standing that its great velocity is altogether overcome by
the water. The friction between the water and the iron
does not result in heated iron, but the contrary. The
water above the rapids of a river has practically the tem-
perature of the water below the rapids, regardless of the
friction that ensues between these points.
ever, that heat is liberated as the result of the friction of
solids with water, and still it does not follow that this
heat will perceptibly affect the solid. With a boat each
particle of water carries the heat away, each succeeding
portion of water takes up the heat liberated by that pre-
ceding it. Thus the great body of water, over which our
boat sped, in obedience to the ordinary law, became
slightly warmed, but its effect upon the boat was scarcely
perceptible. Your comparison of the motion of a meteor
with that of our boat was unhappy. We moved rapidly,
it is true, in comparison with the motion of vessels such as
you know, but comparison cannot be easily drawn be-
tween the velocity of a boat and that of a meteor. While
we moved at the rate of many miles a minute, a meteor
moves many times faster, perhaps as many miles in a
second. Then you must remember that the force of gravi-
tation was so slight in our position that" —
"Enough," I interrupted. "We will pass the subject.
It seems that you draw upon science for knowledge to
support your arguments, however irrational they may be,
and then you sneer at this same method of argument when
I employ it."
He replied to my peevish complaint with the utmost
respect by calling to my attention the fact that my own
forced argument had led to the answer, and that he had
simply replied to my attacks. Said he :
"If I am wrong in my philosophy, based on your science
thought, I am right in my facts, and science thought is
thus in the wrong, for facts overbalance theory. I ask
you only to give me the attention that my statements
merit. I am sincere, and aim to serve your interests.
Should investigation lead you hereafter to infer that I am
in error, at our final interview you can have my con-
siderate attention. Be more charitable, please."
Then he added :
"Is there any other subject you wish to argue?"
"Yes," I answered, and again my combativeness arose ;
"yes. One of the truly edifying features of your nar-
rative is that of the intelligent guide," and I emphasized
the word intelligent, and curled up my lip in a sarcastic
"He was verily a wonderful being; an eyeless creature,
and yet possessed of sight and perception beyond that of
mortal man ; a creature who had been locked in the earth,
and yet was more familiar with its surface than a phi-
losopher ; a cavern-bred monstrosity, and yet possessed
of the mind of a sage; he was a scientific expert, a
naturalist, a metaphysical reasoner, a critic of religion
and a prophet. He could see in absolute darkness as well
as in daylight ; without a compass he could guide a boat
over a trackless sea, and could accomplish feats that throw
Gulliver and Munchausen into disrepute."
In perfect composure my aged guest listened to my
cynical and almost insulting tirade. He made no effort to
A Remarkable Contest 349
restrain my impetuous sentences, and when I had finished
replied in the polished language of a scholarly gentleman.
"You state truly, construe my words properly, as well
as understand correctly."
Then he continued musingly, as though speaking to
"I should be at fault and deserve censure did I permit
doubts to be thrown upon so clear a subject, or discredit
on so magnanimous a person."
Turning to me he continued :
"Certainly I did not intend to mislead you or to be mis-
understood, and am pleased to find you so earnest a
And then in his soft, mild manner he commenced his
detail reply, pouring oil upon the waters of my troubled
soul, his sweet, melodious voice being so in contrast to my
rash harangue. He began with his expressive and often
repeated word, "listen."
"Listen. You are right, my guide was a being wonder-
ful to mortals. He was eyeless, but as I have shown you
before, and now swear to the fact, was not sightless ;
surely," he said, "surely you have not forgotten that long
ago I considered the subject of instinct at length. He
predicted the future by means of his knowledge of the
past — there is nothing wonderful in that. Cannot a civil
engineer continue a line into the beyond, and predict
where the projection of that line will strike ; can he not
also calculate the effect that a curve will have on his line's
destiny? Why should a being conversant with the lines
and curves of humanity's journey for ages past not be
able to indicate the lines that men must follow in the
future? Of course he could guide the boat, in what was
to me a trackless waste of water, but you err in asserting
that I had said he did not have a guide, even if it were
not a compass. Many details concerning this journey
have not been explained to you ; indeed, I have acquainted
you with but little that I experienced. Near surface earth
we passed through caverns filled with creeping reptiles ;
through others we were surrounded by flying creatures,
neither beast nor bird ; we passed through passages of
ooze and labyrinths of apparently interminable intra-
earth structures ; to have disported on such features of my
journey would have been impracticable. From time to
time I experienced strains of melody, such as never before
had I conceived, seemingly choruses of angels were sing-
ing in and to my very soul. From empty space about me,
from out the crevices beyond and behind me. from the
depths of my spirit within me, came these strains in notes
clear and distinct, but yet indescribable. Did I fancy, or
was it real ? I will not pretend to say. Beautiful flowers
and structures, gorgeous insects and inexplicable scenes
were spread before me. Figures and forms I cannot at-
tempt to indicate in word descriptions ever and anon sur-
rounded, accompanied, and passed me by. The canvas
conceptions of earth-bred artists bring to mind no forms
so strange and weird and yet so beautiful as were these
compound beings. Restful beyond description was it to
drink in the indescribable strains of poetry of motion that
I appreciated in the movements of fair creatures I have
not mentioned, and it was no less soothing to experience
the soul relief wrought by the sounds about me. for
musicians know no notes so sweet and entrancing.
"There were also, in side caverns to which I was led,
combinations of sounds and scenes in which floating
strains and fleeting figures were interwoven and inter-
laced so closely that the senses of both sight and hearing
became blended into a single sense, new, weird, strange
and inexpressible. As flavor is the combination of odor
and taste, and is neither taste nor odor, so these sounds
and scenes combined were neither scenes nor sounds, but
a complex sensation, new, delicious. Sometimes I begged
to be permitted to stop and live forever 'mid those
heavenly charms, but with as firm a hand as when help-
ing me through the chambers of mire, ooze and creeping
reptiles, my guide drew me onward.
"But to return to the subject. As to my guide being
FI.iJWKKS AM) S'lKlCl TKKS HKAl'lll 11,, INSECTS <;( )K(;KI)IS.
A Remarkable Contest 351
a cavern-bred monstrosity, I do not remember to have
said that he was cavern-bred. Did I say that he was
always a cavern being? Did I assert that he had never
lived among mortals of upper earth? If so, I do not re-
member that part of our conversation. He was surely
a sage in knowledge, as you have experienced from my
feeble efforts in explaining the nature of phenomena that
were to you unknown, and yet have been gained by me
largely through his instruction. He was a metaphysician,
as you assert; you are surely right; he was a sincere,
earnest reasoner and teacher. He was a conscientious
student, and did not by any word lead me to feel that he
did not respect all religions, and bow to the Creator of
the universe, its sciences and its religions. His demeanor
was most considerate, his methods faultless, his love of
Nature deep, his patience inexhaustible, his sincerity un-
impeachable. Yes," the old man said, "you are right in
your admiration of this lovely personage, and when you
come to meet this being as you are destined yet to do —
for know now that you too will some day pass from sur-
face earth, and leave only your name in connection with
this story of myself — you will surely then form a still
greater love and a deeper respect for one so gifted, and
yet so self-sacrificing."
"Old man," I cried, "you mock me. I spoke face-
tiously, and you answer literally. Know that I have no
confidence in your sailor-like tales, your Marco Polo his-
"Ah ! You discredit Marco Polo ? And why do you
"Because I have never seen such phenomena, I have
never witnessed such occurrences. I must see a thing to
"And so you believe only what vou see ?" he queried.
"Now answer promptly," he commanded, and his man-
ner changed as by magic to that of a master. "Did you
ever see Greenland?"
"Then you do not believe that these conditions, coun-
tries and animals have an existence?"
"Of course thev have."
"Others have seen them."
"Ah," he said ; "then you wish to modify your as-
sertion — you only believe what others have seen?"
"Excepting one person," I retorted.
Then he continued, seemingly not having noticed my
personal allusion :
"Have you ever seen your heart?"
"Answer," he commanded.
"The back of your head?"
I became irritated, and made no reply.
"Answer," he again commanded.
"I have seen its reflection in a glass."
"I say no," he replied ; "you have not."
"You are impudent," I exclaimed.
"Not at all," he said, good-humoredly ; "how easy it is
to make a mistake. I venture to say that you have never
seen the reflection of the back of vour head in a mirror."
A Remarkable Contest 353
"Your presumption astounds me."
"I will leave it to yourself."
He took a hand-glass from the table and held it behind
"Now, do you see the reflection?"
"No; the glass is behind me."
"Ah, yes ; and so is the back of your head."
"Look," I said, pointing to the great mirror on the
bureau ; "look, there is the reflection of the back of my
"No; it is the reflection of the reflection in my hand-
"You have tricked me ; you quibble !"
"Well," he said, ignoring my remark ; "what do you
"I believe what others have seen, and what I can do."
"Excluding myself as to what others have seen," he
"Perhaps," I answered, relenting somewhat.
"Has any man of your acquaintance seen the middle of
"The centre of the earth ?"
"The opposite side of the moon?"
"The soul of man?"
"Heat, light, electricity?"
"Then you do not believe that Africa has a midland,
the earth a centre, the moon an opposite side, man a soul,
force an existence?"
"You distort my meaning."
"Well, I ask questions in accord with your suggestions,
and you defeat yourself. You have now only one point
left. You believe only what you can do?"
"I will rest this case on one statement, then, and you
may be the judge."
"You cannot do what any child in Cincinnati can ac-
complish. I assert that any other man, any other woman
in the city can do more than you can. No cripple is so
helpless, no invalid so feeble as not, in this respect, to be
"You insult me," I again retorted, almost viciously.
"Do you dispute the assertion seriously?"
"Well, let me see you kiss your elbow."
Involuntarily I twisted my arm so as to bring the elbow
toward my mouth, then, as I caught the full force of his
meaning, the ridiculous result of my passionate wager
came over me, and I laughed aloud. It was a change of
thought from the sublime to the ludicrous.
The white-haired guest smiled in return, and kindly
"It pleases me to find you in good humor at last. I will
return to-morrow evening and resume the reading of my
manuscript. In the meantime take good exercise, eat
heartily and become more cheerful."
He rose and bowed himself out.
WHY AND HOW.
(Confronting mankind there stands a sphinx — the vast Un-
Then spoke I-Am-The-Man.
"Confronting mankind there stands a sphinx — the
vast Unknown. However well a man may be informed
concerning a special subject, his farthermost outlook is
bounded by an impenetrable infinity."
"Granted," I interrupted, "that mankind has not by
any means attained a condition of perfection, yet you
must admit that questions once regarded as inscrutable
problems are now illuminated by the discoveries of
"And the 'discovered,' as I shall show, has only trans-
ferred ignorance to other places," he replied. "Science
has confined its labors to superficial descriptions, not the
elucidation of the fundamental causes of phenomena."
"I cannot believe this, and question if you can prove
what you say."
"It needs no argument to illustrate the fact. Science
boldly heralds her descriptive discoveries, and as carefully
ignores her explanatory failures. She dare not attempt
to explain the why even of the simplest things. Why
does the sparrow hop and the snipe walk? Do not tell
me this is beneath the notice of men of science, for science
claims that no subject is outside her realm. Search your
works on natural history and see if your man of science,
who describes the habits of these birds, explains the rea-
son for this evident fact. How does the tree-frog change
its color? Do not answer me in the usual superficial
manner concerning the reflection of light, but tell me why
the skin of that creature is enabled to perform this
function? How does the maple-tree secrete a sweet,
wholesome sap, and deadly nightshade, growing in the
same soil and living on the same elements, a poison?
What is it that your scientific men find in the cells of root
or rootlet, to indicate that one may produce a food, and
the other a noxious secretion that can destroy life ? Your
microscopist will discuss cell tissues learnedly, will speak
fluently of physiological structure, will describe organic
intercellular appearances, but ignore all that lies beyond.
Why does the nerve in the tongue respond to a sensation,
and produce on the mind the sense of taste? What is it
that enables the nerve in the nose to perform its dis-
criminative function ? You do not answer. Silver is
sonorous, lead is not ; why these intrinsic dififerences ?
Aluminum is a light metal, gold a heavy one ; what reason
can you offer to explain the facts other than the inade-
quate term density? Mercury at ordinary temperature is
a liquid ; can your scientist tell why it is not a solid? Of
course any one can say because its molecules move freely
on each other. Such an answer evades the issue ; why do
they so readily exert this action ? Copper produces green
or blue salts ; nickle produces green salts ; have you ever
been told why they observe these rules ? Water solidifies
at about thirty-two degrees above your so-called zero ;
have you ever asked an explanation of your scientific
authority why it selects that temperature? Alcohol dis-
solves resins, water dissolves gums ; have you any ex-
planation to offer why either liquid should dissolve any-
thing, much less exercise a preference? One species of
turtle has a soft shell, another a hard shell ; has your
authority in natural history told you why this is so ? The
albumen of the egg of the hen hardens at one hundred
and eighty degrees Fahrenheit ; the albumen of the eggs
of some turtles cannot be easily coagulated by boiling the
egg in pure water ; why these differences ? Iceland spar
and dog-tooth spar are identical, both are crystallized car-
bonate of lime ; has your mineralogist explained why this
Why and How 357
one substance selects these different forms of crystal-
lization, or why any crystal of any substance is ever pro-
duced? Why is common salt white and charcoal black?
Why does the dog lap and the calf drink? One child has
black hair, another brown, a third red ; why ? Search
your physiology for the answer and see if your learned
authority can tell you why the life-current makes these
distinctions? Why do the cells of the liver secrete bile,
and those of the mouth saliva ? Why does any cell secrete
anything? A parrot can speak; what has your anatomist
found in the structure of the brain, tongue or larynx of
that bird to explain why this accomplishment is not as
much the birthright of the turkey? The elements that
form morphine and strychnine also make bread, one a
food, the other a poison ; can your chemist offer any rea-
son for the fact that morphine and bread possess such
opposite characters? The earth has one satellite, Saturn
is encompassed by a ring; it is not sufficient to attempt
to refer to these familiar facts ; tell me, does your earth-
bound astronomer explain why the ring of Saturn was
selected for that planet ? Why are the salts of aluminum
astringent, the salts of magnesium cathartic, and the salts
of arsenum deadly poison? Ask your toxicologist, and
silence will be your answer. Why will some substances
absorb moisture from the air, and liquefy, while others
become as dry as dust under like conditions? Why does
the vapor of sulphuric ether inflame, while the vapor of
chloroform is not combustible, under ordinary conditions ?
Oil of turpentine, oil of lemon, and oil of bergamot differ
in odor, yet they are composed of the same elements ;
why should they possess such distinctive, individual char-
acteristics? Further search of the chemist will explain
only to shove the word why into another space, as ripples
play with and toss a cork about. Why does the newly
born babe cry for food before its intellect has a chance for
worldly education ? Why" —
"Stop," I interrupted ; "these questions are absurd."
"So some of your scientific experts would assert," he
replied ; "perhaps they would even become indignant at
my presumption in asking them, and call them childish ;
nevertheless these men cannot satisfy their own cravings
in attempting to search the illimitable, and in humiliation
or irritation, they must ignore the word Why. That word
Why to man dominates the universe. It covers all phe-
nomena, and thrusts inquiry back from every depth.
Science may trace a line of thought into the infinitely
little, down, down, beyond that which is tangible, and at
last in that far distant inter-microscopical infinity, mon-
strous by reason of its very minuteness, must rest its
labors against the word Why. Man may carry his super-
ficial investigation into the immeasurably great, beyond
our sun and his family of satellites, into the outer depths
of the solar system, of which our sun is a part, past his
sister stars, and out again into the depths of the cold
space channels beyond ; into other systems and out again,
imtil at last the nebulae shrink and disappear in the gloom
of thought-conjecture, and as the straggling ray of light
from those farthermost outreaches, too feeble to tell of its
origin or carry a story of nativity, enters his eye, he covers
his face and rests his intellect against the word Why.
From the remote space caverns of the human intellect,
whether we appeal to conceptions of the unknowable in
the infinitely little, or the immeasurably great, we meet
a circle of adamant, as impenetrable as are the frozen
cliffs of the Antarctic, that incomprehensible word —
"Why did the light wave spring into his field of per-
ception by reflection from the microscopic speck in the
depths of littleness, on the one hand ; and how did this
sliver of the sun's ray originate in the depths of inter-
stellar space, on the other?"
I bowed my head.
I SEEK A CONFIDANT.
The more I thought over the foregoing incidents the
more dissatisfied did I become with the part I, Llewellyn
Drury, had taken therein.
It became evident that my personality had been domi-
nated by a man experienced in many phases of life's study,
as yet unknown to me, and as I revolved the matter in my
mind I became convinced that not only had I been craftily
toyed with, but had been personally discredited. These
thoughts were naturally exasperating, and, as I felt the
spirit of rebellion arise within me, I became vindictive. I
not only wanted to exculpate myself before myself, but I
also wished to prove to the man in whose power I had been
time and again that I was no longer a subject to his
dominating will. With this thought in mind I did what
I should have done long before, and would have done
but for my former rebuke by Professor Chickering,
sought advice from another. There is consolation in com-
pany, even if neither participant can assist the other.
In the beginning of life, before we become arrogant and
self-conceited, we seek the solace of those about us, and
in the end of life, after we become aware that "all, all is
vanity," we turn again to the companionship of our fel-
low-men. In the beginning of my experience with this
strange being, I had sought the advice of one I hoped to
* The following chapters were left out of Etidorhpa preceding
the first popular edition, which corresponds with what would have
been the eleventh Cincinnati edition. Let us hope that the reader
who has followed the work to this point may find that these chap-
ters make an appropriate ending to this "remarkable story," and a
fitting farewell to Llewelivn Drury and his mysterious guest,
lean upon, and now, when the indications pointed to the
closing episode, I turned again to that humanity of which
I was a part.
Seeking an aged scientific friend, in whom I had every
confidence, and in whom I could trust implicitly, I opened
my heart and gave without reservation, in minutest detail,
all that I knew of the history that has been herein re-
lated. Instead of passing the story as the fantasia of a
disordered mind he received it in attentive earnestness.
"There are, I believe," said he, "psychological con-
ditions that are as yet misconstrued, and there are others
unknown. Indeed," he added, "it seems to me that your
guest has more than once aimed to lead you to infer that
your mind could be dominated by that of another, as for
example, with the hydrostatic experiment when he asked
you if you were sure your perception was normal and re-
ferred to the influence his presence exerted over your
mind. He has seemingly played on your credulity, and
knowingly in all arguments has taken what is, according
to our present logic, the weak side, aiming to convince
you that the other (natural) side is unreal. In several
cases it seems as though he made statements that cannot
be true, and then artfully toyed with your mind until he
actually led you to reason them out as natural."
"Name some of these statements."
"Vitalized darkness is one. It is preposterous to argue
that a ray of energy- exists that can penetrate opaque
bodies. Such a condition would discredit science. With
the disproving of this irrational myth story concerning
the light that penetrates opaque bodies his skilfully de-
vised earth illumination disappears. There cannot be
such a ray of energy. Next, the statement concerning
new elements in the atmosphere is false. If chemists have
established any point absolutely it is the constitution of
the air. In making this assertion he has discredited Gul-
liver, for science has positively demonstrated that oxygen,
hydrogen and nitrogen, with traces of well-known
gaseous impurities, are all there is of air.
I Seek a Confidant 361
"And now I would call to your attention that the ob-
ject you perceived and accepted so thoughtlessly as a
brain view is a retina reflection. Purkinje, as your in-
genious visitor probably very well knew, demonstrated
that fact fifty years ago, conclusively so far as science is
concerned, and since that time the phenomenon has been
known as Purkinje's tracings or shadows.
"Your visitor should be credited with broad knowledge,
keen penetration and great sagacity. His methods cer-