to somewhere else, and some-
thing else at the same time that you did the something and then
another thing by the bye and two or three other things besides
and then, wherever you went, there were always five or six people
lying in wait at corners and catching hold of you and asking questions,
and leading you aside into private conferences, and making engage-
ments to come at a quarter to six and send two other people at a
quarter past and three or four more to hear what had been said of
them, at five-and-twenty minutes past and to have an answer to a
note at half-past, and get tickets for soup at five-and-twenty minutes
to seven and just to see you in the passage as you were going to
dinner and so on.

I am as sure that you cannot stay in Oxford as if your house was
on fire or the whole place. I never was so annoyed at you as yester-
day or so sorry for you. I don't know whether you ever mind what
anybody says but perhaps you may mind it a little more in writing ;
and yet I have nothing to say but what you know as well, or better
than I that you are doing a great wrong to your wife and to all
who regard either you or her, and to your children. Would it not
be better for them to be bred peasants on the Devonshire hills, so
long as they had their father to teach them what was good and
noble, than to be bred in gentilities and silkennesses, without a father
though I suppose they would still be poor, if you were to kill yourself,
as you are likely to do in six months ? I am perfectly certain you
cannot stay in Oxford, nor continue your profession at present. You
must give up for an entire year. Lay this matter barely before God
and take care there is no dread of what is to be done or said by
other people and see what answer you will get.

Or suppose you were a tyrant, and had in your service Dr. Henry
Acland, and could make him keep at his work, if you chose, would
you not be afraid to do it afraid of doing murder? But self-murder
you think venial. Don't answer this, of course. I hardly know why
I write it, for there is nothing to be said which you do not know, but
I could not rest without saying it again. Yours affectionately,




CHAMOUNI, Saturday, August 16th [1851].

We have had three happy days here, though the weather has been
very broken and imperfect. We slept at the Montanvert in a
thunderstorm, and yesterday I took Mr. Moore l myself over from the
Montanvert upon the rocks of the Charmoz, and so down to Chamouni
opposite the inn. I find myself in very good training, and able to
walk as well as usual, but have been not a little disappointed by
finding Couttet absent on an excursion round the Mont Rose with
young Peel (Sir Robt.). ... I did not before tell you that Couttet
was not here, lest you should be frightened at my having no guide, but
as we go back to St. Martin's on Monday, this need cause you no
anxiety now. You will doubtless see Mr. Moore on his return, and
hear whether he enjoyed himself or not; he leaves us on Monday,
going on to Geneva when we stop at St. Martin's, but Newton stays
with us till the 24th. It is very delightful to have him running
down the Alps ; and though not strong, and rather lazy, when he

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