action taken on it, 278 ; rage with
Franklin at not being told of sailing
of Gerard and Deane, 290 ; his evil
influence at home, 291 ; general un
popularity, 291, 317 ; virulent ha
tred of Franklin, 292; extravagant
slanders, 292, 293, 297; excessive
demands for money, 297, 299, 314,
316 ; sent to Madrid, 298 ; refuses
to give up papers of French em
bassy, 299 ; prevents a Spanish loan
by his imprudence, 317 ; defers to
Franklin, 342 ; influence in preju
dicing Massachusetts against Frank
Lee, John, counsel for Franklin in
Hutchinson letters affair, 187, 188.
Lee, William, rank as diplomate, 220 ;
offended at appointment of Jona
than Williams, 2G5 ; sides with Ar
thur Lee against terms of French
treaty, 278 ; makes charges against
Lexington, fight at, 204.
Library, established by Franklin, 20 ;
parent of later subscription libra
Livingston, R. R., letters of Franklin
to, 323, 335; letters from, asking
money, 333, 334 ; condemns commis
sioners for making treaty without
French advice, 388.
" London Chronicle" publishes Frank
lin s letters to Shirley, 47.
Loudoun, Lord, appointed military
head of colonies, 04 ; his procrasti
nation and inefficiency, G5.
Louis XVI., puzzled by Beaumarchais
zeal for the colonies, 226 ; sides
with Turgot in opposing interven
tion, 228 ; compliments American
envoys, 283 ; civilities to Franklin,
Lovell, James, Franklin s letter to.
Luzerne, Chevalier de la, French
minister to the United States, 351,
Lynch, , on committee with Frank
MANSFIELD, LORD, arranges settlement
of Penn dispute with Franklin, 70,
71 ; upholds parliamentary power
over colonies, 118; condemns a
pamphlet of Franklin s, 136.
Massachusetts appoints Franklin its
agent, 138 ; fails to pay him, 139 ;
quarrels with Hutchinson over par
liamentary supremacy, 166; peti
tions for removal of Hutchinson
and Oliver, 183 ; rebukes Franklin
for carelessness, 194.
Mauduit, , agent for Hutchinson,
Meredith, , Franklin s partner, 11,
Mirabeau, eulogy on Franklin, 419.
Molasses trade, its importance to the
colonies, 276 ; remarks of Adams
upon, 276 ; secured in French
Morris, Robert, offended at appoint
ment of Jonathan Williams, 265 ;
appointed treasurer, 304 ; complete
reliance on Franklin, 307 ; urges
Franklin to suggest to Vergennes
to help America to raise a loan at
Madrid, 331 : drafts on Franklin,
333-336 ; letters of Franklin to. 333,
334, 335, 336 ; directs Franklin to
leave surplus, if any, to M. Grand,
Morris, Thomas, rank as diplomate,
220 ; commercial agent at Nantes,
264 ; his incompetence, 264, 265, 311.
NAVY, United States, supported by
Necker, induced by Franklin to guar
antee a loan, 328.
New Jersey, appoints Franklin its
" New England Courant," printed
under Franklin s name, 5.
Noailles, Marquis de, announces to
England alliance of French with
United States, 284.
Non - importation, its effectiveness
against the Stamp Act, 115. 116;
urged later by Franklin, 173. 175 ;
acts like "protection," 173; its ef
fects upon the East India Company,
175 ; other effects, 176.
Norris, Isaac, declines to represent
Pennsylvania against the Proprie
tors in England, 63 ; resigns speak-
ership rather than sign petition, 94.
North, Lord, chancellor of exchequer,
151 ; at Privy Council hearing, 190 ;
attempts to bribe Franklin, 202;
permits Hartley to correspond with
Franklin, 256 ; forced by Burgoyne s
surrender to attempt conciliation
with colonies, 280 ; twitted by Fox
with French and American alliance,
281 ; receives news of Cornwallis s
surrender, 363 ; tries to alienate
France from the States, 363, 364 ;
OLIVER, LIEUTENANT-GOVERNOR, his
letters, 177 ; petition for his re
Oswald, Richard, sent by Shelburne
to discuss peace with Franklin,
365 ; second visit, 366 ; fruitless in
terview with Franklin, 367 ; pre
ferred to Grenville by Franklin,
371 ; continues negotiation, 372 ;
difficulty over his commission, 373;
receives satisfactory commission,
376 ; agrees to a draft treaty, 377.
Otis, James, opposition to Stamp Act,
Oxford University makes Franklin
Doctor of Laws, 75.
PARLIAMENT, supremacy of, over colo
nies, denied by Franklin, 47 ; as
serted by Shirley, 46 ; by Parlia
ment, 64 ; Stamp Act raises ques-
ton, 110 ; denied by Pitt, 114. 117 ;
debate over declaratory resolution
in Parliament, 118 ; arguments of
Franklin before Commons, 124-126 ;
distinction between internal and ex
ternal taxes, 130 ; debates under
Dartmouth s ministry, 167-170.
Parton, James, Life of Franklin,
quoted, 3, 16, 23, 36, 97. 208, 222,
232, 240, 241, 271, 281, 283, 407, 415,
"Paxton massacre," 87-89; Paxton
boys threaten Indians in Philadel
phia, 88 ; overawed by Franklin s
preparations, 89 ; unpopularity of
lattter with lower classes, 90.
Pelham, Henry, said to have plannec
a Stamp Act, 104.
Penn family, proprietaries, strained
relations with people, 4 .), 60 ; re
fuse to allow lands to be taxed by
Assembly, 61, 62 ; interviews with
Franklin. 67 ; complain to Pennsyl
vania of him, 68 ; endeavor to get
taxing acts disallowed, 69 ; denied
by the board of trade, 70, 72 ; con
tinue struggle with Assembly, 90;
their corrupt practices, 94, 95 ; fa
mous epitaph by Franklin, 1)5 ; his
hostility later diminished, ( ,)5.
Penn, John, appointed governor of
Pennsylvania, 87 ; agreeable begin
ning of admininstratioii, 87 ; pro
tected and directed by Franklin at
time of Paxton massacre, 8!) ; ve
toes bills of the Assembly, 90, 91.
Penn, Thomas, wishes Parliament to
tax colonies, 49, 04.
Penn, William, suggests colonial
Pennsylvania, reluctance to take mili
tary measures, 39, 49, 52 ; contro
versy with proprietors, 00-04, G9, 72,
73, 90-99 ; desires to be a crown
colony, G3, 04, 91-93; labors of
Franklin in behalf of, 00-72, 101,
102 ; adopts a state constitution,
211 ; chooses Franklin president of
legislature, 403, 404.
" Pennsylvania Gazette," published
by Franklin, 12 ; its character and
success, 13, 23 ; Franklin s writings
Pitt, William, refuses audience to
Franklin, 74 ; opposes Stamp Act,
114, 117 ; upholds American claim
to self-taxation, 117 ; denies par
liamentary power over colonies, 118 ;
reorganizes cabinet, 147 ; supports
Shelburne, 148 ; becomes Earl of
Chatham, 148 ; loses control of af
fairs, 148, 150 ; statue erected in
America, 149 ; interview with Frank
lin, 190 ; compliments Franklin in
House of Lords, 198.
"Plain Truth," effect upon Pennsyl
"Poor Richard s Almanac," 21; its
chai-acter and influence, 22 ; wit
and wisdom, 22, 23.
Pownall, Governor, favors barrier
Western colonies, 57.
Pratt, Attorney-General [see Camden,
Price, Dr., humorous message of
Franklin to, 217, 218.
Priestley, Dr., present at Privy Coun
cil hearing, 190 ; describes Frank
lin s last day with him in London,
203 ; letters of Franklin to, 204.
217 ; protects Austin, 271.
Prisoners, exchange of, difficulties at
tending, 252, 253 ; hardships of
American prisoners, 253, 254, 255 ;
refusal of British to consider them
prisoners of war, 254 ; efforts of
Franklin to secure this recognition,
255-204 ; correspondence with Hart
ley, 250-202 ; proposes exchange " on
account," 258, 200; final success,
202, 203; refusal to exchange pri
vateer prisoners, 203 ; retaliation
Privateers, their feats in English wa
ters, 248, 249 ; protected and com
missioned by Franklin, 250, 252.
Prussia, treaty with, signed by Frank
Pulteney, William, visits Franklin
with a view to peace, 357.
RALPH, JAMES, 9.
lluyneval, F. M. G. de, secretary to
Vergennes, 375 ; argues with Jay
against American claims to West
ern lands, 375 ; secret journey to
Representation in Parliament, colo
nial, proposed by Shirley, 48 ; by
others, 127, 128 ; views of Franklin,
48, 49, 128, 129.
Robertson, Dr., 75.
Rockingham, Marquis of, prime min
ister, 115 ; decides to repeal Stamp
Act, 118 ; on importance of Frank
lin s arrival in France, 234 ; forms
cabinet after Yorktown, 305 ; death,
" Rules for reducing a great empire to
a small one," 130 ; condemned by
Mansfield, 130, 137.
Rutledge, Edward, on committee to
treat with Lord Howe, 214, 215, 210.
SANDWICH, LORD, attacks Franklin in
House of Lords, 198.
Saville, Sir George, friendly to Amer
Shelburne, Earl of, friendly to Amer
ica, 147 ; administers colonial af
fairs, 147 ; hampered by Townshend,
148; and hated by George III., 148,
149 ; superseded by Hillsborough,
151 ; protects Austin, 271 ; timely
letter of Franklin to, 305 ; enters
Rockingham cabinet, 305 ; sends
Oswald to Franklin, 305 ; unwilling
to admit independence of colonies,
307 ; idea of a federal union, 307 ;
difficulties with Fox, 300, 370, 372 ;
becomes prime minister, 372; as
sures Franklin of continuation of
previous policy toward America,
372 ; issues vague commission t<>
Oswald, 372 ; appealed to by Jay
not to be, led by Vergennes, 370 ;
his liberal views, 370 ; gives new
commission, 370 ; his anxiety over
the concession, 377 ; earnest in be
half of Tories, 381, 382; finally
yields, 382 ; condemned in England
and loses office, 383.
Shirley, governor of Massachusetts,
proposes scheme of colonial union,
40 ; discussion with Franklin, 47-
49 ; appoints auditors for claims
under Braddock s expedition, 54 ;
his success as a soldier explained
by Franklin, 5G.
Sieves, M., 419.
Spain secretly aids Beaurnarchais,
229 ; aid asked in recognizing United
States, 274, 275, 279; gives slight
financial aid, 307, 317, 321 ; inter
ests in America threaten to prolong
war, 369 ; or divide France and
States, 370 ; tries to prevent States
gaining Western lands, 380.
Stamp Act, causes leading to it, 102,
103 ; colonial taxation proposed by
Townshend, 103; plan resumed by
Grenville, 104, 105; protests of
colonial agents disregarded, 106 ;
passed, 106 ; opinion of Franklin
concerning, 106 ; causes violent out
break in Pennsylvania, 109; in
other colonies, 110; rouses opposi
tion among Grenville s opponents,
114 ; among English exporters who
find trade cut down, 115, 116; at
tacked by Pitt, 117; its repeal de
cided on, 118 ; way paved by a de
claratory resolution of its validity,
118; debated, 118; examination of
Franklin ao to its effects, 119-123;
effect on English sentiment, 121 ;
testimony as to colonial feeling,
122 ; argument as to colonial right
of self-taxation, 124; repealed, 132,
133 ; popular rejoicing in England,
133 ; in America, 133, 134 ; causes
for repeal, 142 ; repeal caused by
union of diverse elements, 143.
St. Andrews University makes Frank
lin Doctor of Laws, 75.
St. Asaph, Bishop of, friend to Amer
ica, 282; visits Franklin at Ports
mouth, 401 ; letters to, 409, 414.
Steuben, Baron, recommended by
Stevenson, Mary, scientific tastes, 76 ;
wished by Franklin to marry his
son, 76 ; letters to, 86, 101.
Stiles, Ezra, letter to, 28.
Stormont, Lord, English ambassador
to France, complains of Beaurnar
chais, 230 ; threatens to leave if
Franklin is allowed to come to
Paris, 234 ; refuses to communicate
with Franklin, 253 ; recalled, 285.
Strachey, Henry, sent to Paris by
Strahan, William, offers his son to
marry Franklin s daughter, 76 ;
letters to, 77, 84, 205.
Sullivan. General, carries message of
Lord Howe to Congress, 214.
TEMPLE, , suspected of having sent
Hutchinson letters to America, 181 ;
calls on Whately to exonerate him,
181 ; quarrel and duel, 182 ; excul
pated by Franklin, 182.
Thomson, Charles, letters to, 106, 417.
Thornton, Major, agent of Franklin
to aid prisoners, 257.
Townshend, Charles, proposes colo
nial taxation, 103 ; goes out of office,
104 ; hostility to colonies, 116 ; will
ing to repeal Stamp Act, 143 ; chan
cellor of exchequer, 147 ; favored
by George III., 148; renews pro
posal to draw a revenue from Amer
ica, 149 ; proposes disciplining New
York, 150 ; introduces bill for Amer
ican customs duties, 150 ; death, 151.
"Townshend duties," introduction,
150 ; passage, 150 ; non-importation
used against, 174-175; effect in de
stroying revenue, 175 ; and increas
ing cost of collection, 176.
Treaty of peace, early suggestions of
peace without independence by
Pulteney, 357; by "Charles de
Weissenstein," 357, 358 ; latter sup
posed to be George III., 358; an
swered by Franklin, 358, 359 ; pro
posals by Hartley, 359 ; high tone
of Franklin s replies, 361 ; effects
of capture of Coruwallis, 363; ef
forts by Lord North to divide the
States and France, 3G3 ; repudiated
by Franklin and by Vergennes, 364 ;
fall of North cabinet, 364; forma
tion of Rockingham cabinet, friendly
to America, 365 ; Shelbume sends
Oswald to see Franklin and Ver
gennes, 365 ; plan of separate treaty
with America again rejected, 365 ;
Laurens brings same news from
Adams, 365 ; Franklin suggests cer
tain concessions, 366, 371 ; rivalry
of Fox and Shelburne, 366 ; both
send emissaries, 366 ; dealings of
Grenville with Vergennes and Frank
lin, 367-370 ; possibility that to avoid
prolonging war on Spain s account,
the States might treat separately,
369 ; difficulties over Grenville s
and Oswald s commissions, 371 ; re
tirement of Fox and Grenville from
Shelburne ministry, 372 ; Oswald
resumes negotiation, 372 ; debate
over form of his commission, 373-
377 ; Jay and Adams overrule Frank
lin, 374 ; their suspicions of French
friendliness, 374-376 ; Jay persuades
Shelburne to yield his objections,
376 ; negotiations resumed, 377 ;
draft agreed upon but rejected by
English, 377 ; difficulties of Amer
ican commissioners on account of
their instructions, 377, 378 ; Adams
and Jay again overrule Franklin and
determine not to follow French ad-
vica, 379 ; boundaries agreed upon,
380 ; fisheries, 380 ; responsibility
of Franklin for dispute over indem
nification of Tories, 380 ; a dead
lock 381 ; counter-claims suggested
by Franklin, 381, 382 ; Shelburne
yields, 382 ; provisional articles
signed, 383 ; condemnation of treaty
in England, 383 ; real success of
Americans, 384 ; anger of Ver-
geniies, 384, 385, 387 ; Franklin s
reply, 380 ; condemnation in Amer
ica, 388 ; justification of Adams and
Jay, 391, 392, 39G.
Trnxton, Commodore, 401.
Turgot, opposes France s aiding colo
nies, 227, 228 ; on French poverty,
UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA, founded
by Franklin, 37.
VAUGHAN, BENJAMIN, sent by Shel
burne to Paris, 372 ; carries Jay s
message to Shelburne, 376 ; fears
failure of treaty over royalist in
Vergenues, Comte de, predicts Amer
ican independence, 83 ; favors policy
of aiding colonies to weaken Eng
land, 227 ; gets control of king s
foreign policy, 229 ; establishes
Beaumarchais as Hortalez & Co.,
229 ; maintains outward neutrality,
230, 231 ; avoids a quarrel on Frank
lin s account with English ambassa
dors, 234 ; meets the commissioners,
237 ; tries to suppress license of
colonial privateers, 250, 251 ; self-
interest of his policy toward Amer
ica, 252 ; secret interview with en
voys, 274 ; liberal dealings with
States, 285 ; keeps departure of
Gerard and Deane secret, 290 ; sus
pects Lee s secretary of being a
spy, 290 ; dislike for Lee, 291 ; com
plains of exorbitant financial de
mands, 325, 328, 333; appealed to
by Morris to help American credit
in Spain, 331 ; confidence in Frank
lin, 345 ; antipathy to Adams, 350 ;
angry at proposal to scale American
paper money, 350 ; insists that
French creditors be spared, 351 ;
appeals to Franklin against Adams,
352 ; advises against answering " De
Weissenstein," 359; trusted by
Franklin, 3 ">2, 378 ; refuses to treat
with England apart from United
States, 3G4; amused at Grenville s
proposal, 3<!8 ; puzzled at discord
between Greuville and Oswald, 370 ;
advises commissioners not to quib
ble over wording of Oswald s com
mission, 373 ; suspected by Jay,
373, 375 ; succeeds in having Ameri
can ultimatum reduced to independ
ence, 378 ; and commissioners in
structed to follow his advice, 378 ;
suspected by Adams, 379 ; praises
success of treaty, 383 ; informed of
the conclusion of preliminary arti
cles, 384; angry note to Franklin,
385 ; to Luzerne, 387 ; personal re
gard for Franklin, 387, 393, 398 ;
apparent generosity, 393-390.
"Virtual" representation of the col
onies in Parliament, 129; Pitt s
opinion, 117 ; Franklin s, 129.
Voltaire, relations with Franklin, 288,
WALPOLE, HORACE, remarks on Frank
lin s voyage to France, 232 ; receives
private news of French and Amer
ican alliance, 281.
Walpole, Robert, said to have planned
a stamp tax. 104.
Walpole, Thomas, astonished at
Franklin s proposed memorial to
Dartmouth, 200 ; advises Franklin
not to present it, but to leave Eng
land, 201, 202 ; receives private news
of French and American alliance, 281.
Washington, George, mentioned, 20(5,
209, 207, 298, 307, 328, 344, 358, ha
rassed by foreign military adven
turers, 242 ; relieved by Franklin,
245 ; comparison of services with
those of Franklin, 308, 339, 404, 407 ;
supported for president by Frank
Wedderburn, Alexander, solicitor-gen
eral and counsel for Hutchinson and
Oliver, 18G ; bitter attack on Frank
lin before Privy Council, 188, 18<>.
West, the, its expansion foreseen by
Franklin, 57, 83, 84.
West India Islands, suggested as mem
bers of Confederation by Franklin,
Whately, Thomas, denies knowledge
of Hutchinson letters, 181 ; refuses
to exculpate Temple, 181 ; quarrel
and duel, 182 ; exculpnted by Frank
lin, 182 ; sues him, 187.
Whately, William, recipient of Hutch
inson letters, as secretary of Greu
Whitehead, , deceived by a satire
of Franklin, 135, 13G.
Wickes, , colonial privateer, 248.
Williams, Jonathan, rank as diplo-
mate, 220 ; appointed naval agent
by Franklin, 2G4 ; accused of dis~
honesty by the Lees, 265; dis-
missed, 266; ill-treated by Con
Wyndham, Sir William, wishes Frank
lin to open a swimming-school in
YALE COLLEGE makes Franklin Master
of Arts, 43.
Yorke, Charles, solicitor - general,
counsel for Penn family, 68.
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