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beyond price.”

Mrs. Watt Smith, an expert employed by the _British Medical Journal_,
author of _The Milk Supply in Large Towns_, in her evidence before the
Interdepartmental Committee on Physical Deterioration, condemned the
policy of the English Infants’ Milk Depots, saying: “The milk comes from
an uninspected source; they get it from a local dealer.... _Then they
sterilize that milk to make it safe. It is like purifying sewage to make
it into clean water._ It is not right.” Dr. Ralph M. Vincent also
condemned the sterilization process for the same reason, and, in
addition, insisted that sterilization impaired the nutritive value of
the milk, causing at least one specific disease, scorbutus.—Report of
the Committee, Vol. II, Minutes of Evidence.

Dr. George W. Goler, whose work in Rochester has been so much referred
to, says: “For two more years the milk was Pasteurized, though
considerable trouble was had with sour milk and in finding a man to
furnish reasonably clean milk. After the first year four stations in all
were required for the needs of four quarters of the city. Then, in 1899,
we established our central station on a farm, and _instead of
Pasteurizing milk, with all its contained filth and bacteria, we strove
to keep dirt and germs out of the milk_, and began to sterilize all of
the utensils, bottles, etc., and to put out milk that was clean. Clean
milk, or milk approximately clean, having no more than 20,000 bacteria
per cubic centimeter needs no application of heat to render it fit food
for babies. _Heat applied to milk alters it, makes its curd tougher and
more difficult to digest, often gives rise to indigestion, diarrhœa, or
constipation in the infant_, and, further, the application of heat to
milk in the operation of Pasteurizing or sterilizing leads people to
think they may cure a condition that is more easily prevented by care in
the handling of milk used for food.”—“But a Thousand a Year,” reprinted
from _Charities_, August 5, 1905.


V
A COMMISSIONER OF CHARITIES ON CHILD LABOR

“The objection that is offered most frequently, and perhaps with most
effect, to further restriction of child labor, is the _alleged fact_
that in a great many instances the _earnings of these little children
are needed to supplement the incomes of widows_, of families in which
the husband and wage-earner may be either temporarily or permanently or
partially disabled, and that without the small addition which the
earnings of these little boys and girls can bring in, there would be
suffering and distress. It would be easy, I think, to overestimate the
extent to which that is true.... So we should not admit that that side
is more serious than it is, but do let us cheerfully, frankly, gladly
add that there would be many cases in which the proposed legislation
(for the restriction of child labor) would deprive many families of
earnings from their children, and that _we propose ourselves to step
into the breach and provide that relief in good hard cash that passes in
the market_.... If larger means are necessary to support these children
so that they need not depend on their own labor, by all means let us put
up the money and not push the children for a part of their support
before the time when they should naturally furnish a part of their
support.... In the long run it is never cheap to be cruel or hard. _It
is never wise to drive a hard bargain with childhood._”—Extract from an
address by Homer Folks, Commissioner of Charities, New York.




NOTES AND AUTHORITIES


I. THE BLIGHTING OF THE BABIES

Footnote 1:

The Theory and Practice of Infant Feeding, by Henry Dwight Chapin,
A.M., M.D.

Footnote 2:

Registrar General’s Report, 1886, pp. 32–126.

Footnote 3:

Population Française, Levasseur, vol. ii, p. 403.

Footnote 4:

Tenement Conditions in Chicago, by Robert Hunter, pp. 154–157.

Footnote 5:

Poverty, by Robert Hunter, p. 144.

Footnote 6:

The Diseases of Children, by Henry Ashby, M.D., Lond., and G. A.
Wright, B.A., M.B., Oxon., p. 12.

Footnote 7:

Transactions of the National Association for the Promotion of Social
Science, 1882, p. 388.

Footnote 8:

Mulhall’s Dictionary of Statistics, p. 133.

Footnote 9:

Report of the Interdepartmental Committee on Physical Deterioration.
Evidence.

Footnote 10:

_Idem._ Evidence of Dr. Eichholz and Others.

Footnote 11:

Parliamentary Paper [Cd. 1501] containing a Memorandum by Sir William
Taylor, the Director-General, Army Medical Service.

See also a letter to the _London Times_, February 2, 1903, by General
F. Maurice.

Footnote 12:

Tenement Conditions in Chicago, p. 157.

Footnote 13:

Information received from the Commissioner of Health.

Footnote 14:

Trans. Nat. Ass’n for the Promotion of Social Science, 1882, p. 387.

Footnote 15:

The Nutrition of the Infant, by Ralph M. Vincent, M.D., p. 246.

Footnote 16:

Diseases of Children, Ashby and Wright, p. 228.

Footnote 17:

_Idem._, pp. 44–45.

Footnote 18:

Figures quoted from a newspaper report of an interview with Mr.
Straus.

Footnote 19:

See the Article, But a Thousand a Year, in _Charities_, August 5,
1905; Infants’ Milk Depots and Infant Mortality, by Dr. G. F.
McCleary; The Problem of the Milk Supply, by Dr. Lawson Dodd, etc.

Footnote 20:

Report Interdepartmental Committee, vol. ii, p. 442; Vincent, _op.
cit._, pp. 268 _et seq._

Footnote 21:

Report of the Health of the City of Birmingham, 1902, by Dr. Alfred
Hill. Quoted by Vincent, _op. cit._, p. 272.

Footnote 22:

Vincent, _op. cit._ Also Testimony before the Interdepartmental
Committee contained in the Report Evidence.

Footnote 23:

Mass and Class, by W. J. Ghent, p. 182.

Footnote 24:

From the newspaper report of an interview referred to above.

Footnote 25:

A Noviciate for Marriage, by Mrs. H. Ellis.

Footnote 26:

Twentieth Annual Report of the N. Y. Bureau of Labor Statistics, p.
61.

Footnote 27:

_Charities_, April 1, 1905.

Footnote 28:

See, _e.g._, the _Fortnightly Review_ for 1876, the _Contemporary
Review_ for 1882, and the various Transactions of the National Society
for the Promotion of Social Science.

Footnote 29:

Methods of Social Reform, by W. S. Jevons.

Footnote 30:

Report of the Proceedings of the Third International Congress for the
Welfare and Protection of Children,—Speech of Mr. Hartley, B. N.
Mothersole, M.A., LL.D., p. 166.

Footnote 31:

_Idem._

Also the Transactions of the Nat. Soc. for the Promotion of Social
Science, p. 384.

Footnote 32:

Primitive Folk, by Élie Reclus, p. 35.

Footnote 33:

See the Comparative Summary of Legislation upon this Subject in
Dangerous Trades, edited by Prof. T. Oliver, pp. 53, 54.

Footnote 34:

_Vide_ Report of the Interdepartmental Committee on Physical
Deterioration and the frequent discussions in the British Press.

Footnote 35:

Transactions of the National Society for the Promotion of Social
Science, 1882, p. 363.

Footnote 36:

_Idem._, p. 382.

Footnote 37:

Statistisches Jahrbuch für das Deutsche Reich, 1904.

Footnote 38:

Diseases of Children, by Ashby and Wright, pp. 14 _et seq._

Footnote 39:

See, _e.g._, Infants’ Milk Depots and Infant Mortality, by G. F.
McCleary.

Footnote 40:

Report on Les Crèches, by Dr. Eugène Deschamps, Congrès International
d’Hygiene et de Démographie à Paris, 1900.

Other works consulted include: How the Other Half Lives, by Jacob A.
Riis; The Battle with the Slum, by the same author; The Diseases
of Infancy and Childhood, by L. Emmet Holt, M.D., LL.D.

System of Medicine, edited by Clifford Allbutt.

Antenatal Pathology, by J. W. Ballantyne, M.D.

The Study of Children, by Francis Warner, M.D., London, F.R.C.S.,
F.R.C.P.

The Nervous System of the Child, by the same author.

In the preparation of the text free use has also been made of the
files of the following journals: _British Journal of Children’s
Diseases_; _British Medical Journal_; _New York Medical Journal_,
_Archives of Pediatrics_; _Lancet_, _Journal of the American
Medical Association_, etc.


II. THE SCHOOL CHILD

Footnote 41:

The Handwriting on the Wall, by J. C. Cooper, p. 222.

Footnote 42:

Education and the Larger Life, by C. Hanford Henderson, p. 85.

Footnote 43:

Poverty, by Robert Hunter, p. 11.

Footnote 44:

Hunter, _op. cit._, p. 216.

See also Mr. Hunter’s article, The Heritage of the Hungry, in the
_Reader Magazine_, September, 1905.

Footnote 45:

Address to the National Educational Association, September 24, 1904,
as reported in the newspapers.

Footnote 46:

See Dr. Warner’s excellent little books, Mental Faculty; The Study of
Children; The Nervous System of the Child, for a discussion of nervous
signs and the whole subject of child health.

Footnote 47:

The tendency of children to give such answers has been frequently
noted and pointed out by foreign investigators. In general, I think it
can safely be said that children are prone to hide their poverty and
to exaggerate in an opposite direction.

Footnote 48:

Report to State Board of Charities. R. Hunter, The Heritage of the
Hungry.

Footnote 49:

The Hunger Problem in the Public Schools—What the Canvass of Six Big
Cities Reveals. Special correspondence in the _Philadelphia North
American_, May 21, 1905.

Footnote 50:

_Idem._

Footnote 51:

_Idem._

Footnote 52:

_Idem._

Footnote 53:

Testimony before the Interdepartmental Committee on Physical
Deterioration, the Royal Commission on Physical Training (Scotland),
Reports of the London School Board on Underfed Children, etc.

Footnote 54:

Quoted by G. Stanley Hall, in Adolescence.

Footnote 55:

_Idem._

Footnote 56:

Final Report (1882–1883) of the Anthropometric Committee appointed by
the British Association in 1875.

Footnote 57:

The figures quoted are taken from an excellent little pamphlet, The
Cost of Child Labor,—A Study of Diseased and Disabled Children,
published by the Child Labor Committee of Pennsylvania.

Footnote 58:

Poverty,—A Town Study, by B. S. Rowntree.

Footnote 59:

In the pamphlet, The Cost of Child Labor, above referred to.

Footnote 60:

Annual Report of the Massachusetts State Board of Health, 1877.

Footnote 61:

Growth of St. Louis School Children, by William T. Porter. Report of
the Academy of Science of St. Louis, vol. vi, pp. 263–380.

Footnote 62:

Special Report of Anthropological Investigation of 1000 white and
colored Children of the New York Juvenile Asylum, by Dr. Hrdlicka.

Footnote 63:

Report of the Royal Commission on Physical Training (Scotland), p. 30.

Footnote 64:

State Maintenance, by J. Hunter Watts, p. 10.

Footnote 65:

Adolescence, by G. Stanley Hall.

Footnote 66:

Feeble-minded Children in the Public Schools, by Will S. Monroe.

Footnote 67:

The Cost of Child Labor, pamphlet quoted above.

Footnote 68:

G. Stanley Hall, _op. cit._, vol. i, p. 401.

Footnote 69:

A Study in Youthful Degeneracy, by George E. Dawson, in the
Pedagogical Seminary, iv, 2.

Footnote 70:

American Journal of Psychology, October, 1898.

Footnote 71:

Dr. Eichholz, Evidence before the Interdepartmental Committee on
Physical Deterioration.

Footnote 72:

Reported in the _New York Times_, May 10, 1905.

Footnote 73:

Overpressure in Elementary Schools, by James Crichton-Browne, M.D.,
LL.D., F.R.S., printed by Order of the House of Commons.

Footnote 74:

See Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, February, 1893.

Footnote 75:

Hansard’s Debates, 1883.

Footnote 76:

Justice, Organ of the Social Democratic Federation, vol. i, No. 35,
September 13, 1884.

Footnote 77:

Letter to the _London Times_, September 26, 1901.

Footnote 78:

Report of the Committee; Evidence, p. 484.

Footnote 79:

_Idem._

Footnote 80:

Beretning om Kristiania folkeskolevæsen,—various yearly reports.

Footnote 81:

School Luncheons in the Special Classes of the Public Schools—A
Suggestive Experiment, by Elizabeth Farrell, in _Charities_, March 11,
1905.

Undernourished School Children, by Lillian Wald, a letter in
_Charities_, March 25, 1905.

Footnote 82:

Hungry Children in New York Public Schools, by E. Stagg Whitin, in the
_Commons_, May, 1905.

Hungry Children are Poor Scholars, an unsigned article in the Official
Journal of the Brotherhood of Painters, Decorators, and Paperhangers
of America, May, 1905.

Footnote 83:

See American Charities, by Professor Warner, for a careful statement
of this point.

Footnote 84:

Sixth Biennial Report of the Board of Control and Superintendent of
the Minnesota State Public School for Dependent and Neglected
Children.

Other works consulted include: Mentally Deficient Children: Their
Care and Training, by George E. Shuttleworth; The History of the
Treatment of the Feeble-minded, by Walter E. Fernald; After Bread,
Education, by Hubert Bland, 1905; Official Report of the National
Labor Conference on the State Maintenance of Children, held at the
Guildhall, London, Friday, January 20, 1905, Sir John Gorst, M.P.,
Presiding; Report of Investigations into Social Conditions in
Dundee, Scotland—The Medical Inspection of School Children; Report
to the Municipal Council of Paris on the Annual Expenditures in
Connection with the _Cantines Scolaires_; Various Reports of the
U. S. Commissioner of Education; Reports of the Department of
Education in many American and Foreign Cities.

The Pedagogical Seminary.

Special Reports on Educational Subjects, issued by the Board of
Education (England).


III. THE WORKING CHILD

Footnote 85:

Politics, by Aristotle, A. IV, 4.

Footnote 86:

Architecture, Industry, and Wealth, by William Morris, p. 138.

Footnote 87:

_Idem._

Footnote 88:

Farfolloni de gli Antichi Historici, by Abb. Lancellotti (Venice,
1636), quoted by Karl Marx in Capital, English edition, p. 427.

Footnote 89:

Marx, _op. cit._, p. 428.

Footnote 90:

A Description of the Country from Thirty to Forty Miles round
Manchester, by Dr. Aikin. Quoted by R. W. Cooke-Taylor, The Factory
System and the Factory Acts, p. 17.

Footnote 91:

Cooke-Taylor, _op. cit._, gives the real name of “Alfred” as Samuel
Kydd, a barrister-at-law.

Footnote 92:

Memoirs of Robert Blincoe, N.D.

Cooke-Taylor, Modern Factory System, pp. 189–198.

Annals of Toil, by J. Morrison Davidson, p. 262.

Industrial History of England, H. de B. Gibbins.

Footnote 93:

H. de B. Gibbins, _op. cit._, pp. 178–181.

Footnote 94:

Life of Robert Owen, Written by Himself, vol. i, xxvi, pp. 57 _et
seq._

Footnote 95:

H. de B. Gibbins, _op. cit._, p. 181.

Footnote 96:

Cooke-Taylor, The Factory System and the Factory Acts, p. 55.

Footnote 97:

_Idem._

Footnote 98:

H. de B. Gibbins, _op. cit._, p. 181.

Footnote 99:

Hansard, 1832.

Footnote 100:

The whole poem is given in Mr. H. S. Salt’s little anthology, Songs of
Freedom, p. 81.

Footnote 101:

Report on the Ten Hours Bill. J. Morrison Davidson, _op. cit._, p.
268.

Footnote 102:

Robert Hunter, Child Labor in New York, Being a Report to the Governor
of New York.

Footnote 103:

Child Labor Legislation—A Requisite for Industrial Efficiency, by Jane
Addams, in the Annals of the American Academy, May, 1905, p. 131.

Footnote 104:

Problems of the Present South, by Edgar Gardner Murphy, p. 313.

Footnote 105:

Quoted in _Charities_, August 26, 1905.

Footnote 106:

Illiteracy Promoted by Perjury. A pamphlet issued by the Pennsylvania
Child Labor Committee.

Footnote 107:

U. S. Census, vol. ii.

Footnote 108:

Illiteracy Promoted by Perjury, p. 3.

Footnote 109:

U. S. Census, Occupations.

Footnote 110:

E. G. Murphy, _op. cit._, p. 110.

Footnote 111:

Annals of the American Academy, May, 1905, p. 21.

Footnote 112:

Jane Addams, _op. cit._, p. 131.

Footnote 113:

E. G. Murphy, _op. cit._, p. 143.

Footnote 114:

_Idem._, p. 103.

Footnote 115:

An address to the Manufacturers of Cotton, delivered at Glasgow, by
Robert Owen, 1815.

Footnote 116:

U. S. Census, vol. ix.

Footnote 117:

_Idem._

Footnote 118:

Report (unpublished) to the Child Labor Committee, by Owen R. Lovejoy.

Footnote 119:

Child Labor Legislation. Schedules of Existing Legislation. Handbook
of National Consumers’ League, compiled by J. C. Goldmark and Madeline
Wallin Sikes.

Footnote 120:

The Needless Destruction of Boys, by Florence Kelley, _Charities_,
June 3, 1905.

Footnote 121:

Boys in the Glass Industry, by Harriet M. Van Der Vaart, the
_Churchman_, May 6, 1905.

Footnote 122:

Owen R. Lovejoy, report quoted.

Footnote 123:

Florence Kelley, _op. cit._

Footnote 124:

The Anthracite Coal Communities, by Peter Roberts, Ph.D., p. 177.

Poverty, by Robert Hunter, p. 237.

Footnote 125:

Working Children in Pennsylvania—Pamphlet issued by the Child Labor
Committee of Pennsylvania.

Footnote 126:

Child Labor in New York, by Robert Hunter, p. 5.

Footnote 127:

_Idem._

Footnote 128:

U. S. Census, vol. viii, Manufactures, Part II.

Footnote 129:

From a press report of a lecture at Plymouth Church, Brooklyn, N.Y.,
by Margaret Dreier (Mrs. Raymond Robins).

Footnote 130:

From an address by Mrs. Florence Kelley, delivered at the Annual
Meeting of the Consumers’ League, January, 1904. Published in the
Report of the Consumers’ League of New York for the year ending
December, 1903.

Footnote 131:

Transactions Illinois Child Study Association, vol. i, No. 1.

Footnote 132:

Labor Problems, by Thomas Sewall Adams, Ph.D., and Helen L. Sumner,
A.B., pp. 62 _et seq._

Footnote 133:

“In a recent investigation made by the Minnesota Bureau of Labor, it
was found that, of the few wage-earners considered, the boys under
sixteen had twice as many accidents as the adults, and the girls under
sixteen thirty-three times as many accidents as the women.”—Adams and
Sumner, _op. cit._, p. 63.

Footnote 134:

The Cost of Child Labor—pamphlet issued by the Child Labor Committee
of Pennsylvania, p. 31.

Footnote 135:

Children in American Street Trades, by Myron E. Adams, in the Annals
of the American Academy, May, 1905.

Footnote 136:

Child Labor—The Street, by Ernest Poole.

Child Labor—Factories and Stores, by Ernest Poole.

Myron E. Adams, _op. cit._

Footnote 137:

Ernest Poole, _op. cit._

Footnote 138:

_Idem._

Footnote 139:

Unprotected Children—pamphlet issued by the Child Labor Committee of
Pennsylvania.

Footnote 140:

See also Child Labor in New Jersey, by Hugh F. Fox, in Annals of the
American Academy, July, 1902.

Footnote 141:

Jane Addams, _op. cit._, p. 131.

Footnote 142:

The Minotola Strike, by the Hon. John W. Westcott, in _Wilshire’s
Magazine_, September, 1903.

Footnote 143:

Hannah R. Sewall, _op. cit._, p. 491.

Footnote 144:

Child Labor in Southern Industry, by A. J. McKelway, in Annals of the
American Academy, May, 1905, p. 433.

Footnote 145:

The Economics of Socialism, by Henry M. Hyndman, p. 80.

Footnote 146:

See, for instance, Poverty, by Robert Hunter, p. 244; Mrs. Sidney
Webb, in The Case for the Factory Acts, etc.

Footnote 147:

History of Coöperation, by George Jacob Holyoake, vol. i, p. 213.

Footnote 148:

Mrs. Sidney Webb, _op. cit._

Footnote 149:

Report of the Consumers’ League of the City of New York, 1903, p. 21.

Footnote 150:

The Children of the Coal Shadow, _McClure’s Magazine_, 1902.

Footnote 151:

_The Churchman_, August 5, 1905.

Footnote 152:

The Operation of the New Child Labor Law in New Jersey, by Hugh F.
Fox, in Annals of the American Academy, May, 1905.

Other works consulted include:—

Report of the Royal Commission on Labor (England); Report of the
Interdepartmental Committee on Physical Deterioration.

Hull House Maps and Papers.

Reports of the Industrial Commission (especially vol. xix).

Dangerous Trades, edited by Professor T. Oliver.

The Effects of the Factory System, by Allen Clarke.

Various Reports of the Different Bureaus of Labor, etc.


IV. REMEDIAL MEASURES

Footnote 153:

The Diseases of Children, by Henry Ashby, M.D., and G. A. Wright,
B.A., pp. 14 _et seq._

Footnote 154:

_Idem._

See also the article on The Shameful Misuse of Wealth, by Cleveland
Moffett, in _Success_, March, 1905.

Footnote 155:

See, _e.g._, the letters from several leading physicians on this
subject in _Success_, April, 1905 (Appendix C).

Footnote 156:

Cleveland Moffett, _op. cit._

Footnote 157:

_Idem._

Footnote 158:

Hygiène de la Femme Enceinte. De la Puericulture Intrauterine, par Dr.
A. Pinard. X^e Congrès International d’Hygiène, etc., Paris, 1900, p.
417.

Factory Employment and Childbirth, by Adelaide M. Anderson, in
Dangerous Trades, edited by Professor Thomas Oliver.

Is the High Infantile Death-rate due to the Occupation of Married
Women? by Mrs. F. J. Greenwood, Sanitary Inspector for Sheffield.
Reprinted from the _Englishwoman’s Review_, 1901.

In Germany, it is worth remembering, the working woman who is
compelled to cease work owing to the birth of a child receives a sum
equal to half her weekly wage.—See Infant Mortality and Factory Labor,
by Dr. George Reid, in Dangerous Trades, p. 89.

Footnote 159:

Report of the Interdepartmental Committee on Physical Deterioration.

Footnote 160:

The Social Unrest, by John Graham Brooks, p. 292.

Footnote 161:

_Vide_ leaflet issued by the Child Labor Committee of New York.

Footnote 162:

How to Save the Babies of the Tenements, by Virginia M. Walker, in
_Charities_, August 5, 1905.

Footnote 163:

Report of the Interdepartmental Committee on Physical Deterioration,
vol. ii, pp. 442–450.

The Nutrition of the Infant, by Ralph M. Vincent, M.D.

The Problem of the Milk Supply, by F. Lawson Dodd, M.R.C.S.

Infantile Mortality and Infants’ Milk Depots, by G. F. McCleary, M.D.

Footnote 164:

Projet pour le Contrôle Hygiènique de l’Approvisionnement du Lait
Municipal, by George W. Goler, M.D.

But a Thousand a Year, by George W. Goler, M.D., reprinted from
_Charities_.

Footnote 165:

The School Child, the School Nurse, and the Local School Board, by
Elsie Clews Parsons, _Charities_, September 23, 1905.

Footnote 166:

Report of the Interdepartmental Committee on Physical Deterioration,
vol. i, p. 47.

Footnote 167:

_Idem._

Footnote 168:

The figures are quoted from a speech by Mr. Homer Folks, at the first
annual meeting of the Association for the Study and Prevention of
Tuberculosis, held at Washington, D.C., May 18–19, 1905.

Footnote 169:

Virginia M. Walker, _op. cit._

Footnote 170:

_Idem._

Footnote 171:

Ralph M. Vincent, M.D., _op. cit._, also evidence given before the
Interdepartmental Committee on Physical Deterioration.

Virginia M. Walker, _op. cit._

Footnote 172:

This paragraph is taken, with slight changes, from my paper on The
Problem of the Underfed Children in our Public Schools, in the
_Independent_, May 11, 1905.

Footnote 173:

See the Official Report of the National Labor Conference on the State
Maintenance of Children, Held at the Guildhall, London, etc.

Footnote 174:

See, for instance, the evidence given by Mr. John Tweedy, F.R.C.S. and
L.R.C.P., President of the Royal College of Surgeons and of the
Ophthalmological Society of the United Kingdom, before the
Interdepartmental Committee.

Footnote 175:

Physical Efficiency in Children, by Sir James Crichton Browne, in the


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