John Thomas Scharf.

History of Baltimore city and county, from the earliest period to the present day: including biographical sketches of their representative men online

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HISTORY

OF

BALTIMORE CITY

AND

COUNTY

FROM THE EARLIEST PERIOD TO THE PRESENT DAY:

INCLUDIN(J

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES

OF THEIR

REPRESENTATIVE MEN.



j:^thomas soharf, a.m.,

AUTHOR OF " CHRONICLES OF BALTIMORE ;" " HISTORY OF MARYLAND :" MEMBER OF THE MARYLAND
HISTORICAL SOCIETY AND ACADEMY OF SCIENCES ; MEMBER OF THE HISTORICAL SOCIETY
OF PENNSYLVANIA ; HONORARY MEMBER OF THE GEORGIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY ;
CORRESPONDING MEMBF.R OF THE HISTORICAL SOCIETIES OF NEW YORK,
WISCONSIN, MINNESOTA, SOUTH CAROLINA AND VIRGINIA; OF
THE HISTORICAL AND PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY OF
OHIO ; OF THE NEW ENGLAND HISTORIC-
GENEALOGICAL SOCIETY, ETC., ETC.



IX.LXJSTRA.TED.



PHILADELPHIA :
LOUIS H. EVERTS.

1881.






Copyright, 1881, by Louis H. Everts.




I'RESS OF
1. I,IPPJNCOTT & («.,
PHILADELrHIA.



ROBERT GARRETT, Esq.,

THIS VOLUME,

WHICH TREATS OF THE HISTORY OF THE BALTIMORE WE BOTH LOVE SO WELL, AND THE CITY

rOU AND YOUR FAMILY HAVE DONE SO MUCH TO ENRICH AND EMBELLISH, IN TOKEN

OF WELL-TRIED, LIFE-LONG FRIENDSHIP AND EVER-GROWING ESTEEM AND

ADMIRATION, IS AFFECTIONATELY AND RESPECTFULLY DEDICATED BY

THE AUTHOR.



PREFACE.



The writing of the History of Baltimore City and County has been rather a " labor of
love" than a source of profit to the author. It was undertaken at the request of Maj. Louis H.
Everts, the enterprising publisher, and from a desire to preserve historical facts connected with
Baltimore which came into the possession of the author in the course of long-continued investi-
gations. In the preparation of the work no authority of importance has been overlooked ; the
author has carefully examined every source of information open to him, and has availed himself
of every fact that could throw new light upon, or impart additional interest to, the subject under
consideration. Besides consulting the most reliable records and authorities, over two thousand
five hundred communications were addressed to persons supposed to be in possession of facts or
information calculated to add value to the work. Recourse has not only been had to the valu-
able libraries of Baltimore, but the author and his agents have visited personally the entire
county, spending much time in each district, examining ancient newspapers and musty manu-
scripts, conversing with the aged inhabitants, and collecting from them orally many interest-
ing facts never before published, and which otherwise, in all probability, would soon have
been lost altogether. In addition to the material partly used iu the preparation of his
" Chronicles of Baltimore" and " History of Maryland," the author has consulted over five
thousand pamphlets, consisting of town and city documents, reports of societies, corporations,
associations, and historical discourses, and, in short, everything of a fugitive character that might
in any way illustrate the History of Baltimore City and County. From these and a large col-
lection of newspapers (more particularly a complete file of the Baltimore Sun which was kindly
loaned by the proprietors, Messrs. A. S. Abell & Co.) great assistance has been derived. The
file of the American was mainly used by the author in the preparation of his " Chronicles of
Baltimore."

Such material only has been retained as upon careful consideration and tlie closest scrutiny
has been found weighty and significant. At the same time it has been attempted to embody the
facts thus collected in a form as free as possible from the dryness of chronological recital. As
a rule, the original spelling of the names of both persons and places has been given, and in some
instances both the present and former modes are given.

With the aid of Prof. Philip R. Uhler, the topography and geology as well as the geog-
raphy of the county have received the attention which their importance demands. Manufac-
turing, commercial, and agricultural interests have also a jjrominent place. The statistical
information embodied in the work is designed to connect the history of the past with the
present state of the trade and commerce of the city, and to present the features of the two
periods in striking contrast ; and although to some minds these details may seem out of place in



a historical work, yet it should be remembered that the statistics of to-day may become the his-
tory of ten years hence. Many of the facts recorded, both statistical and historical, may seem
trivial or tediously minute to the general reader, and yet such facts have a local interest and
sometimes a real importance.

Sketches of the rise, progress, and present condition of the various religious denominations,
professions, political parties, and charitable and benevolent institutions form a conspicuous
feature of the work. An account of the public school system is also given, and a history of the
various institutions of learning for which Baltimore is so justly famed.

An honest effort has been made to do justice to both sections in the relation of such events
of the civil war as came within the proper scope of a purely local history. The author has
made no attempt to obtrude his own political views upon the reader, and has constantly kept in
mind the purpose that has guided his labors, — to present a work free from sectional pr partisan
bias which shall be acceptable to the general public.

Considerable space has been given to biographies of leading and representative men, living
and dead, who have borne an active part in the various enterprises of life, and who have become
closely identified with the history of the city and county. The achievements of the living must
not be forgotten, nor must the memories of those who have passed away be allowed to perish.
It is the imperative duty of the historian to clironicle the public and private efforts to advance
the great interests of society. Their deeds are to be recorded for the benefit of those who follow
them, — they, in fact, form part of the liistory of their communities, and their successful lives
add to the glory of the commonwealth.

A distinguishing characteristic of the work is its sketches of the thirteen districts into
which the county is divided. In them the reader is brought into close relation with every part
of the county. The advantage of this method of treatment is obvious, embracing, as it does,
narratives of early settlements, descriptions of interesting localities, and personal reminiscences.
An idea may be formed of the time and labor required in the preparation of the book, when we
call attention to the fact that tiie chapter on " Necrology" alone contains nearly three thousand
brief biographical si«etches of prominent citizens who have passed away during the last century.

The maps, views, and portraits are a prominent accompaniment, and add interest and
attractiveness to the subjects which they are designed to illustrate and explain.

Our acknowledgments are due to many friends not only for a kindly interest shown in our
labors, but for much valuable information furnished in many cases without solicitation.

In presenting the History of Baltimore City and County to the public the author feels
conscious that he sends it forth with many imperfections on its head. In the preparation of a
work of this character many minor inaccuracies and errors are almost unavoidable, the existence
of which it is impossible to discover until the book has been exposed to tiie light of general
criticism. It may not be considered presumptuous, however, to express the hope tiiat its general
conception and execution will be satisfactory to the community for which it luxs been written,
and that it will prove useful and interesting to all classes of readers.

J. Thomas Scharf.
Baltimork, Nov. 8, 1881.



CONTENTS.



CHAPTER XXV.



CHAPTER II.



PTER III



Aborigines

CHAPTER IV.
English Discoveries and Settlements

CHAPTER V.
Ancient County-seats

CHAPTER VI.

The Founding of Baltimore City

CHAPTER VII. [

Pennsylvania Border Troubles «* ] TheTelegrapli

CHAPTER VIII. 1

Causes of the Revolution

CHAPTER IX.



Transportation

CHAPTER XXVI.

Commercial Industries and Manufactures

CHAPTER XXVII.

Trade Organizations

CHAPTER XXVIII

Banks and Bankers

CHAPTER XXIX.

Marine, Fire, and Life Insurance

CHAPTER XXX.

Post-office, Custom-House,Gas Companies

CHAPTER XXXI.



CHAPTER XXXII.

Taverns, and Hotels

CHAPTER XXXIII



The War for Independence

CHAPTER X.

Peace and Independence

CHAPTER XI.

The Development of Baltimore

CHAPTER XII.

The War of 1812

CHAPTER XIII.

Piivateers and Armed Vessels

CHAPTER XIV.

War with Mexico

CHAPTER XV.

Political Progress

CHAPTER XVI.

The Civil War

CHAPTER XVII.

Progress after the Civil War

CHAPTER XVIII.

Municipal Government of Baltimore

CHAPTER XIX.

The City Government and Officers

CHAPTER XX.

City Departments

CHAPTER XXI.

Education

CHAPTER XXII.

Fires and Fire Companies

CHAPTER XXIII.

Monuments, Parks, and Squares

CHAPTER XXIV.
The Advantages of Baltimore as a Trade Centre '-281 ' First District



69 Religious Denominations ""

CHAPTER XXXIV.
76 charitaWe,Benevolent, and Religious Institutions and Associations.. 692

I CHAPTER XXXV.

81 ' The Press of Baltimore ^°*

' CHAPTER XXXVI.

84 Literature and Literary Men ^'^

\ CHAPTER XXXVII.

98 j Baltimore Libraries, Miscellaneous Societies and Associatic



CHAPTER XXXVIII

and Musicians— Art and Artists

CHAPTER XXXIX.



C57



Amusements


CHAPTER XL.


The Medical Professior


CHAPTER XLI.






CHAPTER XLII.


CHAPTER XLIII.




CHAPTER XLIV.


Mobs and Riots






CHAPTERXLV.

1 Baltimore City and County Necrology ''^*

CHAPTER XLVI.

Baltimore County and Districts ^^^

CHAPTER XLVII.



VIU



CONTENTS.



CHAPTER XI.VIII

Second District

CJIAPTEE XLIX.

Third District

CHAPTER L.

Fourtli District

CHAPTER LI.

Fiftli District

CHAPTER LI I.

Sixth District

CHAPTER LIII.
Sovcntli District



CHAPTER LIV.





CHAPTER LV.








CHAPTER LVI.








CHAPTER LVII.




. ...




CHAPTER LVIII.









CHAPTER LIX.


Thiitppiitli District ..





ILLXJSTI?.^TIOiTS.



Al>ell, A. S facing 617 ; Catoii, Ricliard

Aboil, A. .S., City Residence of " 020 ; Chamber of Commerce

Abell, A. S., Residence of, " Guilford" " 022 | Chancellor, M D , Charles W

Abell Building " 624 I Chase, Samuel

Ahell, G. W., Residence of. " 023 ' Cockey, (liailes T

Abrahams, W " 386 ; Cockey, C lurles T , Rehidence of

Adams Express Co.'B Office " 359 Colton, Gii.ine

Adreon, Harrison " «5 Congress Hall

Albaugh, J. W " 688 Coree, Willi mi

American Building " 609 Councilm iii, James B , Rtsidonce <:

Andrews, R. Snowden " 669 County Ma])

Armistead, Maj. George 91 Court-house in 1784

Armstrong, Cator & Co facing 415 Cradock, liiomas

Austen, George " 909 Cradock, Thorn ts Residence of

Baker, Charles J " 459 Dasbiel, M D Nicholas L

Baker, C. J., Residence of " 460 Davis, HenijV

Baldwin, Robert T " 458 Deford,B

Baltimore City in 1800 708 Devries, V m , K. («

Baltimore in 1752 58 Douglas, R H

Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Central Building.." facing 315 Ducker, &i m „i I

Bankard, H.W " 775 Dulany, Daniel

Banks,Andrew " 856 Ehrman, Itwis Residence of

Banks, Andrew, Residence of " 868 Emory, Ruhard

Barney, Commodore Joshua 8^ Erich, M I) , A F

Bartlett, D. L facing 426 Eutaw Place

Bartlett, George " 406 Ewinst, H M

Battle Monument 268 | First Prcobj tei lan Chuich

Bentley, C. W facing 429 Fisher, James I

Bitting, Rev. C. C .564 Fisher, Robeit A

Boarman, R. R facing 898 j Fort Federal Hill in 1861

Booth, Washington " 771 | Fort Marehall

Bosley, Daniel " 884 i Fort Mcllenij m 180i

Bosley, ,Tohn 913 j Fountain Inn

Boundaries of Baltimore 62 1 Fowble, Peter

Bowie, Oden , facing 351 Frank 4 \dler

Boyce, James : " 390 Frick, \\m F

Bradford, Governor A. W " 138 \ Front Street Thtatii

Brautly, Rev. William T 662 I Fuller, Ro Richanl

Bresee, 0. F facing 489 Garabrill Cbailcs A

Brewer, James R " 639 \ Garrett, John \\

Brown, Alexander " 474 I Garrett, lolin \V , Residence of

Brown, Hon. G. W 126 Garrett, T Harrison, Resldmco of

Bruff.John W 414 | Gary, James S

Bryan, T. .\., &Co facing 397 [ George, Isaac S

Burns.W.F •' 471 '. Gist,Morduai

Calvert, Charles, Fifth Lord Baltimore 61 i Gittings I) S

Carroll, Charies, of Cari-ollton 68,317 | Gittings, R J

Carroll, Charles, barrister 706 Gorauch, Thomas

Carroll, ll.-nry facing 908 I Goi-such, Thomas T

Carroll, Ar.hbiKho]) John .'531 i Griffith, G >>

Carroll, John, "The Caves" facing 700 i Gunthcr I W

Carrollton Hotel •' 613 | lIallowa\ ( harlcs T

Carter, Bernard " 702 Hambltton, riionuis F



..facing 444

752

710

facing 84o



facing 286
911

facing 739



HamiU, Charles W facing 430 .

Hansoc, A. C 782

Harrison, F., Besidence of. between 892, 893

Harrison, Chas. K., Residence of. facing 846

Harrison, F " 891

Hawkins, Dr. J. W., Residence of. " 877

Hawkins, M.D.,.I.W " 878

Hodges, James " 416

Hoen Building " 602

Holland, John C " 368

Holton, H. B " 829

Holton, H. B., Residence of. between 828, 829

Hood, J. M facing 357

Hopkins, Johns 231

Horwitz, OrviUe facing 701

Howard, Col. John E 206

Howell, D. C, Residence of. facing 825

Hughes, Jr., Hon.C 98

Hutchins, H. C facing 916

Isaac, W.M " 894

James, Henry " 4C2

James, Henry, Residence of. " 463

Jenkins, T. Robert " 382

Jessop, Joshua " 925

Johnson, Reverdy 713

Jones, Alexander ; facing 472

Jones, M.D., R. E " 889

Keerl, Thomas M., Residence of. facing 774

Kenly,JohnR 134

Kennedy, Anthony facing 821

Kennedy,Johu P " 652

Key, Francis Scott " 642

Klees, Henry between 404, 405

Latrobe, Ferdinand C facing 180

Lee, Gen. H 783

Lindsay, George W 762

Lowe, Alfred facing 866

Malster, William L " 304

Map of Capt. John Smith's Explorations, Fac-simile of Original

between 38, 39

Map of Original Tracts of Land within Limits of Baltimore 49

Martin, M.D., J. L facing 749

Martin, Luther 711

Maryland Institute 667

Maryland Journal, Fac-simile of 607

Mason, James D facing 396

Matthews, D.M " 911

Mayer, Charles F " 388

McCoy, John W " 660

McDonogh Institute " 831

McHenry, Maj. James 79

Mclntire, M.D., James facing 753

Mcintosh, D.G " 896

McKaig, Thomas I " 726

McMahon, John V. L 713

McMnrray, Louis facing 776

Merryman, John " 886

Miller, Daniel " 410

Miller, Daniel, & Co .-. " 411

Miller, H. Clay, Residence of " 413

Mitchell, Joseph B 901

Morison, N. H facing 665

Mowel, Joseph W., Residence of. between 916, 917

Mowell, Peter .....facing 879

Mount Vernon Place Methodist Episcopal Church " 576

Myer, Thomas J " 396

New City Hull 179

Newcomer, B. F facing 478

Nichols, W. C, Residence of " 863

Ober, Guslavus facing 400

Old Assembly-Rooms 679

Old City Hall 176

Old Defenders .-. facing 97



Old Jail 783

Onion, E. D facing 392

Peabody, George 663

Pearce, John B facing 907

Peerce, W. F " 912

Peregoy, Charles " 888

Peter Cooper's Locomotive 320

Philpott, Edward P 863

Pinkney, William 711

Piper, M.D., Jackson facing 899

Plat of Baltimore Town and Jones' Town 62

Plat of Joppa in 1725 45

Piatt, S. B facing 394

Poe Monument 271

Poole, Robert, Residence of. facing 837

Poole & Hunt " 8.18

Powell, W.S 401

Pratt, Enoch facing 464

Pratt Street Bridge in 1861 790

Price, M.D., Elias C facing 766

Price, Ezra between 882, 883

Price.Samuel M " 882,883

Pulaski, Count 78

Eaine, F facing 625



398



Reckord, Henry

Reeder, Charles

Rieman, Joseph H., Residence of.

Rieman, Henry

Ringgold, Maj. S

Rogers, C. L

Rogers, C. Lyon, Residence of.

Ruby, Wm. H

Rutledge, Thomas G

Rogers, Commodore

St. John's Church, Western Run Parish..

St. Joseph's Passionist Monastery

St. Mary's Industrial School

St. Paul's Protestant Episcopal Church...

St. Timothy's Church

Sailing-car "Eolus"

Sanderson, Thomas, Residence of.

Scarff, M.D., J. H

Scharf, J. T

Seeger, Jacob

Seidenstricker, John B

Seliger & Newman

Shearer, M.D., Thomas

8heppard, Isaac A

Sheppard, Isaac A., & Co

Shoemaker, S. M

Sisson, Hugh

Slagle, Charles W

Slingluff, Jesse, Residence of

Small, George

Smallwood, Gen. William

Smith, Henry C

Smith, Jr., Joseph

Smith, Gen. Samuel

Snowden, Samuel

Sparks, Josiah

Standiford, James A

Steele, I. Nevett

Stellman, John

Stewart, William A

Stocks and Pillory

Stirling, Jr., A

Strawbridge's Log Meeting-house

Strieker, Gen. John

Sun Iron Building, The

Sutro, Otto

Talbott, J. F. C

Taney, Roger Brooke

Thomas, J. H

Thomas, John L .'.

Towson, Gen. Nathan



CONTENTS.



Turner, Leniri faciiis, IW) . Williams Glii OH %»!

Tyson, Ji , Isaac " 172 , W ilson, I) S fatin( 770

Tyson, Jesse, Resilience of ' "i ' \\ ll*m llc\ Franklin 567

View uf Washington Monument ^00 Wilson, Ir , M D , II I' C facing 743

Vonderborst lolin H facing Oil Wilson, GO " «l

Wallis, S Teackle " OaS I W ilson, James between 768, 760

Walters, W T " 07o I Wilson, Wm " 768,769

Watson, Lieut Col W H 114 Wimler, Gen W H 88

Webb, Charles faung 183 I Wirt, William 712

Wetherall WillmmG 42t Wise, Willmm 876

Wbltelo<k, W 399 Woodward Baldwin i Noriis facing 412

Wildey, Thomas 7o8 Worthiugtoii, Charles " 864

Wilkins, William facing 422 Worthington, R H " 832

Wilkius, Wm , i Co bct« een '22, 423 Wjnian, William, Residence of " 887

Williams Gcorm II facing 717 \ouug, William >« ' 442

. W N " o3



STATE OF F E N N


S f L W A N 1


A






'A



MAP OF

BALTIMORE

COUNTY

Eiuiri, vcti E.vfjrixs:^lit lor Dui
HLstxnif ofBatlimore CittfundCoiuiUj




*^^' y-,^ \ \ ', Grffvert,onHH!igA:|



v^^x^:^



■P .^ J^^-^



'^^






yi^' - :-^<









h.3i..iij^



HISTORY

OF

BALTIMORE CITY AND COUNTY,

M^EYL^IsTD.



CHAPTEE I.

TOPOGRAPHY.!

Baltimore County forms an important part of
the great continental belt of country known as the
Atlantic slope of North America. Situated in the
northern part of the State of Maryland, it is the most
central of the counties which extend from east to west
along the Pennsylvania boundary. It has an area of
seven hundred and eighteen square miles, and presents
somewhat the form of a broad curved wedge with the
tip cut square off at the north, and with the curved
base on the south indented by tidal estuaries. Its
length is about thirty-five miles from north to south,
by nearly eleven miles and a half in width along the
northern border, expanding to a breadth of twenty-
eight miles between the estuary of the Gunpowder
River on the east and the Patapsco River on the west.
The last named and the Little Gunpowder form its
chief boundaries on the west and east. Two of the
great areas of rain precipitation being included within
its limits, together with the mildness of the climate,
give it almost unsurpassed advantages for sustaining
a healthy and flourishing population. Supplied by
nature with an abundance of water and wood, with
soils easily cultivated, and capable of yielding ample
harvests of all the cereals, vegetables, and all the best
fruits of temperate climates, it rests only with the in-
habitants to advance their own interests by adjusting
themselves to the surrounding physical conditions.
Structurally, it possesses the most important elements
which give strength, variety, and character to the
Atlantic region. The contours of surface are chiefly
brought into prominence by the underlying reliefs of
hard rocks and of the solid materials derived from
them. For convenience, the surface of the county
may be divided into an upland region, a midland
basin, and a lowland border.

1 Contributed by Prof. Philip E. Uhler, president of the Maryland
Academy of Sciences.



Uplands.— The uplands embrace all that part of
the country reaching from Western Run, about one
mile north of Cockeysville, to the Pennsylvania State
line. High mountains are no longer included within
these limits, for the peaked and craggy summits of
long-past ages have been softened into the blunt
domes and gentler ridges of a more quiet period. In
their stead are ranges of high hills traversing the
county diagonally, and passing out of it at a point
southwest of Reisterstown. North of Parkton these
hills are lifted to an altitude of more than eight hun-
dred feet above the level of the sea. Most of them
are broad on top, sloping gradually towards the south
and east, and give rise to groups of lower domes along
their flanks, which terminate usually at the forks of
the streams. In the very midst of these lower hills
an abrupt ridge of dark fissured rocks occasionally
rises, where a rapid stream has cut a deep ravine in
its downward flow. The soft micaceous soils of the
rolling uplands are covered by farms richly cultivated,
and yield abundant crops of wheat and corn. On the
1 ridges are still extensive tracts of second-growth
• forests of oak, hickory, chestnut, and maple, sup-
I plying rails for fences, cross-ties for the railroads, and
\ logs for houses, as well as wood for fuel. This sup-
ply is, however, rapidly decreasing, and the time is
near when it will be no longer possible to obtain trees
for most of these purposes. In rocky places, where
a deep vegetable mould has accumulated, bodies of
slender young walnut growth may still be seen, but
nearly all that of larger dimensions has long since
disappeared. Along these rich bottoms and between
the ridges near the streams the Kalmia, or calico-bush,
grows in vast thickets. These with the ferns and
lichens clothe the blackish-gray rocks, and decorate
every quiet nook. Little cascades and rapids appear
' in all the broader rivulets, and a highly varied under-
growth shades the little pools in which until recently
the speckled trout found its favorite abode. These
waters are still clear, and do good service in furnish-
13



14



HISTORY OF BALTIMORE CITY AND COUNTY, MARYLAND.



ing power to flour-mills which stand hid away here
and there in unsuspected dells or hollows.

Midland Region.— The midland region is a broad,
depressed tract of country extending from Chestnut
Ridge on the west to the Ashland Ridge on the east,
and from the high plateau north of Western Run to
the Green Spring Ridge on the south. This inland
basin connects also with the valleys on the east and
southeast, which spread away like broad fingers to-
wards the border of Harford County. Throughout
most of this extensive region, and even in the valleys
beyond the adjoining ridges on the east and west,
limestones of good quality abound. The area in the
very centre of this basin yields also vast quantities of
fine white marbles. The soil is red, and of the very
best quality, easy to cultivate, and highly productive
of all the cereals. Iron ore is also met with in many
places, chiefly in the soil overlying the limestone, but
also in the hills adjoining it on the west. It presents
a wide area of open country, depressed below the
general level, occupied by large farms, and wooded
only on the hills and ridges which project into it.
Several afiiuents of the Gunpowder cross it, and an
abundant supply of good drinking-water is obtained
from wells.

Lowlands. — The lowland section is an alluvial
belt of country which bounds the hills of archajan
rocks on their tide-water sides. It comprehends the
whole of the Twelfth, Thirteenth, and the eastern part
of the Eleventh, nearly all the surface of Baltimore
City, and sends ofl" a tongue into the Eighth District as
far as to Timonium. The surface of this whole region
is clay and gravel, with areas of sand in the lower
levels adjacent to the old • wat^r-courses, and with
deep black bogs and marshes in the necks at points
along the tidal estuaries. These cold, thin soils admit
a stunted growth of black-jack, scarlet, and willow
oaks, with occasional strips of small pines and some
tracts of chestnut trees. Where an accumulation of
vegetable n|ould occurs in the beds of the streams, a
more luxuriant growth of trees is seen, accompanied by
the maples, and by a dense growth of dogwood, various
bushes, and the greenbrier. The wild grapevine also
grows in these places, and adds a fine element of va-
riety to the trees upon which it climbs. In a few
places hills of clay and gravelly sand rise to a height
of sixty feet or more, and break the monotonous level
of the tide-water plain.

The Thirteenth District, which forms a tongue be-
tween the Northwest and Middle Branches of the
Patapsco River, is remarkable for the extent and
height of the clay hills that form the chief part of its



Online LibraryJohn Thomas ScharfHistory of Baltimore city and county, from the earliest period to the present day: including biographical sketches of their representative men → online text (page 1 of 233)