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Report of the International Congress for the Welfare and Protection of
Children, London, 1902.

See also the Reports of the Interdepartmental Committee and the Royal
Commission on Physical Training (Scotland), for descriptions of the
systems adopted in various European cities.

The Medical Inspection of School Children, by W. L. Mackenzie, M.A.,
M.D.

For a very suggestive, but technical, account of a system of medical
inspection adopted in Dundee, Scotland, see the Report of
Investigation into Social Conditions, published by the Dundee Social
Union,—Part I, The Medical Inspection of School Children.

Footnote 176:

The Heritage of the Hungry, by Robert Hunter.

Footnote 177:

Special Reports on Educational Subjects, issued by the (English) Board
of Education.

Footnote 178:

Royal Commission on Physical Training (Scotland), Report.

Footnote 179:

_Idem._

Footnote 180:

Poverty, by Robert Hunter, p. 259.

Footnote 181:

The importance of attending to the teeth of school children has been
sadly overlooked in the United States. In some of our cities, notably
Rochester, N.Y., the attention of the medical inspectors of the
schools has been specially directed to the teeth, with important
results. See, for instance, the paper by Dr. Goler on Some General
Tuberculosis Problems, in the _New York State Journal of Medicine_,
August, 1905.

Footnote 182:

Bulletin of the U. S. Bureau of Labor, No. 59, p. 309.

Footnote 183:

The Field before the National Child Labor Committee, by Homer Folks,
in _Charities_, October 1, 1904.

Child Labor and the Schools, by Florence Lucas Sanville, in
_Charities_, August 26, 1905.

Illiterate Children in the Great Industrial States, by Florence
Kelley, reprinted from _Charities_.

Footnote 184:

Child Labor.—The Street, by Ernest Poole.

Children in American Street Trades, by Myron E. Adams, in the Annals
of the American Academy, May, 1905.

The Employment of Children, with Special Reference to Street Trading,
by Robert Peacock, Chief Constable of Manchester (England). A Paper
read at the Third International Congress for the Welfare and
Protection of Children, London, 1902.—Report, pp. 191–202.

See also the evidence given by various witnesses before the Royal
Commission on Physical Training (Scotland).

Footnote 185:

Education and the Larger Life, by C. Hanford Henderson, p. 142.




INDEX


A
Aberdeen, underfed school children in, 272.
Addams, Jane, 148, 196.
Adenoids, 107, 296.
Adulteration of Food, 85.
Aikin, Dr., 130.
Airy, Dr., H.M.I., 112, 113.
ALABAMA:
Child Labor Committee, 142.
Child Labor in, 148, 149.
_Alcoholzehntel_ (Switzerland), 254.
“Alfred,” History of the Factory Movement, 131.
Allentown, Pennsylvania, 183, 184.
Anæmia, 5, 83, 294.
_Annual Register_, 1792, 135.
Apprentices, pauper, 131–140.
Aristotle, 100, 125, 126, 127.
Artificial flower making, 146, 172, 173, 177.
Ashby, Dr. Henry, 18.
Association for Improving the Condition of the Poor, 233.
Asthma, 164.
ASYLUMS:
New York Foundling, 22.
New York Juvenile, 187.
Furnishing Child Labor, 198.
Atrophy, 21.
Augusta, Georgia, 150.
AUSTRALIA:
Death-rate reduced in, 245, 247.
Women nurse inspectors in, 244.

B
Back Bay, Boston, 7.
BACKWARD CHILDREN:
Become child laborers, 103.
Condition traceable to poor nutrition, 108, 278
Experiments in feeding, 115–116.
Improvement of, when properly fed, 276.
Injurious influence of, on other children, 102.
Investigation of, in California, 101–102.
Number of, in United States, estimated, 102.
Poor physique of, 100–101.
Results of feeding in England, 111, 273.
Results of feeding in France, 115.
Results of feeding in Norway, 115, 276.
Special classes for, 101.
Tend to become criminals and paupers, 104, 105.
Baillestre, Dr., 21 _n._
Ballantyne, Dr., 9 _n._
Beach, Dr. Fletcher, 108.
Beading slippers, 172.
BELGIUM:
Meals for school children in, 276.
Medical inspection in schools, 253, 276, 277.
(_See also_ Brussels.)
Belgravia, London, 5.
BERLIN:
Infant death-rate reduced in, 247.
School meals in, 274.
School sanatoria in, 255.
Still-births registered in, 52.
Bethnal Green, London, 5.
Beyer, Professor, 100.
Biddeford, Maine, 153.
BIRMINGHAM, ENGLAND:
Board of Education, 112.
Feeding of school children in, 112, 113, 272, 273.
Infant mortality in, 26.
Blincoe, Robert, quoted, 132.
Blood poisoning, 223.
Board of Charities, New York, 83.
Board of Education, Birmingham, England, 112, 113.
Board of Education, New York, 65, 66, 73.
Board of Education, Sheffield, England, 110.
BOARD OF HEALTH:
As educational agency, 244.
Lawrence, Massachusetts, 39.
New York City, 299.
Rochester, New York, 28.
Board of Regents, 225.
Bootblacks, 184.
BOSTON:
Child-labor legislation in, 259.
Death-rate in, 7.
Physical condition of poor children in, 98.
Underfed school children in, 85, 89.
Bowditch, Dr., 98.
Bowel disorders caused by malnutrition, 82.
Brassey, Thomas, 201.
British Anthropometric Committee, 96.
BRITISH INTERDEPARTMENTAL COMMITTEE:
Continuation classes recommended by, 241.
Dr. Airy’s evidence before, 112–133.
Dr. Vincent’s evidence before, 235.
Heredity considered, 291–294.
Obstetrical statistics, 8–9.
Regulations concerning the employment of married women, 230.
British Medical Association, 108.
BRONCHITIS:
Candy making predisposing to, 179.
Infant mortality from, 21.
Rachitis predisposing to, 15, 17, 298.
Browning, Mrs., 57.
BRUSSELS:
Medical examination of school children, 253, 254, 277.
School dinners in, 276.
BUFFALO, NEW YORK:
Child-labor legislation in, 259.
Underfed school children in, 83, 84, 85.
Bumbledom, British, 131, 134, 150.

C
_Caisse des écoles_, 278–286.
California, backward school children in, 101, 102.
CANNING FACTORIES:
In Maine, 170.
Maryland, 169, 170.
New York, 169.
_Cantines Scolaires_, 115, 249, 277–280, 282–287.
Cartwright’s invention, 126.
_Charities_, 234 _n._
CHARITY:
Dangers arising from, 236.
Failure of, 54.
Important experimental work done by, 234.
CHICAGO:
Child-labor investigation in, 208.
Comparative death-rates, 5.
Physical condition of working children, 175.
School meals in, 273.
Still-births in, non-registration of, 12.
Stock yards, child labor in, 189.
Studies of Smedley and Christopher in, 100.
Underfed school children in, 84, 85, 89, 273–274.
CHILD LABOR:
Backward children and, 103.
Census figures of, inadequate, 144.
Cheap goods and, 261.
Cost to society of, 194.
Dangerous conditions surrounding, 168, 175–181.
Domestic industry and, 127–129.
German legislation on, 257.
Immigration and, 214.
In Alabama, 142, 149.
In canning factories, 168, 169, 170.
In cigar and tobacco factories, 167.
In England and Scotland, 130–140.
In Georgia, 150.
In glass factories, 154–162.
In Illinois, 208.
In Indiana, 154, 155, 161.
In laundries, 168.
In Maine, 153.
In Maryland, 169–170.
In Massachusetts, 153.
In mines and quarries, 163, 167.
In New Hampshire, 153.
In New Jersey, 152, 154, 198.
In New Lanark, 134–135.
In New York, 141, 144.
In Ohio, 154, 159, 160, 162.
In Pennsylvania, 143, 144, 151, 154, 155, 163–164, 165, 166, 167,
168, 183.
In restaurants and hotels, 168.
In South Carolina, 148, 149.
In Southern states, 141, 142, 148, 149, 150, 151, 199.
In stores, 168.
In textile industries, 148–154.
In United States, 142, 143, 145.
In West Virginia, 166.
In wood-working industries, 168.
Industrial revolution and, 130–140.
Introduction of machinery retarded by, 203.
Machine age and, 129.
Machinery and, 202.
Moral ills of, 181–190.
Parental responsibility for, 205, 206.
Reasons for, 195–217, 305–306.
Synonymous with slavery, 127.
Unions opposed to, 193.
Unnecessary, 200.
Wages of adults affected by, 192, 194.
CHILD LABOR COMMITTEE:
Alabama Child Labor Committee, 142.
National Child Labor Committee, 163.
New York Child Labor Committee, 169.
Pennsylvania Child Labor Committee, 144.
Cholera infantum, 21.
Cholera morbus, 21.
Christiania, school meals in, 115, 275.
Christopher, Professor, 100.
Cleveland, Ohio, underfed school children in, 85, 89.
Coe, Dr. Henry C., 300.
_Colonies Scolaires_, 254, 255.
Columbia University, 116.
Committee of House of Commons, 139.
Competition of children with elders, 192.
Consumers’ League of New York, 208.
CONSUMPTION:
Among children, 175.
Infantile mortality from, 21.
Leather work predisposing to, 178.
Miners’, 164. (See _also_ Tuberculosis.)
Continuation classes, 241, 242.
CONVULSIONS:
Infantile mortality from, 19, 21.
Rachitis predisposing to, 17, 298.
Cotton manufacture, see Textile industries.
_Crèches_, 50, 55, 221, 231–233, 242.
Crichton-Browne, Dr., 108.
Cronin, Dr. John, 109, 253.
Croup, infant mortality from, 21.

D
Dale, David, 134.
Dangerous occupations, 175–181.
Daniel, Dr. Annie S., quoted, 34.
Danton, quoted, 247.
Darlington, Dr. Thomas, quoted, 299.
Dawson, Professor, 195.
DEATH-RATES:
Among English pauper apprentices, 134.
Birmingham, England, 26.
Comparative general, 6, 7.
Comparative infantile, 7.
England and Wales, 10, 11, 12, 13.
France, infantile, 21 n.
In Foundling Asylums, 232.
Of infants from specified causes, 21.
Of infants in Metropolitan Free Hospital, London, 7.
Of United States compared with England and Wales, 11–13.
Poverty’s effect upon, 5–7, 14–21.
Debility, infant mortality from, 21.
Defective children, 101, 111.
Defective hearing among school children, 107, 253.
Defective vision among school children, 107, 251–253, 281.
DEMOCRACY:
Education as safeguard of, 58.
Of birth and death, 8, 293, 294, 295, 296.
Dental examination of school children, 253, 255, 277.
Dependence of families on children’s wages, 207–210.
DIARRHŒA:
Infant mortality from, 21.
Infant mortality from, among rachitic children, 17, 298.
Dixon, George, 112.
Doble, Mr. Roscoe, quoted, 39.
Dodd, Dr. F. Lawson, quoted, 303.
Dolphus, Jean, 50.
Domestic industry, children in, 127, 174.
Downe, Jonathan, quoted, 139.
Drysdale, Dr. Charles R., 7.
Dundee, underfed children in, 272.
Durland, Kellogg, 210.
Duruy, M., Minister of Public Instruction, Paris, 278.
Dyspepsia among glass workers, 60.

E
Eastport, Maine, 170.
EDUCATION:
Compulsory, 58, 280.
Improvement in, means of, 59.
Of backward children in special classes, 101, 102.
Of girls in continuation classes, 241, 242.
Of idiots and feeble-minded children, 101.
Of mothers by literature, 243, 245.
Of mothers by literature, cost of, 243.
Of mothers by school nurses, 242.
Of physically defective children, 101, 111.
Poor material for, 59–60, 276, 294.
Eichholz, Dr., 272, 291, 295.
Ellis, Mrs. Havelock, 30.
Elysée, Paris, 5.
ENGLAND:
Alarm caused by infant mortality in, 9–10.
Comparison of physical development of children in, 96–98.
Feeding of children in schools, 109, 117, 272.
Infant mortality in, 9–10.
Laws regulating employment of married women in, 45.
Pasteurization of milk introduced in, 235.
Problem of poverty in, 63–64.
Regulation of midwives in, 224.
Underfeeding in, 297.
Epilepsy, 17.
Erfurt, vital statistics of, 7.
Etzler, J. A., 203.

F
Factory Act, first English, 136.
(_See also_ Legislation.)
Fall River, Massachusetts, child labor in, 153.
Fancy-box making, 172, 174.
Fancy-slipper making, 172.
Felt-hat manufacture, dangers from, 176, 177.
Folks, Homer, 231, 306.
Fourier, Charles, 64.
Fox, Charles H., and Fox Bros., 50, 51.
FRANCE:
_Caisse des écoles_ and their use, 278–285.
_Cantines Scolaires_, 115, 249.
Cost of school meals in, 283–286.
_Crèches_, 50, 55, 221, 231–233, 242.
Fresh-air outings in, 94.
_Gouttes de Lait_, 55, 235.
Infant death-rate in, 21 _n._
Medical inspection in schools, 253, 256, 281.
Pensions to mothers, 229.
School colonies, 280, 281.
School funds, see _Caisse des écoles_.
School meals in, 277–280, 282–286.

G
GERMANY:
Child-labor legislation in, 257.
Death certificates in, 245.
Medical inspection in schools, 253, 255.
Midwives, regulation of, in, 224, 300.
School meals in, 274.
Gillette, Dr., 21 _n._
Gladstone, Herbert, M.P., 271.
Glasgow, Scotland, underfed children in, 272.
Glassborough, New Jersey, 161.
GLASS MANUFACTURE:
Child labor unnecessary in, 200.
Children employed in, 154–162.
In United States, 154.
In Venice and Murano, seventeenth century, 128.
Machinery used in, 204.
Goler, Dr. George W., 22, 235, 304.
Gorst, Sir John, 27.
_Gouttes de Lait_, 55, 235.
Groszmann, Dr., 101.

H
Hall, Professor G. Stanley, 101.
_Hansard’s Parliamentary Debates_, 138.
Henderson, C. Hanford, 229.
Heredity, 8, 9, 291–296.
History of the Factory Movement, 131.
Holiday Colonies (Switzerland), 254.
Holt, Dr. L. Emmet, 296–297.
Home employment of mothers, 33.
Home industries, children employed in, 171–174.
Hood, Thomas, 156.
Hornbaker, William, principal Chicago school, 84.
HOSPITALS:
Bellevue, New York City, 300.
Death-rate in Foundling, 232.
Filled by victims of childhood poverty, 24.
General Memorial, New York City, 300.
Infants’, Randall’s Island, New York City, 232.
Metropolitan Free, London, 7.
New York Babies’, inquiry in, 27.
New York Lying-in, 224.
HOUSING:
Among Italians, 78.
Among Jews, 25.
Infantile death-rate not lowered by improvement in, 26.
Relation of, to tuberculosis, 26.
Hrdlicka, Dr., 98.
Huddersfield, England, campaign of education in, 30.
Hungarians in carpet works, 178.
Hunter, Robert, 61, 62, 63, 65, 277, 286.
Huxley, Professor T. H., 77.
Hyndman, H. M., 271.

I
Iceland, loom used in, 126.
IGNORANCE:
A cause of malnutrition, 82.
Among factory girls, 31, 32.
Babies victims of, 27, 28, 29–32, 37, 39, 239.
Campaign against maternal, 30, 31, 240.
Often only one of poverty’s disguises, 37.
Remedial measures for, 30, 239–245.
Social need of protection against, 214.
Illegitimate children, death-rate among, 7.
ILLINOIS:
Child-labor investigation in, 208, 209, 210.
Child-labor law, 208.
(_See also_ Chicago.)
Illiteracy in the United States, 143.
Imbeciles in English cotton mills, 134.
Inanition, infant mortality from, 12.
INDIANA:
Child labor in, 154, 155, 161.
Children working by night in, 161.
Glass manufacture in, 154, 155, 159, 161.
Industrial revolution in England, 130, 149.
Industrial Schools, England, 96.
Industrial Schools, New York City, 83.
INFANTILE MORTALITY:
Among Irish and Italians, 25, 26.
Among Jews, 25, 26.
Effect of improved milk supply on, 22, 23, 247.
Employment of mothers a cause of, 37, 38–44, 50.
From eleven given causes, 21.
Ignorance of mothers a cause of, 27, 28, 29–32, 37, 39, 239.
In England and Wales, 9–12.
In United States, 11–13.
Lowered in siege of Paris and Lancashire cotton famine, 43, 44.
Malnutrition principal cause of, 26, 27.
Not affected by sanitary improvements, 26.
Proportion of, due to poverty, 20.
Proportion of, due to socially preventable causes, 13, 21.
Reduced in Australia, Berlin, and Rochester, 247.
Relative, among rich and poor, 7.
Still-births and, 52.
INTEMPERANCE:
As a cause of child labor, 210, 211.
Employment of married women due to, 34.
Malnutrition as a cause of, 90.
Inter-Departmental Committee, see British Interdepartmental Committee.
IRISH:
Infantile mortality among, 26.
Underfed school children among, 26.
ITALIANS:
Child labor among, 199.
Housing among, 78.
Infant mortality among, 26.
Underfed children among, 71, 78.
ITALY:
Feeding of school children in, 248, 249, 274, 287–290.
Medical attendance free in, 275.
Medical inspection in schools, 253.

J
Jenner, Sir William, 16.
Jevons, Professor W. S., 38.
JEWS:
Bad housing among, 25.
Mortality of infants among, 25.
Juvenile delinquents, 187–189.

K
Keen, Dr. W. W., 98.
Kelley, Mrs. Florence, 160, 162.
Kensington Labor Lyceum, Philadelphia, 151.
Kilham, Dr. Eleanor B., 301, 302.
Kline, Professor, 105.
Knopf, Dr. S. A., 26.

L
_Laissez faire_, 136, 141.
Lancashire, England, cotton famine, 44, 51.
Lancaster, Pennsylvania, 184.
_La Revolté_, 147.
Laryngismus Stridulus, 298.
Lawrence, Massachusetts, child labor in, 153.
Lead poisoning, 179.
Lechstrecker, Dr. H. M., 83.
LEGISLATION:
Alabama Child Labor Committee and, 142.
Artificial infant foods should be subject to, 245–246.
Child labor, suggested, 256–260. (_See also_ Child Labor.)
Factory acts, first British, 136.
Feeding of school children matter for, 271, 272, 279, 280.
German child labor, 257.
Interest of society to protect children by, 191, 305–306.
_Manufacturers’ Record_ on child labor, 142.
Midwifery, regulation of, by, 222, 225, 299, 300, 301.
Relating to employment of mothers near childbirth, 44, 45, 49, 227,
230.
Relating to street trades, 258, 259.
Ten Hours’ Bill in England, 137, 139.
United States in need of further, 257–260.
Leipzic, physique of school children in, 96.
LITTLE MOTHERS:
Among Italians, 78.
A social menace, 38.
Responsible for much infant mortality, 38, 39, 44.
Litton Mill, 133.
LONDON:
Death-rate of infants in, 7.
Death-rates of Belgravia and Bethnal Green, 5.
Obstetrical Society of, 294, 295.
Physical degeneration among school children in, 291–293.
Special school for defective children, 111.
Underfeeding of children in, 272.
Los Angeles, California, underfed school children in, 85.
Lovejoy, Owen R., 158, 161.
Lowe, David, 218.
Lubec, Maine, 170.

M
McKelway, Dr., 148, 199.
Maine, canning factories, 170.
Malins, Dr. Edward, 294.
Manchester, England, epidemic in, 135.
Manchester, New Hampshire, 153.
_Manufacturers’ Record_ on child-labor legislation, 142.
Marasmus, 297.
MARRIED WOMEN, EMPLOYMENT OF:
Away from homes, 33, 34, 37–44.
Census returns of, inadequate, 32, 33.
Daniel, Dr. Annie S., on, 34.
Evil results of, 32, 35–51.
Infantile mortality caused by, 37, 38–44, 50.
In home industries, 33, 34–37.
Jevons, Professor W. S., on, 38.
Legislation relating to, 44, 45, 49, 227, 230.
Wages of married women workers, 31, 32, 34.
Maryland, 169.
Maxwell, Dr. W. H., 64.
Measles, 17–21, 298.
MEDICAL INSPECTION IN SCHOOLS:
In Belgium, 253, 276, 277.
In England, 253.
In France, 109, 253, 280, 281.
In Germany, 253, 255.
In Italy, 109, 253, 275.
In London, 198.
In Minnesota, 281.
In New York City, 107, 109, 253, 281.
In Norway, 109, 253, 254.
In Switzerland, 253.
In United States, need of, 251–253, 255–256, 281, 282.
Ménilmontant, Paris, death-rate in, 5.
Messengers, 184, 185, 186, 187, 188, 189.
MIDWIVES:
Inefficiency of, 53, 300.
Maternal deaths due to, 300.
Still-births due to ignorance of, 53.
Supervision of, needed, 222–226, 299, 300, 301.
MILK:
Adulteration of, 28, 29.
High death-rate due to impure, 22.
Sterilization of, 235, 304–305.
Straus system of Pasteurization of, 22, 29, 234–236.
(_See also_ Municipal Milk Depots.)
Minnesota, investigation of school children in, 281.
Minnesota State Public School, at Owatonna, 120, 121.
Minotola, New Jersey, strike of glass-blowers in, 198.
Monroe, Professor W. S., 101, 102.
Montgomery, Alabama, 149.
Montmartre, Paris, 279, 280, 282.
Morris, William, 126.
Moscow, 96.
“Mother” Mary Jones, 151.
Mt. Carbon, West Virginia, 166.
Mundella, Mr., M.P., 108, 109.
MUNICIPAL MILK DEPOTS:
Advantages of, 234–238, 302–305.
Dodd, Lawson, on, 303.
French, see _Gouttes de Lait_.
In England, 234, 235.
In Europe, 238.
Powell, Sir Richard Douglas, on, 303.
Rochester, New York, 22, 23, 235, 236, 238, 304–305.
St. Helen’s, Lancashire, England, 235.
Murphy, Edward Gardner, 148.

N
Nathan, Mrs. Frederick, 208.
National Child Labor Committee, 163.
NEW JERSEY:
Child-labor investigation in, 210.
Child-labor law, 1904, 210.
Glass manufacture, 154.
Glass manufacture, children employed in, 154, 159, 161, 162.
Orphan Asylum children employed in, 198.
New Lanark, Scotland, 134.
Newsboys, 184, 185, 187, 188, 258.
NEW YORK CITY:
Child-labor legislation in, 258.
Estimated number of children in, 61.
Foundling Asylum in, 22.
Home factories in, 33–37, 173.
Medical inspection in schools of, 107, 109, 253, 281.
School nurses in, 242.
Still-births in, 52.
Underfed school children in, 61, 64–83, 90–95.
New York Child Labor Committee, 169.
New York County Medical Association, 224.
New York Foundling Asylum, 22.
NEW YORK STATE:
Canning factories in, 169.
Carpet factories in, 178.
Child labor in, 141.
Child-labor investigation in, 210.
Child-labor legislation in, 258.
Midwives, regulation of, 223, 299.
Number of children of school age not attending school in, 144.
Nibecker, Mr., Supt. House of Refuge, Pennsylvania, 187.
Nichols, Mr. Francis H., 210.
NORWAY:
Backward children in, 115, 276.
Excursions for school children, 275.
Meals for school children, 114, 115, 275, 276.
Medical inspection of school children in, 109, 253, 254.
School sanatoria, 254.
Special dietary for weak children, 115, 254.
Notes and authorities, 307–323.
Nottingham, England, 132.

O
Oastler, Richard, M.P., 137.
Obstetrical Society of London, 294, 295.
Ohio, child labor in, 154, 159, 160, 162.
Glass manufacture in, 154.
Oneida, New York, 169.
Orphan children compelled to work, 162, 198.
Owatonna, Minnesota, 120, 121.
Owen, Robert, 134, 135, 153, 165.
Oxford, Maryland, 169.

P
Paralysis, 178.
PARIS:
_Caisse des écoles_, 278–282, 283, 284.
_Cantines Scolaires_, 115, 249, 277–287.
Death-rates in Elysée and Ménilmontant, 5.
Infant mortality during siege of, 43, 44, 51.
Medical inspection in schools of, 109.
Underfeeding and dulness, 109.
Parsons, Mrs. Elsie Clews, 239.
PASTEURIZATION OF MILK:
In New York City, 29, 234, 236.
In New York Foundling Asylum, 22.
In Rochester, New York, 22, 23, 235, 236, 238.
In St. Helen’s, Lancashire, England, 235.
Renders digestion difficult, 305.
Scorbutus caused by, 304.
Unnecessary, 235.
PATENT INFANT FOODS:
Dangers arising from, 28.
Federal supervision of manufacture and sale of, 245.
Paterson, New Jersey, 152.
Paton, Dr. Noel, 9 _n._
Pauper apprentices in England, 131–136, 150, 162.
Peek, Sir Henry, 109.
Peel, Sir Robert, 136.
PENNSYLVANIA:
Cigarmakers’ Union and child labor in, 193.
Employment of children in cigar factories in, 167, 168.
Employment of children in glass factories, 154, 155, 159.
Employment of children in mines, 163.
Investigation by Child Labor Commissioner of, 144.
Investigation of reasons for employment of children, 210.
Orphan children employed in, 198.
Pertussis, 298.
PHILADELPHIA:
Employment of children in, 144, 151.
Still-births formerly not registered, 12.
Underfed children in, 85.
Phosphor poisoning, 179.
PHYSICAL CONDITION OF POOR CHILDREN:
Accountable for educational failures, 100.
Inferior to richer children, 96–98.


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