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Allegany County and its People.



A GentGnnial Mem^orieil

HISTORY



OF



Allegany County,

NEl\^r YORK.

ILLUSTRATED.



JOH/N S. /V\1/\I A'R'D, Esq., eounty Historian.

PRESIDENT OF ALLEGANY COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY.



"J liave considered the days of old, the years of ancient time.'"

Psalm LXXVII—s.



ALSO



■Histories of the Towns of the County.



M-RS. G BOH© I A ■D'RE^W ME-R-RI L l_, Editor.



W. A. FERGUSSON & CO.,

ALFRED, N. Y., "-' C;'!

1896.



X - ^



Copyrighted, 1896, by W. A. Fergusson.



University Press,

Sun Publishing Association,

Alfred, N. Y.






ALLRGANY.

THE OHIGIN OP THE NAME.

Indian tradition attributes this Aboriginal name, which has so strongly fastened itself upon
various places and geographical features of America, notably the Alleghatiy Mountains, Alle-
gheny City, Allegheny River (Penn.). Allegany River and Allegany County (N. Y.), to an ancient
race of Indians called Talegi, Talligewi, or AUegewi. This nation was a very warlike one and
spread itself over the country east of the Mississipppi and Ohio rivers, but, after long and
bloody wars, it was overpowered and driven south by a confederacy of tribes whose descend-
ants are the Iroquois and Algonquin nations of to-day. This ancient people is conjectured by
some to be the early Appalachian Indians, whom De Soto found in 1539 in Florida and the
territory of the Gulf States. Schoolcraft says, " They were numerous, fierce and valorous*
They were clothed in skins of wild beasts. They used bows and arrows, clubs and spears.
They did not poison their darts. They were temperate, drinking only water. They did not make
wars on slight pretences, or for avarice, but to repress attacks, or remedy injustice. They
treated their prisoners with" humanity and like persons of their own households. They were
long-lived, some reaching a hundred years. They worshipped the sun, to which they sang hymns
morning and evening." Washington Irving deemed the name Appalachia or Allegania as the
fit name for this continent.

Rev. P. J. Wilson of St. Bonaventure's Seminary and College at Allegany, N. Y., kindly
sends the following: " The Indian name for Allegany is a compound word. Talegwi-henna or
Talegwi-hanna. Let us see first what talegiui means. The chronicles of the Algonquins
state that the Lenape migrated eastward from the far west. When they reached the Mississippi
they found the country east of it inhabited by a people called Talegi, Talligewi or Alligewt.
Therefore, to the Algonquins Talegi or Alligewi meant the country and people-east of the
Mississippi, the country to which they emigrated from afar. The next part of the compound
is Henna or Hanna. It means river. Hence Tallegwe-henna or Tellegwi-hanna, the Indian
name for Allegany, means the river of the country of the Talegwi— M^ river of the country to
which they immigrated. At first the name was given to the Ohio. After the Lenape reached
it they called it Talegahonah. The Iroquois changed this to Ohio, a word from their own
language. But the Ohio's chief tributary still retains the name— Talegwi-hanna, Alligewi-
hanna, Alleghany. The Alleghany mountains for a similar reason were called Talega-chukattg."

The Publishers.



GONTEINTS.



Chapter. ' Page.

I. ALLEGANY COUNTY. 17

Early Glimpses of Our Territory.



H. Early Explorations, Etc.



19



Mary Jemison — The Great Water
Route from the St. Lawrence to the
South — Casconchiagon — Joncaire —
Plate of Lead — First Mention of Oil
Springy — Falls ia the Genesee — Charle-
voix' Expedition.

in. Our Predecessors — The Iro-
quois 22

The Seneca " Trails " — From Mt. Mor-
ris to Olean — From Belvidere to Penn-
sylvania — From Caneadea to Houghton,
Rushford, Centreville, Freedom and
Buffalo — From Caneadea to Alien,
Birdsall and Arkport, the "' Canisteo
Path " — The Agriculture of the Iro-
quois.



IV. The Senegas — Their Origin.



24



Hawenneyu, the Creator — Seneca Tra-
ditions — Great Hill People— Snake Leg-
ends — Funeral Rites — Eclipses.



V. Indian Feasts, Dances, Etc.



27



The Sugaring Feast — The Planting

Feast— Green Corn Dance or Feast —

Corn Harvest Feast — Winter Hunting
Feast.

VI. Life of the Senegas. . . 31

Diseases and Their Treatment — A
Wonderful Medicine — The Medicine
Feast — Old Silverheels' Story — Indian
Women -Cooking-Customs and Amuse-
ments — Ball Playing — Jellis Clute.

VII. Caneadea and Oil Spring Res-

ervations 34

The Western Door of The Long House
— Gahneyadeo — "Open Door" — John
Hudson — A Thrilling Pioneer Incident
— Gahneesongo — Caneadea — Treaty of
Buffalo Creek — Survey by Joseph Jones
—Origin of Cuba Oil Spring — Title of
ii The Reservation.



Chapter. Page.

VIII. Early Skirmishes and Pion-

EtKS 42

IX. Early Visitors — Extinction

of the Indian Title. . . 45

Rev. Samuel Kirkland — Robert Mor-
ris — Oliver Phelps and The Phelps and
Gorham Purchase — Treaty of Big Tree.

X. Early Survey and Surveyors. 54

Joseph and Benjamin Ellicott — Augus-
tus Porter — Moses Van Campen — Elisha
Johnson — His Description of The
Country — Other Surveyors.



XL Robert Morris.



59



XII. Boundaries of Allegany Coun-

ty 64

XIII. The Church Tract. . . 69

XIV. This Century's First Decade. 70
Settlement of Various Towns — First
Marriage — First Death — First Road —
First Capital Crime — First Sawmill —
First Painted Dwelling— Dr. Ebenezer
Hyde — The Town of Angelica — Lake
Erie Turnpike — Formation of Allegany
County — Early Settlers — Transit
Bridge— Court House and Jail — First
Census.

XV. Second Decade — 1811-1820. 7S
First Supervisors — Pioneer Teachers —
Improvements — Carding Mills — Cold
Season — Hard Times of 1817 — Genesee
River a Public Highway — Other Settle-
ments — The First Newspaper — Second
Census.

XVI. Third Decade— 1821-1830. 84
More New Settlers — Inns Opened —
Schools — Saw and Gristmills — Board of
Supervisors — Sheriff's Bill — First Mur-
der — First Execution — State Census —
New Towns Erected — Bounties on
Wolves — First Justices of the Peace
Elected-Governor Clinton Recommends
Survey of Genesee Valley Canal —
Action of Board of Supervisors on



Contents.



Chapter. Page.

Poor House — Canal Route from Roch-
ester to Olean Surveyed — Equalized
Value of Land in Each Town.

XVII. Fourth Decade — 1831-1840. 91
Legislative Action on Bridges and
Highways — Action of Board of Super-
visors — Census Reports — School Mon-
eys — County Superintendents of the
Poor — Action on Genesee Valley Canal
Continued — Many Churches Organized-
Disastrous Floods — Angelica Academy
—Allegany Mutual Insurance Com-
pany — Windstorm— Work Commenced
on Valley Canal — Erie Railroad — Valu-
ation of Real and Personal Property.

XVIII. Fifth Decade— 1841-1850 98
Good Times — Thirty Towns — Com-
mon School System Changed — Alle-
gany County Agricultural Society —
Hard Times — Propagation of Silk
Worms — First Pupils Sent to State
Normal School — ^More About Wolf and
Other Bounties — Vote on State Con-
stitutional Convention — War with
Mexico — Public Works Resumed and
Better Times Inaugurated.

XIX. Sixth Decade — 1851-1860. 102
Genesee Valley Canal Opened to Ora-
mel — Erie Railroad Completed — Many
Water and Steam Sawmills Built —
Much Lumbering Done — Cleared Fields
and Comfortable Homes— Many Cat-
tle and Sheep Raised — First Republi-
can Convention — Change of County
Seat Agitated -Much Butter and Cheese
Made — Woolen Factories — Extensive
Census Statistics — First Republican
Nomination — Angelica Regency —
Belmont County Buildings Erected —
Two Jury Districts — Abraham Lincoln
Elected — Secession.

XX. Seventh Decade — 1861-1870. no
Civil War — The Action of Allegany
County — Her Patriotic Soldiers — Vol-
unteer Bounty Fund — Bonding for
Railroads.

XXI. Later Developments — Pro-

gress, ETC 116

Projected, Narrow Gauge, and other
Railroads— Oil Industry — Dairy Busi-
ness — Iron Bridges — New County
House — Later Schoolhouses — Some
Distinguished Alleganians — Valuation
of Real and Personal Estate from 1871
to 1895 — Amountof Taxes— Banks and
Banking — Allegany Politics— Centennial
County Officers.



Chapter. Page.

XXII. Travel and Transporta-
tion 121

' Early Hard Roads to Travel — Descrip-
tion of The Church Tract — Construc-
tion of Early Roads- — Bath and Olean
Turnpike — Erie Canal — History of
Genesee Valley Canal — Inception and
Progress of the Erie Railroad — Address
of Gen. Micah Brooks — Completion and
Celebration of the Erie Railroad — Other
Railroads.

XXIII. GEOLOoy AND Physical Ge-

ography 132

By Charles Butts.

XXIV. Natural History. . . 140

By Prof. F. S. Place, A. B., B. D.

XXV. Oil and Gas in Allegany

County 144

By Lewis H. Thornton.

XXVI. Our Agriculture. . .159

By A. W. Litchard, Esq.

XXVII. Development AND Progress

OF Our Publi.c Schools. 163
By Samuel A. Earley, Esq.

XXVIII. Alfred University. . 173

By Rev. Lewis A. Platts, D. D.



Biographies of Pres. Wm. C. Kenyon
and Pres. Jonathan Allen — The Faculty.

XXIX. Bibliography of The Coun-

ty Newspapers. . .193
By Rogers Stillman.

XXX. Woman's Christian Temper-

ance Union. . . . 199
By Miss Mary E. Bowler.

Allegany County Sunday School As-
sociation — Federation of Women's
Clubs — Political Equality Clubs.

XXXI. Prominent Organizations. 205
Allegany Co. G. A. R. Association
and Posts — Woman's Relief Corps
— Farmer's Alliance and Industrial
Union— Allegany Co. Farmers' Club—
Allegany Co. Farmers' Co-operative In-
surance Company— Allegany Co. His-
torical Society.



Contents.



Page.
C
Medical Societies and

I Physicians. . . . 210

chard Charles, M. D.— William M.
bmith, M. D. — John Bowen Collins, M.
D. — John H. Saunders, M. D. — Charles
M. Crandall, M. D.— Charles W. Saun-
ders, M. D. — Gilbert M. Champlain. M.
D. — Stephen Maxson, M. D. — Seneca
Allen, M. D.— H. H. Nye, M. D.— Hon.
W. W. Crandall, M. D.— Sheffield W.
Greene, M. D., etc.



XXXIII. Courts and Lawyers.



246



Hon. William G. Angel — Hon. John G.
Collins — Hon. Clarence A. Farnum —
Hon. S. McArthur Norton — Hon. W.
B. Rochester — Hon. Richard P. Marvin
— Hon. Martin Grover — Hon. Henry
Wells — Hon. Charles Daniels — Hon.
George Barker — Hon. Wm. H. Hender-
son — Hon. Hamilton Ward — Hon. Ed-
win W. Hatch — Hon. Alfred Spring —
John Baldwin, Esq. — Gen. Alexanders.
Diven — Samuel M. Russell, Esq. —
Hon. Wilkes Angel — Hon. Marshall B.
Champlain — William Pitt Angel, Esq.
— Elias E. Harding, Esq. — James M.
Curtiss, Esq. — Col. A. J.McNett — Hon.
William Folwell Jones— Hon. Edward
D. Loveridge — Edgar W. Chamberlain,
Esq.— Hon. Henry M. Teller— Willard
Teller, Esq — Hon. David P. Richard-
son — Gen. Rufus Scott — Hon. Seymour
Dexter — Capt. George H. Blackman —
Frank Sullivan Smith — ■ Hon. Oscar
Fuller— Church & Church— Hon. Fred
A. Robbins, and others.

XXXIV. Civil List. . . .293

Members of Congress — State Senators
Members of Assembly — County Clerks
— Sheriffs -County Treasurers.

XXXV. Allegany's Centennial

Celebration. . . 296

At Wellsville, N. Y., June 26 and 27,
1895.

TOWNS OF THE MORRIS RESERVE.

XXXVI. WELLSVILLE. . . .325
By Lewis H. Thornton.

Description — Advent of the White Man
— Roger's Survey of 1826, etc. — Early
Prices — First Tavern — First School-
house, etc.

XXXVII. Wellsville Village. , 346

Schools — Churches— Free Public Li-
brary, etc.



Chapter. Page,

XXXVIIL Wellsville Postal His-
tory — Manufactures —
Societies, etc. . . 369
Something About Some of the People
— Biographical Sketches.
XXXIX. ANGELICA. . . .405
By John S. Minard, Esq.
Early History — Churches — Angelica
Academy — Wilson Academy.

XL. The Village of Angelica. . 418
The D'Autremonts — Civil War — Angel-
ica Lodge — Banking— Business Inter-
ests, etc. — Something About Some of
the People — Biographical Sketches.

XLI. Amity 443

By John S. Minard, Esq.
The Town of Amity — Old Stone Grist-
mill, Belmont — Mills — Manufacturing —
The County Seat — Cemetery — Banks —
Business Interests — The Samuel Van
Campen Family.

XLII (I). Churches, Schools and

Societies 456

Churches — Belmont Union Free School
and Academy — Belmont Literary and
Historical Society — Societies — Some-
thing of Some of the People — Biograph-
ical Sketches.

XLII (2). Scio 479

Description — Pioneers — Time- Worn
Documents — Mills — Village — Cheese
Factories — Churches — G. A. R. Post,
etc. — Some of Scio's People— Biograph-
ical Sketches.

XLIII. Allen 498

By John S. Minard, Esq.
First and other settlers — Religion —
Cheese Factories — Postoffices — About
Some of the People.

XLIV. Birdsall 507

By Joseph K. Weaver.
Pioneers — Manufactures — Religious
Worship — Soldiers.

XLV. West Almond. . . .511
By George A. Morton.
General Descriptiop — Early Settlers —
Mills and Factories— Churches — Sol-
diers — Later Settlers.

XLVI. Granger 516

By John S. Minard, Esq.
Name — Short Tract — First Settlers —
School-meeting — Schoolhouse — " Sol-
diers' Monument " — Business Interests
— From the Town Records — Civil War



10



Contents.



Chapter. Page.

— Religion — Societies — Chronology of
Some Citizens.



XLVII. Ward.



529



By Eldyn Reynolds, Esq.
Description — First and Other Settlers —
Pioneer Life — Manufacturing, etc. —
Churches — Dairy Interests — Tornado.

XLVIII. Grove 536

Incorporation, Name, etc. — Early Set-
tlers — Soldiers — Churches — Village of
Swains — Its Business — " The Ossian
Giant " — Stockbreeding — Farmers, etc.

XLIX. Willing 540

By O. T. Perkins, Esq.
Topography — Shongo — Hallsport —
Stanard — Stone Dam — Mapes — Set-
tlers and Settlements — Church — G. A.
R. Post — Societies - Cyclone — Some
Personal Chronologies.

L. Alma 548

Changes of Title to the Soil, etc— Al-
lentown High School- Societies — G. A.
R. Post — Some of the Townsmen —
Biographical Sketch.

Towns of the Phelps and Gorham Pur-
chase.

LI. Almond 559

By D. A. Stebbins, Esq.
History of the Settlement — Cheese Fac-
tories — Almond Village — Manufactur-
ing Interests — Some Early and Other
Settlers.



LIL



579



LIII.



Andover

By T. A. Burdick.
Settlers — Churches — Oil and Gas —
Cheese Factories — Andover Village —
Union Graded School — Bank — The Lo-
cal Press^-Mills — Societies, etc. — Early
and Later Settlers.

Independence. , . . 597

By S. S. While, Esq.
History — Whitesville Village — Manu-
factories — Societies — Spring Mills —
Green's Corners — Fulmer's Valley —
Early Settlers — Churches — Soldiers, etc.
— Something About Some of the Peo-
ple — Biographical Sketch.

LIV. Burns 615

By W. H. Barnum, Esq.
Name — First Settlement — Canaseraga
— Fires — Local Press — Creamery Com-
pany — Water Works — F. & A. M.
Lodge — Churches— Educational— Burns



Chapter.



Page.



Village — Burns Station — Garwoods —
War Veterans — "The Big Elm," etc. —
Personals.

LV. Alfred 624

By Silas C. Burdick, Esq.
Settlement and Settlers — Reminiscences
by Ethan Lanphear — Developments and
Products— Cheese Factories — Roll of
Honor.



LVI.



637

Alfred Chfirches — Schools— Temper-
ance — Villages — Business Interests —
Personal Chronology.

Towns of the Holland Purchase.

LVII. Caneadea 657

By John S. Minard, Esq.
History — Old Council House— The Ger-
mans — Religion — Houghton Seminary
— Societies — Of Caneadea Citizens.

LVIII. Belfast. .... ^^i

By John S. Minard, Esq.
Early Settlers — " Bull Froggers " —
Wind Storm— Tanneries — Cheese Fac-
tories — -The Village — Genesee Valley
Seminary — Churches— Societies — Of the
Townsmen.

LIX. Friendship 699

By L. C. Aldrich, Esq.
Name — Settlement and Settlers — Or-
ganization — Development — Civil War
— Roll of Honor — Schools.

LX. Friendship, Continued. . . 708
Friendship Village — Manufactures —
Friendship Academy — Union School —
Baxter University of Music — Fire De-
partment — Banks — Press — Societies —
Cemeteries — Churches — About Some
of the People — Biographical Sketches.

LXI. Hume 736

By John S. Minard, Esq.
Boundaries — Description — Mills Mills —
Early Settlers — Pioneering on the Gore
— Hume Village— Wiscoy— Fillmore Vil-
lage — First Canal Boats — " Genesee
Valley Express " — The Caneadea Indi-
ans — Early Settlers on the Reservation
— The Village Tract — A Flood Incident
—Brook's Gore, or Dutch Hill— The
Irish Pioneers — Early Roads — Church-
es — Soldier Dead — Banking and Socie-
ties, etc. — Of Hume's Townsmen.

LXII. Centreville. . . . 780

By John S. Minard, Esq.
History — Churches — Societies — Some
Residents.



Contents.



11



Chapter.

LXIII. RUSHFORD.



Page.
. 789



By John S. Minard, Esq.

Settlers — Mills — Pine Apple Cheese and
Other Cheese — Manufactories - Rush-
ford Academy and Union School — Fire
and Flood — East Rushford — Railroad
— Cemeteries — The Press — Banking —
Vickery's Music School — Traders — Fire
Department — Semi-Centennial — Sol-
diers — Societies —Churches — Of Rush-
ford's Townsmen.



LXIV. Cuba.



. 813



By John S. Minard, Esq.



History— North Cuba — Cheese Market
and Factories — The World's Largest
Milk Record — Cuba Temperance Camp
Meetmg — Churches, etc.



LXV. Cuba, Continued.



825



Cuba Village — Cuba Union School and
Academy — Water Works — Cuba Fair
Association — Cemetery — Banks— Board
of Trade — Business Enterprises — Soci-
eties — Of Cuba's Citizens — Biographi-
cal Sketch.



LXVI. Wirt.



853



By S. L. Stanton, Esq.
Settlement — Richburg - An Oil Town —
Soldier Dead— -Cheese Factories— Relig-
ious — Societies — Something of Some
Citizens — Biographical Sketch.



Chapter. Page.

LXVII. New Hudson. . . .868
By Hon. H. H. Wakely.
First Settlers — Mills and Lumbering —
Religion — Early Times and Homes —
Times 70 Years Ago— Soldiers — Of the
Town's People.

LXVHL Genesee 878

By Miss Mary A. Lackey.
Description- -Little Genesee — Ceres —
First Settlements — Early Events and
Industries — Early Experiences — Mills
and Lumbering — Oil in Genesee —
Churches — Physicians — Military List,
etc.- -Something of the People- -Bio-
graphical Sketch.

LXIX. Bolivar. .... 902

Topography - - Early Settlers - - Early
Mills and Manufactures— South Bolivar
— Soldier Dead— Railroads— Cemetery-
Bolivar \'illage — A Bit of Bolivar's His-
tory- Business Interests — Banks — Fire
Companies — Physicians — Attorneys —
Societies — Churches — Schools — Of Bol-
ivar's People.

LXX. Clarksville. . . .931

By Victor Hammond.
Of the Town — Some of the Pioneers —
Industries— Schools — Societies — G. A.
R. — Business Interests — Oil Producers
— Oil and Gas — Railroads — Dairying
and Dairymen— Merchants — Soldiers of
the Civil War — Some of the Residents.



Biographies and Illustrations.



13



BiograpHiGs and Illustrations.



PAGE.



Guy Johnson Map, 1771,

Robert Morris,

Map of Proprietary Grants,

Map of Allegany County, 1806,

Map of Allegany County, 18 10,

Map of Allegany County, 1820,

Map of Allegany County, 1830,

Map of Allegany County, 1840,

Map of Allegany County, 1850,

Map of Allegany County, i860,

Samuel A. Earley,

Samuel A. Earley, .

Memorial Hall, Alfred University,

The Steinheim, Alfred University,

President William Colgrove Kenyon,

President Jonathan Allen, Ph. D., D. D., LL.D.

Faculty of Alfred University, 1895-96

Mrs. H. M. Barker,

Mrs. B. C. Rude,

Mrs. E. J, Potter, .

Mrs. M. L. Willard,

Mrs. N. S. Bradley,

Richard Charles, M. D.,

William M. Smith, M. D., .

John Bowen Collins. M. D.,

John Hanford Saunders, M. D.,

Hon. Charles M. Crandall, M. D.

Charles W. Saunders, M. D.,

Gilbert B. Champlain, M. D.,

Stephen Maxson, M. D.,

Seneca Allen, M. D.,

John C. Young, M. D.,

Jonas Wellman. M. D., .

H. H. Lyman, M. D.,

Anthony Barney, M. D.,

Horace H. Nye, M. D.,

Hon. W. W. Crandall, M. D.,

Sheffield W. Greene, M. D.,

Hon. William G. Angel,

Hon. Harlan J. Swift,

Hon. Clarence A. Farnum,

HLon. Sheridan Mc Arthur Norton,

Hon. William B. Rochester,

Hon. Richard P. Marvin,



Frontispiece






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14



Biographies and Illustrations.



Hon. Martin Grover,

Hon, Martin Grover,

Hon. Charles Daniels,

Hon. George Barker,

Hon. Hamilton Ward,

Hon. Edward W. Hatch,

Gen. Alexander S. Diven,

Hon. Wilkes Angel,

Hon. Marshall B. Champlain,

Col. A. J. McNett,

Hon. William Folwell Jones,

Hon. Edward D. Loveridge,

Hon. Henry M. Teller,

Hon. David P. Richardson,

Gen. Rufus Scott, .

Hon. Seymour Dexter, .

Capt. George H. Blackman,

Frank Sullivan Smith, Esq.,

Hon. Asahel N. Cole,

Hon. Edward Judson Farnum,

Enos W. Barnes.

Orville P. Taylor,

The McEwen Brothers,

John McEwen,

William Duke,

A. J. Applebee,

D. C. Ackerman,

The d'Autremonts,

Judge Philip Church,

Maj. Moses Van Campen,

Vial Thomas.

Peter S. Norris,

Samuel Van Campen,

Belmont Free Public Library,

Alvan Earle Parker,

Isaac Willets,

Leonard Frost Willets,

Hon. Wolcott Hatch,

Archibald Morris, M. D.,

George A. Green,

Maj. Peter Keenan,

Benjamin M. Vincent,

Capt. John Emory Middaugh,

William Wilson,

Col. Thomas J. Thorp,

Riley Allen, .

Daniel Dexter,

Phineas A. Burdick,

Hon. Clark Crandall,

Rev. Darwin E. Maxson, A. M., D. D„

David Stillman,



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Biographies and Illustrations.



15



Major Alanson Burr,

Stephen Wilson,

Prof. Jeremiah Hatch,

Prof. James Baxter,

Hon. Asher Wetmore Miner.

Hon. Abijah Joslyn Wellman,

Stephen Welcome Cole

Herman Rice,

Herman Rice,

William H. Pitt, A. AL, M. D., Ph. D.,

William P. Brooks,



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