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John Stainer.

# Harmony, with an appendix containing one hundred graduated exercises

. (page 4 of 8)

' ? 1

The following chromatic resolutions are of frequent occur-
rence : â€”

Ex. 87.

Ex. 88.

The minor seventh sometimes ascends chromatically, e.g. â€”

Ex. 89.

I

-gs^

S=^^

3

I2ZI

^

I

^

^

94. It will be seen that in Ex. 82 the resolution is on to the
chord of the tonic ; in Ex. 83 on to the chord of the relative
minor ; in Ex. 84 on to the dominant of the relative minor ; in
Ex. 85 on to the chord of the tonic ; in Ex. 86 on to the chord
of the super-dominant of the minor scale.

EXERCISE.

Write out the resolutions shown in Ex. 82 to 89 in several
different keys.

95. When 8 is followed by 7, there being no other figures,
the 3 generally remain stationary.

56

HARMONY.

It will be remembered that when 5 goes to 6, or 6 to 5, the J
generally remain stationary, e.g. â€”

â–  90. -i^

=t=S

-C â€” â€” â€” â€¢ â€¢ â€” ^ â€” =j-

^

P

-fâ€”

5 6 6 6 8 7

96. Lines placed under notes, in the place where figures
usually stand, imply that the sounds of the previous chord are
to be retained, e.g. â€”

Ex. 91.

3 F=g=S

9

:r=t:

1 â€” I â€” r

^

A A J. J.

m^^^

^

Tt

"T^

97. A False Relation is the separation of two chromatic
notes, by giving one of them to one part and the other to
another part, e.g.â€”

Ex. 92.

P^^^

^-

sa^

m

?P2=

1=^-

-Ef^2_

P

If the chromatic notes both occur in the same part, the bad
effect is avoided e.g. â€”

Ex. 93

r^

m=t^

-f-T-

m

I I

HARMONY.

57

98. The bad effect of a false relation may be heard even when
a chord intervenes between the chromatic notes.

-I

3i:

-^rr-

Ex. 94.

r=r

^5^=

7r :r.

:^2=

f- j :

-r

gg. There are many cases in which a progression which
appears to be a false relation to the eye is not at all offensive to
the ear. Experience will show the pupil when he may safely
neglect the ordinary rule against them.

A.

A.

MASTER AND PUPIL.

Q. What is meant by a fundamental bass ?

A. The note on which a chord is built.

Q. Give me an example.

A . In the chord C, E, G the note C is called the fundamental
bass, in whatever position the notes arc found, C, E, G ; E, G, C ;
or G, C, E.

Q. Then the inversion of a chord does not alter the funda-
mental bass ?

A. Certainly not.

What other names are given to the fundamental bass ?
Root, ground-note, or generator.

In analysing chords, how is it best to state their nature ?
First, say the number of the inversion ; next, the name of
the chord ; lastly, the note on which it is built. For instance,
" The second inversion of the common chord of F."

Q. What is the chord of the dominant seventh ?

A . It consists of the dominant of any key, with its third, fifth,
and seventh; for example, G, B, D, F, in the key of C ; or, again,
E, G^ B, D, on E.

Q. Why do you say " oti " E ?

A. Because that is the note on which it is built. It is built oÂ«
E, but is in the key of A.

Q. Can you state this fact in general terms ?

A. Yes ; all dominant chords are built on the dominant, but
are in the key of the tonic.

Q. What do you mean by a discord ?

A . A chord containing a dissonant interval, or a discordant
note.

58 HARMONY.

Q. How many sounds can be brought together without dis-
turbing the idea of concord ?

A. Only three ; a note, with its third and fifth, as in the major
and minor common chords.

Q. What is a concord ?

A. A chord containing nothing but consonant intervals.

Q. What is a discord ?

A. A chord containing one or more dissonant intervals.

Q. How many in versions has the chord of the dommant seventh?

A. Three.

Q. How are they figured ?

A. First inversion, ? ; second, J ; third, i.

Q. Are these the full forms of the figures ?

A, No; I implies a 3 ; | implies a 6; | implies a 6.

Q. What is the figuring of the original position ?

A. A y, implying a | also.

Q. How is it that this chord forms so important a liiLk
between a major key and its tonic minor ; and, again, between
a minor key and its tonic major ?

A. Because the chord is the same in both cases ; for example,
A, CJ, E, and G is the chord of the dominant seventh in the
keys of D major (two sharps) and D minor (one fiat) ; and it
will lead into one key as well as mto the other.

Q. What is the preparation of a discord ?

A. Making the dissonant note appear as a consonant note in
the previous chord.

Q. What is the percussion of a discord ?

A. The chord in which the dissonant note is struck.

Q. What is the resolution of a discord ?

A. The taking of a dissonant note to a consonant note in the
chord following.

Q. Do dommant discords require preparation ?

A. No, they are particularly free from harshness.

Q. Into what classes are resolutions of the chord of the
dominant seventh divided ?

A. Into two classes, diatonic resolutions and chromatic
resolutions.

Q. What is the meaning of lines under notes in the place of
figures ?

A. They direct that the sounds of the previous chord are to
be retained.

Q. What is a false relation ?

A. The separation of two notes of the chromatic scale, caused
by not giving both to the same part.

Q. How can it be avoided ?

A . By giving both the notes to the same part.

HARMONY.

59

EXERCISES ON THE CHORD OF THE DOMINANT

SEVENTH.

ALTO AND TENOR PARTS TO BE ADDED.

4 rJ ^ -rJ ^

^

â€¢J - I J ^J-J^

=P=?=

^ ^ ' ^ i :J

^

2 [^ P (^

i^

Tâ€” 1 â€” r

4
3

:^

:^

r - * P ^

6 4 6
2

1 \ ^ ^

2z:

=^

:^

5

4 I

^

Z2=t^:

2::Â£

^3=^

^

f J f^ ^ â€” r^

p

rrrr-rr

-f^ â€” I 1 HS' â€” 7n â€” P^-

JZ^:

4 6 6 6
3 5

6

4 6

3

4 6 6 5
2 4 3

II.

^

a>^-4

:^

^^=#^

3i:

33

f^ *

4 6

2

^

:g= -p *-

6 7

j?, I ^ J|J I .J.| I I II J|J J l J . l -T - ]

S

*=e:

g

r' l r rif r

n I *

?3=

6 6 5

4 Â«

' I r

f4 6 e e

2 4 4

. 3

^

When the bass of 4 rises, the third of the bass may rise also. t>V\ \\ u>'""''

#^^^.

*

6o

HARMONY.

^=^

=Â«=S:

Y"^â€”^

22Z

^

-^r-r

:^

E

^

^-P-S'-

rrT

4 6 6 5

2 4 3

B

fi

6

6

7

4

5

4

Â«

a

III.

I J J l I I J-jl I i I J

â– ^ "^ * \ ='f= ^ ^ I ^ J J ^

s^

^

^Eg^

-"P^H*

3T(t

^

=t=i

Â±:

6 6 4 6 6 4

3 3

4 6 6
2 5

6 7

4 *

^m

Ei

:i-=^

^â€”i-

V):i f f

-r-y-

l=t:

-*-!-Â»-

=r

=iiE:=^

6 6
4
3

6 |4 6 6
4 2

6 7

S

^ J l ^ ^ J J l J g

:^^

j i^ ^

=^

^

S

* , Â»

r-i*~

=f=*:

-r-y -

-I is^

7 7

7 7

11

6 7 117

HARMONY.

6i

IV.

ga fjJJ | .^ fjfH^

i

^ v^

EE^^^3e

^

-yrzr-

^

f^i SI .s^

^^-^

6 6
5

5 *^ ^

4 2

isE^

"^ d-

-g) rj

rj (-J -j^

s

g

r i ' r f

'^'^

^

=822==^

6 6 6

4 4 5

3 t;

US

6 6 6 4
4 2

i

d2=t:

3

izz:

^ â€” s^-

CD !:i '- G S

S

=822:

^

-TTJ-

E^

O fg

iS^

P

6 5 7

if I

4
3

6 7 1)7

iiti

-t â€” I-

3^

^SÂ±

^rzznr*:

S

s

^ ^ffe^

( !:?â€¢ Â»-

-jâ€” hr

' â€” i â€” "-t â€” ^

6746 6 67 67

6 3 5 ;

E 2

62

HARMONY.

i

J â€” L

I ^

4^ â€” L

* a ^ *^

i^

-s*-^

^^ < i> a, * =;irrt=

-r^ * !^r

m^

t=t=t

tut

^?E&

t=t

6 4 6
6 2

6 4 6 6
5 2

8 4 6

t! 5

4
3

^

It^

"*^~ * r

'^ 9 * ^g.

^

- J:"-=^

^

Â» f

^^

-^ -1*^

â– ^ ^ â€” ^-

7 6 817 5 6 6 5

i 4 3

f=^=

6 7

VI.

^

S==i^

W=^

M'Â»s. -j-^

r-^r r I fTr

-+-

S
-i^_

p:=3t

Â£

-ri^^

:p*

^fi!^

1 1-

46 6465 66 7 â€ž 464

3 3434 % \ 23

o

i

^^

> r>-^

:=5t:

-A-t-

3t=StJzac

V^-J -

F

: t-T ;^ â€” Jl*

*H

fcÂ«;

-Ttp T

W.

S

6 6
6

4 6
2

6 S 6

4 4
3

6 6 b7 6 6 6
4 4 3 4 3

HARMONY.

63

EXERCISES ON THE CHORD OF THE DOMINANT

SEVENTH.

TREBLE, ALTO, AND TENOR TO BE ADDED.

mji r (' r F

=2==

3^

5=a

Â«4 6
2

r?

-p- r?

s^

221

â– 7 r ?

4 6
2

4 4
3 2

Â»^rf^

:^=

I&

:^

g) ^

^^

Z2l

3

6 6

4

3

6 7

IL

^m

r> I *

â– p-y

S

/J p

3?=^

t=t

6 4
3

6 6

b5

H4
2

^z:

g

m

irfc:

?==

:^z:

^

^2z22:

6 4
2

6 4
3

45

III.

m

^K

SE

p I *

1^-r

^

"t^

J''!*-

4 6 6

2

6 7

4 f

^7

- 6 4

6 6 6
4 3

S

r # ii#

^

r # J

^=Si:

â€¢"Â»g I I

^S

6

4 6

6

14

6 ti7

e

2

2

4
3

6 5
4 3

64

HARMONY.

IV.

v ^ fcg \\

w^

- ^

â– S=fS^2=

^1=;

-2^^-

32:

44

2

6

4
3

14
2

^

T^-T^

IZ2I

iciz

=^

=^

D6

^

i^T^

*Eg^

r g -4; g ^

:^

r^

22=i^2:

-t-

6

US

6 6
5

P=^

d'l J J '-^

- p-r:^

T==]:

:^^

g-|-^'=^

:^=

â–  ^2=^^

6 jt4 6 6 6

2 4 5

'-^^-^

6 6
4
3

6 7

m

-^

zz:

:i

^

221

=^Â±22

T-:^-;

6

7

e

6

e

4

*

4
3

4
3

6 7

|4
2

6 6

|4
2

VI.

1

/â€¢s. > 1 ^ r *

Â« ^

- : 1 1

[<â€¢;â€¢ .- -4- ^ r

f ^ -

^

.J ,.

VL^ 1 1 1

1 I r

_.p_

* r ' !

1 1 - '1* 1

-+ 1 '

'

1

"1

6 6 S4 6 6
4 2 4

3

i4
2

6 *

j!4 6 6

2 4

3

4
2

r

^

â€¢

P r 1

(?;â€¢> I ^

1 '

V_- J 1

1 ' 1

1 ' J

* â€” * a '

G5

CHAPTER VIII.

100. When a consonant note is sustained through the chord
which follows, and forms a discord, it is called a discord of
suspension, or simply a Suspension.

Ex. 95.

S

J T^^' J z

^

sp

^

7^

~T7 -

I 9 8

The above (Ex. 95) shows the suspension 9 to 8.

loi. It will be seen that the percussion of the discord occurs
on the accented portion of the bar, and also that the note of
preparation is bound to the dissonant note so as to prevent its
repetition. This example also shows that a g implies a 5 and 3
of the bass note.

102. It frequently happens that the ground-note of chords of
the ninth is omitted in the inversions. The first and second
inversions of the suspension of Ex. 95 will therefore be â€”

Ex. 95.

f=^

P^l n

â€” â–  rJ

1

â€” S"

E.\. 97.

vJ^T^^^

^4â€” p â€” e â€”

^: p-^ ^ 'â–

But in the last inverson, where the ninth itself is in the bass,
the ground-note is often admitted, e.g. â€”

-1-

Ex. 98.

i

m

S

4
3

^

66

HARMONY.

103. If the pupil will examine the figuring of Ex. 96 and 97,
he will see that the former is figured I to |, and the latter f to ^.
This plainly shows that figuring is merely a system of measure-
ment from the lowest note, and has nothing whatever to do with
the derivation or nature of a chord.

The percussion of the discords in Ex. 96 and 97 is described,
in the former by I. and in the latter by f, and yet both are
inversions of a ninth.

104. Unless the pupil fully appreciates this fact, any great
progress in harmony will be impossible ; it cannot therefore be
said too often that " the figures under a chord are only intended
to describe the intervals it contains, not to show its derivation."

EXERCISE.
Write out Ex. 95 to 98 in several keys.

105. The suspension 9 to 8 occurs on all the degrees of the
scale, except the leading-note. It is, however, rarely used on
the mediant.

106. The ninth is usually not less than nine notes distant
from its tonic ; that is, it rarely occurs as a 2 to i.

107. In Ex. 96, attention should be called to the fact that the
\ does not include a 5 ; the reason is, the fifth of the bass note
would here be the seventh of the ground note, and so form an

For the same reason the f in Ex. 97 does not include a 3.

108. The ninth should not be prepared by an eighth, e.g. â€”

Ex. 99.

â€” r-.

m

:^

^
^

I22Z

=^

=?=:

r

109. Another form of stating the same rule is, " A progression
which is bad without a suspension is not made good by the
introduction of a suspension." If the suspensions were taken
away from the progressions in Ex. 99, consecutive octaves
would be found; therefore the progressions are bad, although the
suspensions appear to have removed the consecutives.

no. Such progressions as the above (Ex. 99) should be
avoided, not only between the extreme parts, but between any
parts.

HARMONY.

67

The following are also objectionable between ayiy two parts :
Ex. loo.

i

-I-

J-

^ J I, ! J

^

:22;

^

?^

?=

=?=:

:^

:^=

^

=P

-r

Such progressions have so much the effect of consecutive
octaves that the}' are called Hidden Octaves. They can be
discovered by filling in the intermediate notes in the part which
moves by a skip.

III. For analogous reasons, such progressions as the following
are called Hidden Fifths.

1-

E.\. loi.

ps^

:?2=

=?:=:

:^

These, too, can be discovered by filling in the intermediate
notes in the part which moves by a skip.

Hidden fifths are not disallowed unless they occur in the
extreme parts. Hidden fifths even in the extreme parts may
sometimes be used with good effect.

MASTER AND PUPIL.

Q. What is a suspension ?

A . The sustaining of a consonant note into the next chord so
as to form a discord.

Q. What is the suspension g to 8 ?

A . It is the discord of the ninth resolving on to the eighth, the
ninth being prepared in the previous chord.

Q. How is the ninth accompanied ?

^. ByaJ.

Q. Has it any inversions ?

A. Yes ; the 3rd, or 5th, or gth may be in the bass, but in the
inversions the ground-note is generally omitted.

Q. How would the first inversion be figured ?

A. 7 or |.

58

HARMONY.

Q. Would it then be right to call it a chord of the seventh ?

A. Certainly not; figures only show the intervals which a
chord contains, they do not explain its derivation.

Q. Does the suspension g to 8 occur on other notes besides the
tonic ?

A. Yes, but it is rarely heard on the mediant, and never on

Q. Is there any rule relating to the preparation of the ninth ?

A. Yes, the g should not be prepared by an 8.

Q. Does any general rule enforce this ?

A . Yes. " A progression which is wrong when the suspension
is omitted, is wrong when it is introduced. Bad without the

Q. What are hidden octaves and fifths ?

A . Motion between two parts which S7iggests consecutive
octaves and fifths although they do not actually occur.

Q. How can they be discovered ?

A. By filling up in one or both parts the intermediate notes
diatonically, when octaves or fifths will appear.

Q. Are they always forbidden ?

A. No, they are sometimes used with good effect.

EXERCISES ON THE SUSPENSION NINE TO
EIGHT, AND ITS INVERSIONS.

I.

(Filled up for an example to the pupil.)

g=5

J:

^Â±1

u

zS:

^

^?=:

^^^

r

-oâ€” .s â€” ^

m

-^

9=(=^

^

zz:

z=^

^^

^^

^

1 â€” r

^- jri. jS-

-A I

A.

'(Â«^

zz:

-^-^

Z2Z

1 1-

8 9 8 9 8

8

8

6 6-

5 4

[Notice that the fifth of the tonic is doubled in the inversions.]

HARMONY. 69

ALTO AND TENOR PARTS TO BE ADDED.

II.

ie^

^

^

< ^ r - J -

=^

^=9~^V^>-~^

i^

Q Q I

r

:?=

98 6 986 98 98 6 98 98

^

i

â–  g r.

=2:fc=S

->^ .^ fj

2ZI

::^

S

(no 5th) (no 3rd)

(no 3rd)

-^"^

S^

=?^

:^

Sfe:

=^

It

766 6-B 6 6 986 6-6

3- 544 5 543

3

III.

#'

1

p^

1

rJ -

-^

H*-

-^-

;Â«

C^i

â€” *-

-rS^

â€” s^â€”

^-

1 r-v

^^:-^

-4â€”

1

â€” i

L

-|

1

r '

^â€” I-

4 6 6 9 8
3 5

6 5 9 8

-^U-

I i-:^i

E^

* * -^

^^ d

^

n

(no 5th)

(no 5th) (no 3rd)

^

=&

:^

6=1:

r^ r - i -

^ â€” ^"1 â€” r

"cr-

7 6
3-

6 98 5G 7666

3 -

6 - 8 7
5 4

70 HARMONY.

TREBLE. ALTO, AND TENOR TO BE ADDED.*

4 7 6
2 3-

V.

E&

ISIZZ

^

^

^=?=:

isi

6 5 9 8

4 3

65 9 8
4 3

7 6
3-

^

^^^

:St

7 6
3-

9 8

7 6
3-

9 8

6 5
4 3

VI.

W^

m

m

^

IEÂ£

:?2=

zi:

6 5
4 3

9 8

9 8

6-

5 4

9 8

grit it r^ g Â»

^^P^

^

2i:

2:^:

7 6 6 9 8
3- 5

t 6 98

7 6
3 -

5 6
3 4

* The pupil must be careful to remember that there is no 5 in I, and no 3
in I when they represent respectively the first and second inversion of the
suspension g to 8. In all other cases ?, includes 5 ; g includes 3.

HARMONY.

71

CHAPTER IX.

112. It has been already stated tliat the 9 to 8 is used on
various degrees of the scale, and in the exercises just given it
will occasionally be found on the Dominant. But it is so
frequently used without preparation on the dominant that it
cannot be called a suspension ; some authors call it the chord
of the Added Ninth ; others, the Fundamental Ninth. The
chord of the Dominant Ninth is, however, the best name for it.
In its full form it is not so often met with as in its inversions.

It is rarely used without the seventh ; and is often found on
the unaccented portion of a bar.

Like the suspension 9 to 8, the dominant ninth loses its
ground-note in its inversions. In its resolution the ninth
descends, the seventh (being minor) descends, the third (being

Ex. 102.

Ex. 103.

Ex. 104.

m

_Â£s_

:?=::

Ex. 105.

^

T I

*

4 6

i

Ex. 106.

-I-

^

:^

^

S-p=^

=s=

or better.

Z2I

-^^

HARMONY.

113. The fifth of this chord, when below the ninth, must
always ascend a note 01 fall a fifth. Consecutive fifths would
be made if the fifth should descend one degree, e.g. â€”

Ex. 107.

m

m

A

^F^

Ex. 108.

('i> H i

W^

m

r

^

^^

Good.

^

:^3=

EXERCISE.
Write out Ex. 102 to 106 in several keys.

114. It should also be noticed that in the chord of resolution
the third of the tonic is doubled, even if the chord of resolution
is the first inversion of the key-chord (see Ex. 104 and 105) ;
also that | implies a 6, and | also implies a 6.

115. The ninth may in every case resolve before the minor
seventh. This could be done by making the note A (in Ex. 102
to 106) into A, G, crotchets.

MASTER AND PUPIL.

Q. Is the Dominant ninth called a suspension?

A. No; because it is so frequently used without preparation.

Q. What then is it called ?

A. Some call it the chord of the Added ninth; others, the
Fundamental ninth.

Q. What notes does it consist of ?

A. The Dominant, with its third, fifth, seventh, and ninth.

Q. How is it resolved ?

A. The ninth proceeds down, the seventh down, but the
leading-note (the third of the chord) always goes up to the
tonic.

HARMONY.

73

Q. What becomes of the fifth of the chord ?

A. If it is below the ninth it cannot go to the next degree
below, because by so doing it would make consecutive fifths ; it
therefore either moves one degree up or goes down a fifth.

Q. Does the whole chord resolve at once ?

A. It may either do so or the ninth may resolve before the
seventh.

Q. What is the first inversion of the dominant ninth on the
ground-note Bi' ?

A . D, F. Al?, C. C goes to B?, Ab to G, F to G, D to Eb.

Q. Why have you not included Bt> ?

A. Because the ground-note is generally omitted in the
inversions.

Q. What is tlie third inversion of the dominant ninth on the
ground-note D ?

A. C, Ff, A, E. E goes to D, A to B, Ff to G, C to B.

EXERCISES ON THE CHORD OF THE DOMINANT

NINTH.
I.

I

m

:^E3

^

^

^^^

-rzl-

Z!=tL

rJ rJ

3

g

r^ r^

e

:&

3 : ^ ^ r^

^

=^

-1 â€” r

4 6
3

i

Â«k=jf=

i^E^

^^=^=^

t|=t

5

TT^-r:)-

:2^=^

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fi P

â– ^

f ' r fT

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G 6 \
4

9 6 7 6
7 5 5

6 6 5
4 3

74

HARMONY.

II

et

a^gg

rj , d

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zz;

-(3-

2^:

5=-f

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3 6 5

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5 4

III.

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l ^wn r r r^

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2 3-5

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6 6
6

6

4 -
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6 7

i i I
6-7
4 -

2

HARMONY.

75

IV.

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r j r ^

^^

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22:

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g

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6 6 4
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1 1-

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7 -
5 -

6 5
4 3

V.

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5

6 7 6

6 7

VI.

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- 6-

6 5

4i

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4 6
3

6 6
5

6 6 6

4 qs

6 5
4 3

76

CHAPTER X.

ii6. The suspension 4 to 3 is found on the tonic and all
degrees of the scale. It is, however, rarely used on the fourth
degree (sub-dominant), because the 4 from the sub-dominant is
an augmented fourth. It is also rarely found on the leading-
note.

109.

:*=S

rv^rr

Ex. iio.

W^^

T

9

Ei^

r

m

5=^=^2

:^

Ex. III. '

^

:z2i

S

m

2 -

In Ex. 109 is the original position of the suspension 4 to 3.
In Ex. no the fifth of the ground-note is in the bass.
In Ex. Ill the suspension 4 to 3 is in the bass.

117. It will be noticed that the 4 to 3 is only accompanied
by^

118. In this chord the third of the ground-note should not be
heard at the same time as the fourth.

It is a general rule that " a discord should not be heard with
the note on to which it is resolved," but exceptions will be seen
in Ex. 116 to 119; and the original position of the suspended
ninth is an exception (see Ex. 95).

EXERCISE.
Write out Ex. 109 to in in several keys.

119. The 4 to 3 on the dominant is not called a suspension;
it is called the chord of the Dominant Eleventh. It is, like all
dominant discords, used frequently without preparation ; but of
course it may be prepared.

HARMONY.

It is most commonly combined with the seventh.

77

Ex. 112.

Ex. 113.

F

w

^

T^

-r:r-

-rj^

^^

^

:?=:

zi

?=:

4 3

7 -
4 3

7 6
4 -
3 -

J f'J Jl-J

g

6 -
5 4
2 -

5

4 -

2 -

In Ex. 112 is the dominant eleventh in its original position.

In Ex. 113 the fifth of the ground-note is in the bass.

In Ex. 114 the seventh is in the bass.

In Ex. 115 the dominant eleventh is in the bass.

All of these may be used without a chord of preparation.

ff^

1

^

"

^

^^^ â€”

' â– '^

â–  1 i

CZID

EXERCISE.
Write out Ex. 112 to 115 in several keys.

120. The leading-note is sometimes suspended.
It of course must resolve upwards to the tonic ; hence some
authors like to call it a Retardation instead of a suspension.

Ex. 116.

#

JTg l '' â–  ^ ^

^Jf^

Ex. 117. '

^=^

'^

-yrr-

i

T^i=^

6 -

S 6

3

F 2

78

HARMONY

Ex. Il8.

5

:?2=

:3==^=

Et

â€¢a

Ex. 119.

w

22=

In Ex. 116 is the original position of the suspended leading-
note.

In Ex. 117 the third of the ground-note is in the bass.

In Ex. 118 the fifth is in the bass.

 Using the text of ebook Harmony, with an appendix containing one hundred graduated exercises by John Stainer active link like:read the ebook Harmony, with an appendix containing one hundred graduated exercises is obligatory