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north, east, south, west, exchange freight and ])assengers, and one needs
to watch to secure the right train, or in the hurly-burly he will make a
mistake. We passed tin- places in Kansas lying on the route to Tdpeka
in the night. Sixteen years ago I had visited professionally these new
towns and cities, and held cami)aign meetings, agitating the i)olitical
waters on the subject of woman sulfrage and temi)erance. Tliey say all
tliese intervening places have tldurished. Tiie morning dawm-il, finding
us two hundred miles from Kansas Citv, driving on througli a beautiful.



112 THE HUTCHINSOX FAMIT^Y.

fertile country — ;ill crops yrowiiiL;- c^xcept tlie already harvested wlieat.
This sight, with tlie tlnertiil, ahuiulaiit, euiitented citizenship niaiii-
festod in the countenance of tlie inhabitants, tilled my heart with joy
and gratitude that these homes were secm-ed to freedom. And a few
years of trial and i-ire had produced such a result.

While in tliis joyful mood, contemplating the struggle with bordt-r
ruffians in tlie early si'ttling of the country and more recent contact
with drought and the grasshopper scourge and of victory, the brakeman
shouted out " Hutchinson ! " For the first time I now beheld this town
or city, of four thousand inhabitants, situated on the Arkansas River, in
the midst of a very promising agricultural district. This town had
sprung into existence through the instrunif-ntality of a relative of mine.
Acting in harmony with the impulse, lie had accomplisheU what sixteen
years before I had suggested — to have a Hutchinson in Kansas, as we
had years before settled one in Minnesota. Here and in the two coun-
ties along the railroad are embraced the garden lands of southwestern
Kansas. I felt I could content myself and go to farming. All kinds of
grains, vegetables and fruits can be produced in abundance. The cattle
flourish on the green grass in summer, and browse for a living in the
winter, with very little feeiling or expense to the owners. By some
slight irrigation, crops are certain. Floiu'ishing towns at proper dis-
tances are springing up along the route and fertile valleys spread out to
cheer the tourist. These inhabitants along the way are sons and
daughters of New England, and contentment with prosperity marks this
civilization.

Crossing the line, we pass through apart of Colorado, where a variety
of tablelands and mountain carions is in view. For the convenience of
the traveller a saloon dining-car was switched on and attached to our
long train and those who desired to partake on the wing were notified
that dinner was ready.

" No Caliph of Bagdad e'er saw sueli dis|)l;iy."

Swiftly we journeyed on, ])ut leisundy partaking as we had fifty miles
to eat in. Catching glimpses of the glorious coimtry we were doubly
fed, and abundantly satisfied with modern imjirovements. " Spero
nieloria," we hoi>e to travel the aii- yet and belii've our dream of flying
will he realized. For did nor 1 ),iri us try his best to fly and only found
his ai)proach to the ground a lailuref'

" What now with soieiioe aiul electric aid
WVll soar aloft on ctliereal grade;
Our tlying car will sweep the sky,
All dangerous casualties passing by ;
And ligliting down where'er we please,
On any ground with greatest ease."



ACliOSS TflE CONTINENT. 113

The heavy train dragged slowly up tlie grade, and stojiped. I'assen-
gers imxuired, and learned a steam-pipe had burst. This eircuinstanee
delayed the train, so that we arrived in La Junta in tlie night. Sleeping
soundl3% we left to go on towards Denver instead of Santa Fe. IJeing
startled from my sleep, I found I was at I'uehlo, sixty-five niiles ;i\\ay.
This caused a delay of twenty-four hours ; otherwise I should liave ar-
rived from Boston in four and a (juarter days.

Friends welcomed me to a pleasant hoir.e on the north side, where I
command a fine vic-w (d' the "City of Holy Faith," and tin.- uioiiUtains
and valleys in the environs. I find I liave to sleep and eat more in
this altitude than in the I-]ast. I made an eai'ly visit to the grand
"Tertio-Millennial " Exhilnt, which had alreaily been fifteen days open
to the {tublic.

A man said to me before leaving Lynn, " ;\Ir. Hutchinson, are you
not running a great risk in going from Lynn to that far-off Southern
latitude .' " 1 feel now that I can answer the question in the negative.
Thus far I have iiad exposures which, if made in New England, nught
have proved fatal to me. of course, I am not laboring as hard out in
the sun as when at High IJock. The sun is (juite hot, mercur}' ranging
from 80° to 00° in tlie shade ; still an invigorating, cool mountain air
almost constantly bracing the frame and at night cool enough for sleep-
ing under two good blankets, with windows and doors oi)en ; sleep well
and awake refreshed.

Many celebrated men have visiteil the Ti-rtio. General John A.
Logan, whose prospects for the presidency seem so favorable, has paid
a visit to his daughter, whose liusband is stationed here as paymaster
in the army. He has graciously received the congratulations of the
public and taken liis departure. Stopping with my daughter is Hon.
William ^l. Springer, ]\L C, from Illinois, with whom 1 am proud to
say I am acquainted, and I trust his prospect for the speakership in
tlie next Congress will prove most satisfactory. He is a gentleman
and scholar, while ^Irs. S. is a rare lady of a most sympathizing Chris-
tian heart. I met Governor Glide, of Kansas, who stepped into Gov-
ernor St. John's shoes. I did not discover iiim to be a Butler man, but
found him to be so much of a temperance man as this: he would punish
to the extent of the law the drunkard. The retailer or trafficker would
stop selling if there were no patrons. Of course no one would expect
the Tertio to compare in any way with the Centennial, yet the mineral
display is far superior to any ever made from any one State or Territory
in the Union. Some other features excel in novelty ; and considering that
but recently have the tribes of Indians been antagonistic to the interests
of the white man, and are now sending chiefs from all jiarts of tliis terri-
tory and ^Vrizoiia to join in the jubih^e, it seems this millennial will
prove a success. The subdued red man, the Spaniard or Mexican,



114 THE HUTCHIXSOX FAMILY.

witli the wliite Yankee, all parailing umlur the grand old "stars and
stripes," has been to nie a spectacle wortliy of the faithful and indicates
to nie that "jjeace on earth and good-will to men " is pervading this
contini'nt. Such music the management has provided! Two bands,
both ul' this town, discoursing all the best music of the masters each
day and night at stated intervals till the closing. A classical concert
came otf in the large exhibition hall which would do honor to any city,
even Boston. Fine piano playing, violin and lady artists. Being in-
vited, I sang the song, " ' )ne Hundred Years Hence," and answering to
an encore, gave our " Uncle Sam's Farm," to good acceptance.

The grand display of minerals, gold, silver, iron, lead and copper is
very creditable to so young a State, and considering how long the
prosjiectors have been kept at bay by the contending factions and
tribes of Indians, who have made it unsafe for working the mines until
within a short time. Now these same remnants of tribes are represented
here with all their paraphernalia, and are entertained inside the grounds,
amusing the thousands of visitors with their antics, war dances, etc.,
while their monotonous music is kept up, the sound of which leniinds
one of Chinese music.

The grandest of all the experiences I have had in this country was
our visit to the cliff dwellings, situated about thirty-five miles from
Santa Fe. The party consisted of men, though one boy was along, the
son of our captain, it being admitted tiiat ladies would not be pleased
to endure the fatigue of the journey over rough roads, among the canons,
ravines and mountains, camping out on tiie ground, or tlie length of
time required to make the journey. The company numbered with
drivers and guides, sixteen persons, and in our absence from 3Ionday
morning to Thursday evening a jollier party never passed over this
wild country. The showers of rain encoimtered and the general fatigues
of the journej', heightened the pleasure of the occasion. ^Ve all bathed
in the Rio Grande River and basked like chiklren in the sunlight on the
])ebbly beach, in the presence of the grand old cliff and a range of
mountains, and a lieautiful valley known as the " Council Ground,"
where the several tribes of Indians in olden times came to consult and
arbitrate for peace. While in the freedom of the free breeze, reflecting
on the past usages of the races and inroads of the white man, I \yas
seized witii the inspiration, and sang Eliza Cook's grand words:

•'Why does the white. man tollow my path
Like the hound on the hunter's track?"

\Yhih' closing with the refrain, the " Ya-ha, ya-ha," T discovered two
Indians coming toward the river in coiu'se from their village, who, re-
ceiving signs of weh'()iuc', a])])roacheil and shook our hands warndy. I
soon i:ad them siniiimi' with nie in monotones. So we danced and t'U-



ACROSS THE CONTINENT. 115

joyed the interview. I suggested that some one should try the fleetness
of the younger Indian, and a tw. nty-live-eent jiiece was offered to tlie
vietor. One of our party was soon on the line made in the sand, toe to
toe, when at the signal, the dropping of the hat, and the words, "Eeady,
aim, fire!" the two raeers in tierce eompetition sjjread tlieir iind)S and
leaped forth into the fray. The race was an exciting one, hut tlie rt'l-skiu
proved the winner, as he came to the stand several feet in advance of
his competitor and received the ([uarter.

Ill the letter above I refer to the cliff-chvelliiigs. 1
consider my trip to them among the most important and
interesting experienees of my life. The ancient eities of
the Southwest are in an area of several thousand square
miles, embracing tlie adjoining corners of Colorado,
Utah, Arizona and New ^Mexico. They are remains of
far more interest than those of the mound-builders and
their pueblos and houses, high up among the cliffs that
tower above the valleys and river-beds, still couttiin in-
scriptions and fragments of pottery and im[)lements
wliich show a far higlier gra<le of civilization than that
of the mound-builders. Ruins of l)uildings of three
and four stories in heisfht are in existence, containincr
.sometimes as many as live iiundred rooms. It is believed
that the Pueblo Indians of this region are the remnant
of these cliff-dwellers. They Avorship the sun and fire
as their ancestors evidently did. It is a curious fact
that these ruins, discovered Avithin two decades, were
reported by the Spaniards who concpiered the territory,
but for centuries their stories had been regarded as
fabulous. The descriptions then given of the ruins tally
exactly with them as they now appear.

Ill some parts of the wide territory I liave mentioned
the walls of the canons rise for thousands of feet, and
on the terraces of the more open canons are multitudes
of picturesque ruins. Sometimes the width of the
shelf permitted clusters of cave houses, making a vil-



Ill] Till-: IirTCIilNSoX I-A.MILV.

lagv. Tliese liouses wci'l' ix-aelied, evidently, by lad-
ders. Some of them are so high that the eye dis-
tinsfuishes them as mere speeks. The overhaimini'-
rock prevents access to them from above, and there
seems to be no way of reaching them from below. The
cliffs are of limestone or sandstone, with alternating-
strata (if sliak's or elay. Tlie action of the weather
\\i)\\' ont tlie softer layers, leaving caves, the solid stone
serving as lloors and roofs for the houses. The front
of the cave was neatly walled, so that often it is al-
most impossible to distinguish the artificial work. In
some sections ruins of ancient circular watch-towers re-
main on the top of the cliff. These cliff-dwellers,
those who have made a study of the sul)ject tell us,
were not a Avai'like people, and evidently sought these
homes for security from tril)es which were. When their
workshops are found, there are stone axes and saws,
but no spear or arrow-heads, Avhich appear so plenti-
fully in other prehistoric ruins all over the country.
Wlierever arrow-heads are found among the cliff-dwell-
ings, they are always with points toward the houses,
showing that they were lired In' an attacking party
from \\ithout.

What a story these remains tell ! As a writer has
recently said, we call this the New World, but the
name is a misnomer. These red men, worshi})i)ing the
sun and living as free as the birds of the air, had no
means of writing history but by pictures in the stone,
and these are usually only of trophies of the chase, or
some such simple subject. They liave left no tradi-
tions even, behind them, but yet we can see in these
cave homes all the evidences of domesticity. Here are
household utensils, and low down on the walls the im-
pressions of chubby baby hands, maile in the soft




y. -



Aci;uss THE c•u^■Tl^;E^•T. 117

material "wlioii the house was new and lln^ honcviiirKiii
l)ut a slioi't tiiiu' ()\Tr, hut uow liardi'iuMl into an (.'tfi-
iial record.

The S'liifti Fc Iirrii'/r of July ITlli told lliis story of
our trip :

"Tlie cxcursiiin ])arty to tlie ancient pneblos and cave dwellinus of
Cliapillo, Que-stacito Blanca and Fajarito returned late Thursday even-
ing. A scribe called upon Professor Ladd yesterday and plied him with
interrogations aljout the e\])i'dition, ami h'arued many tliinizs of interest
alike to the citizens and tourist. Their four days' trip was in the high-
est degree satisfactory to all. The ]inrty nundjered with tlie drivers
sixteen persons. A Studehaker wagon with four mules carried thirteen
and the provisions; the rest went on horseliaek. Among the excur-
sionists were Uevs. J. B. Gregg, J. ^X . Stark, (i. X. Kello.;g, Dr. V. F.
Little, Mr. John W. Hutchinson, Messrs. Handy and Waldon, photog-
raphers, F. W. Carter and iMeans, and l^rofessors Howard S. ISliss and
Cragin, of Washburn College, Fresidc^nt H. O. Laild, of the Fniversity,
and his son. Professor Ladd was the conductor of the excursion, hav-
ing become familiar with the region on the previous trip. There were
many new discoveries made on this visit of great interest to travellers,
scholars and citizens of Santa Fe. ( )n the road to the Kio Grande, sixteen
miles out, is Red Pock canon, which was explored and pliotographed.
From its sunnnit a magnificent view is ol)tained. I'he entrance to the
gorge is grand — far surpassing anything in Santa Fe' canon. A fine
spring was foimd aljout one-quarter of a mile from the entrance. The
drive from the city, the views and grandeur of tliis gorge maki' it a
most desirable destination for a picnic party. Tlie road most of the
way is fit for a boulevard. Ten miles fartluT brought the party to tlie
fords of the Tiio (irande. The sceu'ery after tlie I'ivi'r is reached excels
that of the famous Crawford notch of the White IMoiiiitains.

" Tlie first camp in the Cliapillo canon was made aliout nine o'clock.
Tlie road from the Pio Grande to this eamj) runs up an arroi/o, on
either side of which are castellated clilfs with strata of varied colors
and commanding height. A magnitieeiit sky above and soft beds of
.sand below gave to this place, with the unanimous consent of the party,
the name of Camp Comfort. Even the long, steep and rugged hilL
above this camp wt.s easily traverseil by the heavy wagon, and the sec-
ond camp was nnide under CiiaiuUo cliff. Here is one of the finest
views in this region, and the wiimU'rful fissure here in l;i\a rocks two
miles long and two hundred or three hundred fet't deep which the
party explored is a sight worthy of the whole trip. \t is the remains of
a subaqueous crater, and has within it a water-fall of one hundred and



118 TlIK m rcilINSoN FAMILY.

fifty feet. A beautiful ])i)iil like a silver uiirror lies iu a round, narrow
l)asin at its foot, inacei'ssllilc- froin above, except by a rope forty or
fifty feet Ion;;. Tlie descent is evi ii tlien dan.uirous. Farther down is
a S])rinjj of tin- coldest water and very abundant. A grove of lar_i;e
cottoii-\v()i)d triis liscs from the banks, and black currants iu larue
quantities cover the bushes, though the chasm is not twenty feet wide.

" The cliff-dwellers homes on Chapillo were also cxjdored on the
second day. Professor T.add's recent articles in the Chicago Admitce
liave fidly descrilRd these, and also those at Questacito Blanca.
Among a hundred others there wi're several caves discovered by this
party with three or four rnonis, and two ami even three stories hiyli.
A soaking rain greeted the party on the return to the camp that even-
ing, but the darkness and discomforts of the night were forgotten
while listening to the singing, Avhich made the cliffs re-echo with melo-
dies of every description, as five gifted singers sat around a In-illiant
camp-fire, led by Mr. Hutchinson, who sang with such rare inspiration
and sweetness that the spirits of the cliffs seemed to gather and take
up the soft strains that were dying on the night air.

"An early start shortly after sunrise of the third morning carried
the happy coniiiany to Pajarito by ten o'clock. This great pueblo
witli its surrounding caves gave new objects for study. Its dimen-
sions are indeed surprising, and its walls in better preservation than
the other pueblos. There are many strange inscriptions and carvings
on the faces of the rocks about the cave dwellings. These were care-
fullj^ copied by one of the party for future study. Similar ones were
found and sketched next day on the rocks above the falls in the
Chapillo gorge, already described. They would tell stories of wonder-
ful interest if they could be interpreted. After another evening of
rain, the Kio Gramle was reached, and the party nuide their bivouac
under piles of lumber like connnon tramps."

Oil Atin'itst Gth, I sent anotlicr letter from Santa Fe
to the Cttiu)i, which, was as follows:

Ml!. EiuTou : — If you are not weary of my long epistle on niat-
tirs and maimers connected with the visit to the city of ' Holy Failli,'
and my experience since arriving, 1 will renew my idfort and I'lideavor
to be brief in luy description of country, climate, peojjle, industries,
advantages and possil)ilities of this territory of New Mexico. In the
first place the country is decidedly mountainous, and from the adobe,
and from Yankee house as an annex, built by a former resident of
good old r>ynn, who went west sixteen 3'ears ago, and at whose hos]>it-
al)le board I am made welcome and comfortable, the finest view of the
town and surrounding mountains is obtained. The house is situated on



ACROSS THE CUNTINENT. 119

the side of a hill, facing the town on the south, and about a quartiT of
a mile from the plaza and overlooking the " Tertio Millfnial " grounds.
Looking in any direction from tlie jjortal of this house, the eye is met
by lofty moimtains, peak on j)eak rising thousands of feet until we
come to old " Ealdy," which is said to be between nine and ten thou-
sand feet above the sea-level, dowa the sides of all of which canons
and gorges can be seen with the naked eye leading to the rich valleys
at their base. The sides of these mountains are covered with a
stunted growth of cedar and pinon tiiitber wh'.le on some of the measas
very heavy timber is found, ^^'e must bear in mind that the inliahi-
tants have for hundreds of years indiscriminately cut this timber for
fuel, and now the natives bring in the supply for tlie town on the back
of the bmu-o or jackass, and it is no uncommon sight to see twenty or
thirty of these patient animals loaded down with from two hundred to
three hundred pounds of wood cut into stove size wending their way
down the sides of the hills to market. Tliese loads contain from four
to five cubic feet, and sell for from twenty-five to fifty cents each,
varying in price with quality and season of the year.

Some Eastern parties have just returned from Taos County, aljout
eighty miles north of here, where they had been to examine a cattle
ranch containing about twenty thousand acres. This is now offered for
sale at seventy-five cents an acre, title being perfect. They report abun-
dance of water with grama and alfalfa grass two feet high. This grass
makes the finest kind of feed for stock, as it cures on the stalk, aiitl
affords feed through the winter equal in nutrition to corn or oats, and
stock can feed all winter without shelter. They also report thousands
of acres covered with the finest timber, mostly mountain pine, some
trees yielding four cuts ten or twelve feet long from two to three feet
in diameter. There are similar tracts scattered all through the terri-
tory which can be bought on just as good terms and just as well
adapted for stock-raising and lumbering.

The surface of the country when I arriveil seemed rather barren,
and I missed the showers and green grass covering the earth. j\Iy
friends said, "You will see all this " and now, after waiting, I have wit-
nessed tlie beginning of the rainy season, and vegetation springing up
as a result. All the corn-fields seem refreshed, and vegetables are
springing forth at tlie call of the all-important visitor, and one can al-
most see them grow. Tlie rains descend with so much force and quan-
tity that very little of it soaks into the ground on the hillsides, but
fills up the channels opened for the floods and in torrents rushes down
in waves several feet high. Swiftly they rush through the arroijos in
their course, sweeping away all debris that has accumulated in th^ir
beds, and the bridges, if not built high above this flood, must go with
the current towards the sea.



lliO THE HUTCHINSON FAMTLY.

Tlie clijiiate is wonderful for its pnrit_y. Though tlic sun shines all
the (lay anil the mercury ranges froui eighty to one hundred, j-et a cool
liri'eze may be experienced at any time out of the direct rays of the
sun. At niglit the sleepers, if not provided with suiBcient covering,
must awake and draw up the extra quilt or suffer with cold. Yet the
dryness of the atm )sphcre prevents any miasma from poisoning the
breath. Invalids may come here at any season of the year with pec-
feet immunity, being benefited, if ni)t entirely restored to health.
Here in Santa Fe about two-tliirds of the inhabitants are Mexicans in a
total population of about ten thousand, w'lile tliere are many Indians
living in their pucl)li)s in tlie vicinity who come to this town to buy or
sell what they may want or have. Of course the white man is increas-
ing rapidly, and since the advent of the railroad three years ago, the
American population has increased from about two hunihvd to its
present nunilier. All trades and industries are being established. The
natives all live in their adobe houses, which are very comfortable, one-
story high with flat roof, having just pitch enough to shed water, Avails
from eighteen to thirty inches thick, and dry within, they are made
habitable at all seasons of the year, being cool in summer and warm in
winter, really pleasanter than our brick and stone, and the cost is
sliglit. Sliovel up the earth anywhere, moisten and mix with straw,
mould it in fi-ames about four by eight by eighteen inches, dr}' in the
sun and lay up in the wall, M'ith the same material for mortar. The
roof is nunle by laying across large, round rafters, or regas, putting
boards over these, then covering with earth to the depth of twelve or
eighteen inches. These structures, with little repair, will last for cen-
turies. Different tribes of Indians are scattered up and down the
whole countr}-, are now all peaceable, and through the fatherly interpo-
sition of Uncle Sam, when his behests and mandates are not trifled
with by rascally agents, will preserve order and peace ad infinitum.
Tliis " Ter Show" will conduce to a good understanding among the
Iribt's, all of which have been represented by their chiefs, jtrincipal
nu'U, sijuaws and ]Kipj)ooses.

The natives ])ur.sue agriculture as a livelihood, and by irrigation
make sure of crops, and with the latti'r rains which come most surely
in July or August, make crops in the harvest season abimdant. A
Geniian who is gardei\ing here told nu' he raised last year cabbages,
some of which weighed sixty-fcmr ])ounds each head. All vegetables
are large, fine-flavort'd and quite tender; onions very pleasant, large as
a saucer, caulillower, etc., as good as any country can afford. The



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