3. Subordinates are placed underneath and to the right.
4. Themes are not indexed.
The different methods of outlining are the brace,
position, letter, tabular, numerical, composite and
exponential. The following is an example of the
exponential system of outlining:
FOOD. 22. By the gastric juice and
1^ Starch. pepsin.
1^. Changed in the mouth. 3^. Into albumenose.
2^. By the saliva. 4^. Absorbed in the stomach.
3^. Into grape sugar. 3^ Fats.
4^ Absorbed in the mouth V. Changed in the duodenum,
and along the alimentary 2^ By the pancreatic juice
canal. and bile.
2^ Albumen. 3^. Into an emulsion of fats.
l^. Changed in the stomach. 4^. Absorbed in the intestines.
The pupil should study by outlining rather than
by an outline. We are told that science is knowledge
properly classified. Outlining assists the pupil to
see relations in subject-matter. It assists the mind
226 THE EDUCATIONAL PROCESS
in so classifying the facts of a subject as to make
it more easily learned. The logical order of the
subject should be made to fit to the psychological
order of the growing mind. Outlining is a process
of adjusting subject-matter to mind. The thought
in the thing is made to correspond to the law in
The Logical Syllogism. â€” There is nothing that
will assist the thinking mind in its growth and
development more than a study and application of
the logical syllogism. The syllogism is a movement
of the mind from the individual through the par-
ticular to the universal, or from the particular
through the individual to the universal, or lastly,
from the individual through universal to the par-
ticular. The first movement is called deduction,
the second, induction, the third, identification.
Deduction. Therefore, Edison is an in-
All inventors labor diligently, ventor.
Edison is an inventor, Enthymeme.
Therefore, Edison labors dili- All inventors labor diligently,
gently. Therefore, Edison labors dili-
Edison is an inventor. Sorites.
Edison labors diligently, Hoosiers are Americans,
Therefore, all inventors labor Americans are men,
diligently. Men are rational animals,
Identification. Rational animals have minds,
An inventor labors diligently, Therefore, Hoosiers have
Edison labors diligently, minds.
The syllogism consists of a major premise, a
minor premise and conclusion. The syllogisms are
organically related. The three movements of the
THE DEVELOPMENT 227
mind are interrelated processes. Each
syllogism depends upon, and is related to
the other two. An enthymeme is a syllogism with
one premise unexpressed. The common sorites
consists of a number of syllogisms so combined that
the predicate of the first premise becomes the sub-
ject of the next until finally the predicate of the last
is predicated of the subject of the first.
The Syllogism in Thinking. â€” The mind first
recognizes an object by the second figure of the
syllogism (S is M, P is M, therefore, S is P). This
is an act of apperception which takes place through
some common mark that belongs to both the ob-
ject and the class. As soon as an object is recog-
nized by one of its marks, sense-perception uses
the first figure of the syllogism (M is P, S is M,
therefore, S is P) to reinforce the first Figures of
act of the mind and to look for other ^Syiiogism
marks which previous experience declares to belong
to the object. In this figure of the syllogism the
individual enlarges his experience through the
stored-up knowledge of the race. By means of the
third figure of the syllogism (M is P, M is S, therefore,
S is P) the mind grasps classes, species, genera, and
universals. This form of the syllogism gives definition
because it unites the universal with the individual.
Hegel defines the syllogism as the unity
of the judgment and the notion. He
shows that every form of life is a syllogistic proc-
ess. His universal is the creative energy found
in species. We do not construct a syllogism, it
228 THE EDUCATIONAL PROCESS
really constructs us. It traces out the process of the
Absolute as manifested in the world. The world
is a manifestation of the universal by means of the
particular in the form of a concrete individual.
It is the nature of thought to bind these three ideas
into one syllogistic process. Thought or reason
has an inherent tendency to express itself in the
form of a syllogism. The underlying process of
both nature and mind is a syllogism.
The Development Illustrated. â€” The development
of the thinking process may be illustrated by
a study of method in geography. Geography is a
study of the earth in relation to man.
A study of the earth may be geology,
mineralogy, paleontology, chemistry or astronomy.
A study of man may be biology, physiology, biog-
raphy, history, ethnology or anthropology. The
earth studied in relation to man is geography.
To study corn, wheat and cotton is botany. To
study these in relation to man is geography. To
study a fact in geography is necessarily a dual act.
It must be thought per se and in relationship with
man. The geographical is not geological, meteoro-
logical, zoological, botanical, historical, political,
but a study of all these facts in relation to man's
life, development and higher existence.
Geography is divided into â€”
Academically Speaking, Professionally Speaking.
1. Home Geography. 1. Observational Geography.
2. Elementary Geography. 2, Representative Geography.
3. Physical Geography. 3. Descriptive Geography.
4. Physiography. 4. Rational Geography.
THE DEVELOPMENT 229
The academic division is based upon natural
relationships. The professional classification is
based entirely upon mind processes. The teacher
must understand the logic of the subject and the
psychology of the mind; world relations and mind
Observational Geography. â€” The Committee of
Ten says the purpose of observational geography
is â€” a. To develop the power and habit of geograph-
ical observation; b, to give the pupil true and
vivid basal ideas; c, to arouse a spirit of inquiry
and a thirst for geographical knowledge.
Pupils should be taken into the woods and fields
and led to observe hills, valleys, rivers and agencies
producing changes, such as floods, winds and rains.
Children should also have an opportunity to study
humanistic geography such as docks, steamboats,
railroads, interurban traction lines, etc. By obser-
vation and experimentation pupils may notice the
daily rotation of the earth on its axis
(Foucault Experiment) and the change r^,^ co^^ptlon
of the sun during the different seasons.
Pupils should be taught to notice the changing of
the stars, the Pleiades, the Dipper, Jupiter, Venus,
Orion, etc., and to note the phases of the moon.
Encourage each pupil on a geographical excursion
to bring in some product of nature and to study
its geographical significance. Geography should
be a natural outgrowth from nature study which
is the child's first outlook on his natural environ-
ments. It is a transition from the perception of the
230 THE EDUCATIONAL PROCESS
real to tho conception of the ideal. It is a process
of thought thinking thought as nianifcisted in the
outc^r world. Th(;r(5 ar(^ just two factors in thinking
geography, tlui world without and the world within.
It is a profu'ss of translating the thought of the
Infinite Mind into the thought of the finite mind.
Representative Geography. â€” After impression
comes expression; after observation, artistic repre-
sentation in the form of models, maps, sketches,
charts, etc. An impn^ssion becomes a fixed product
through expn^ssion. The imi)ression is made more
vivid and clear through representation. The child
is now induced into the inner life of a map and to
think its creative energy. He makes a realistic
sketch of what he saw in observational geography.
Th(5 first effort at map drawing should be topo-
gra[)hi('al and frcx^-hand. The form of land in three
dimensions brings into use the moulding board.
Maps should finally be drawn to an exact scale.
This work bridges the chasm between geography
and surveying and civil engineering.
Descriptive Geography. â€” The pupil is now
directed to a study of tlu^ observations and repre-
sentations of oth(;rs. No student can observe all
the surface of the (^arth and hence must study the
maps and representations of expert geographers
who have made a life study of the geographical
Descriptive geography gradually merges into
narrative geography. The fundamental geogra])h-
ical process is change. The expert geographer looks
THE DEVELOPMENT 231
into these processes of nature and notices changes
and cycles of activity. The essential process in
geography is evolution, a becoming, a change, a
cycle, a return-to-itself, a force and energy which
is constantly struggling for a more perfect cosmic
Rational Geography. â€” The movement of mind
in geography is observation, representation, de-
scription, and rationalization. At this stage of
geographical thinking cause and effect relations
should be carefully studied. The student is now
prepared to investigate Laplace's Nebular Hypoth-
esis. It would also be interesting to look into the
various i)hilosophical theories of the origin of the
world, as water, fire, air, and the unlimited. Ra-
tional geography is analytic, and seeks to explain
the classification of geographical facts and the
causes of geographical phenomena.
The thinking process is developed by the mind
coming into contact with the objective world as
manifested in geography. Geography develops per-
ceptive thinking, memory thinking, imaginative
thinking, and lastly, thought thinking. Rational
geography is a study of the thought processes as
embodied in nature and interacting upon man.
It investigates the thought in the thing and attempts
to adjust it to the growing mind. The fact in the
thing may be a volcano with its crater, lava, cinders,
gases, cause, number, classification and location.
This method in the subject is to be adjusted and
harmonized with the method in the mind.
232 THE EDUCATIONAL PROCESS
Thinking Developed in Physiology. â€” While the
thinking process may be developed in studying
any subject, it is especially interesting to trace the
growth of thought power in learning and teaching
anatomy, physiology and hygiene. To study and
Human think the human body is to discover the
Body inner force of the human constitution.
The ultimate objective categories, force, cause, law,
etc., are made subjective forms of thought. The
mind grasps a knowledge of anatomy by coming in
contact with the thought found in the human body.
The thought in the organism is a common term to
the thought in the mind, and hence is thinkable,
knowable, because there is something objective to
which the mind can unify itself. The true scientist
must be psychological and see in all objective reality
a thought process. The final purpose in science is to
trace out the Absolute Idea which is not only the
origin of all human beings, but of all facts, prin-
ciples, forces, causes and laws of existence in general.
The Science of Otology. â€” To understand how
the mind grows and develops in studying the science
of physiology, an intense study is made of the
human ear. Applying the categories of thought,
the ear is divided into pinna, tympanum
and labyrinth. The parts of the pinna
are helix, antihelix, tragus, antitragus, concha and
lobus. The tympanum is divided into the ossicles,
(malleus, incus, stapes, orbiculare), membrani tym-
pani, openings, and muscles. The labyrinth is
analyzed into vestibule, otoliths, semicircular canals
THE DEVELOPMENT 233
(perilymph, endolymph), cochlea (fenestra rotunda
and fenestra ovalis, modiolis and organs of Corti)
and the auditory nerve (cochlear and vestibular
branches). The first movement of thought reveals
parts and the second mental movement interprets
The thought-relations constituting the ear also
include a study of its form, size, color, resistance,
protection, cause and effect, time and place, like-
ness and difference, and purpose or function. The
function of hearing has its purpose deeply rooted
in human life. It is impossible to think function
without first thinking the thing to functionate,
and hence a study of anatomy should precede a
study of physiology. A knowledge of hygiene is
necessary to understand how the parts function in
a healthy condition.
The function of the pinna is to convey sound by
conduction and convection to the auditory canal.
There is also an added meaning or thought in the
ridges and furrows of the external ear. Design
The design is to give greater exposed in Nature
surface and to receive more accurately the vibra-
tions from various directions. The thought of the
auditory canal is to give greater intensity of sound
and to afford protection to the membrani tympani.
This membrane receives the vibrations and trans-
mits them to the auditory nerve by means of the
chain of bones. A further design is seen in the
function of the Eustachian tube which equalizes
the atmospheric pressure on both sides of the
234 THE EDUCATIONAL PROCESS
membrani tympani. The purpose of the internal
ear can be understood only by a careful study of
means to ends. It is thought that the cochlea
determines the pitch and the semicircular canals
the direction from which sound comes.
A close study of the mechanism and function
of the ear reveals the fact that it is a delicate ap-
paratus to aid the individual in securing spiritual
freedom. Every part, every attribute,
every function is rooted in a divine pur-
pose which controls and works out the design of
the whole organism. The telcological view sup-
plemented by the developmental hypothesis is the
true explanation of anatomical parts and physio-
Hygiene should as logically follow physiology as
physiology should be based upon anatomy. To
reverse these subjects as found in some text-books
is to contradict the laws of human think-
ing. For the ear to fulfill the purpose of
its existence, it must be kept in a healthy condition.
Earache, otorrhoea, otalgia and other unnatural
conditions of the ear tend to subvert the purpose or
original design of the ear. Hygiene is a necessary
study from a physical point of view, but it is doubly
important in understanding the great purpose
running through the whole organism.
To think the ear is not merely to know its struc-
ture, function and health, but to gain a clear idea
of its design, law, purpose, which arc infinite in
their origin. The mind in its process of develop-
THE DEVELOPMENT 235
ment parallels the eternal purpose of the organism
and searches out those eternal truths coextensive
with its origin. It is easy to understand how
thought thinks thought in human constructed
knowledge but to enter the workshop of nature and
trace out and understand creative principles is a
more difficult problem. The design of
^ . . . Â° Creation
the ear is to assist in spiritual freedom. And
The ultimate problem in thinking the ear
is to gain a knowledge of the creative purpose
of the organism and to follow this final cause through
processes of development. Once more we are
brought to the fundamental conclusion that the
mind in its growth and development parallels the
growth and development of natural objects.
A final knowledge of the automobile is arrived
at by ascertaining the creative idea and then tra-
cing that thought through its various stages of
evolution. To gain a final knowledge of the ear,
the mind first seizes the ear idea and then traces
this thought down through the developing human
being until it attains its freedom in and through
the organism studied.
The Highest Psychological Development. â€” The
highest function of the intuitive reason is to
commune with the Divine Process. There is a
divinity in the world which shapes our ends and
which we must firmly grasp by a study of its outer
manifestation in art, science, literature and prophecy.
The true, beautiful, and good are expressions of the
divine order of the world which must flow into our
236 THE EDUCATIONAL PROCESS
The Divine lives if WG would realize our final destiny.
Process rpj^^ human soul in the course of its
development finally catches a glimpse of the Divine
Ego. The student passes through the different
psychological processes until he arrives at a knowl-
edge of the universal, eternal process of the world.
The educational process, the psychological process,
the teaching process lead up to a knowledge of the
Divine Process. There is a parallelism between
education, psychology and religion and the unity
of the world, and knowledge is proclaimed. The
educational consciousness becomes the religious
consciousness in and through the teaching con-
The true doctrine of thought is based upon the
law of mind activity and upon those immanent
mind principles underlying thought and thing.
The movement of the mind in thinking parallels
the content of things to be thought. Thinking is
a spiritual activity in which the soul breathes in
the realm of ideas. The function of the mind is
to think, and the function of thinking is relating,
unifying, "putting things together." To think a
thing is to unify the thing process with the mind
process, to transmute the content of the thing
into the constitution of the mind and to
realize through this interaction knowl-
edge. This doctrine teaches that thinking is possible
only in relation of the thinker and the thing thought,
and to examine the thinking process is at the same
time to examine the process of things which the
mind thinks. In other words, ''mind and matter,
subject and object, thought and being are related
phases of the same underlying principle which
unifies the two seemingly contradictory principles.
That which ties the two together is a spiritual
substance which at the same time is the absolute
principle of the universe."
The Mysterious Unity. â€” The unity between mind
and what it thinks, is not mechanical, not
238 THE EDUCATIONAL PROCESS
chemical, but organic. A mechanical unity con-
sists in putting things together by laws externally
imposed, as in the chair or reaper. A chemical
unity is a merging of parts into a new whole differ-
ing from the original, as hydrogen and oxygen
forming water. An organic unity is a union by
virtue of an inherent energy seeking the end for
which the organism is created, as plants and animals.
The purpose of the organism is to realize itself from
within, but the purpose of the mechanism is to
realize itself from without. An organism grows, a
mechanism is changed. Thought is an organic
process of mind identifying itself with the thought
in the sentence, in the poem, and in all lessons
An organism, as the heart, maple, robin, cannot
exist in and by itself, but must exist in and through
what is other than itself. Thought cannot exist in
and by itself but always exists in and through
other things than itself. It is the very essence of
thought to contain within itself a living relation
to things. Reality without and thought within are
opposite poles of the same thing and are at heart
one. This same thing is the universal reason which
pervades all thought and all things, and forms all
existence into a rational coherent system through
Relativity ^ commou Spiritual principle. The hu-
of Thought j^^j^ mind and the real world must work
together harmoniously if thought is to be identified
with the thing. If knowledge be possible and the
world is to reveal itself to the thinking mind there
THE DOCTRINE 239
must be an affinity between the mind and what it
thinks. In thinking a thing the mind identifies
itself with the content of reality and never with the
thing itself which is said to be unthinkable. In
connection with this doctrine we hear such expres-
sions as, the external is outside of the mind and
hence outside of knowledge; reality is richer than
thought; knowledge is unequal to reality.
Every thing that exists was originally a human
or divine thought. This thought is now mani-
fested in nature, man, art, law, ethics, education
and religion. All being is thought to the Infinite
Mind and may be thought to the finite mind pro-
vided it is sufficiently developed to think it. If a
thing cannot be thought it does not depend upon
the nature of the object, but upon the capability
and development of the mind. The thought which
we find in nature is not created by the Mind
human mind. The fundamental meaning ^^^ Nature
of nature is discovered and ascertained to be a
system of relations corresponding to our own
rationality. The essence of nature is the essence of
mind. The meaning of nature is the meaning of
mind. It is the function of science to trace out the
thought element in nature and organize it into
thinkable forms. The modern thinker is now teach-
ing that things are related to thought and thought
is related to things. We are gradually coming to
the belief that the universe is an organic unity con-
stantly evolving and working out its secret poten-
cies. If this doctrine be true, nature, mind and
240 THE EDUCATIONAL PROCESS
God arc ideas which belong to a unitary system of
We are taught by Prof. Royce that the world,
whatever it is, consists of such stuff as ideas are made
of. Matter is a mass of coherent ideas; time and
place are ideal; the world is a universal mind.
If this idealistic doctrine be true, then
the mind is able to think the world, but
if it be false, the world is unknowable and has no
meaning to the mind. If the world be not ideal,
then science which is a mental interpretation of
the world has no meaning nor value. If the world be
ideal, its essence is thinkable by some mind, and
may be thought by any mind having sufficient
capacity. Since this is a world of a universal mind
and extends beyond our particular consciousness
it cannot be fully grasped by the finite mind.
Thought Determines Thing. â€” Things exist for us
only as thought constructs them and builds them
up in our intelligence. Thought does not create
things per se but finds in them a rationality which
determines what they are and makes them an ob-
ject of knowledge. While Spencer would say the
outer world molds the mind, Kant affirms the mind
molds the outer world. Fichte makes knowledge
an activity of the ego directed toward things. In
these systems of thought there are two organic
elements which enter into knowledge â€” thought and
thing. It is impossible to think pure subject or
pure object for thought in its real nature is a rela-
tion of the two. It is certainly a true doctrine to
THE DOCTRINE 241
say that the subjective world was developed out of
the objective world and that things are what they
are through a thought process. It is as impossible
for an individual to create new ideas apart from
objectivity as to create new atoms, for ideas are
essentially related to reality. They do not exist
in the mind spontaneously but are the expressions
of the real nature of things. When we examine
closely the relation of thought to thing, of subject
to object, we find the unity expressed by these
correlatives absolutely indivisible. We can dis-
tinguish subject from object, yet we are not able
to divorce them. The thinker cut off from the
object is unthinkable; self is possible only in
opposition to the non-self; spirit is known only in
contradistinction to the non-spiritual; thought and
thing are inseparable in the knowledge process.
Spencer makes the thing a persistence in con-
sciousness, and we might add a persistence of
mind in determining the thing. The thing does not
determine mind but mind determines the persistence
content and process of the thing. The Â°^^'"^
eyeless fish in the Mammoth Cave was not created
by thought, yet it did not exist as a species from
the standpoint of knowledge until interpreted by
some human mind. The object apart from the
mind or the mind apart from the object may con-
stitute potential knowledge but actual knowledge
is found only in their organic unity. The whole
body of knowledge taught in our schools was
determined by the mind making the thing series
242 THE EDUCATIONAL PROCESS
harmonize with the thought series. If the outer
world could not be made to harmonize with the
inner world of thought, if these two series could not
be made to coalesce, if thought and thing could not
be unified, then knowledge is impossible.
Thought and Thing Unified. â€” Thought not only