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merchant of Phila. (b. 1804, d. 1874), was fifth in descent from (George Williams, a
Welsh Friend, who settled in Prince George co., Md. Jesse Williams, 3d., and Ger-
trude H. Klapp had issue:

Jesse William, 4th., d. inf.;

Gertrude Gladys Klapp Williams, b. Dec. 31, 1897;
Hilary Baker Williams, b. Dec, 1904.
Wilbur P.^odock Kl.\pp, M. D., of whom presently

Wilbur Paddock Klapp, M. D., youngest son of Dr. Joseph and Anna (\'an
Lew) Klapp, born in Philadelphia, January 8, 1864, received his elementary edu-
cation in private schools ; entered the Scientific Department of the University of
Pennsylvania, where he was a member of the Philomathean Society. On his
graduation he entered the Medical Department of the University and received his
degree of Doctor of Medicine in 18S8. He was resident physician of the Epis-
copal Hospital and later visiting physician and chief of the out-patient depart-
ment of that institution, in connection with his large private practice. He is a
member of the County. State and American Medical associations ; was one of the
founders and first secretary of the Agnew Surgical Society ; member of the
Pathological Society of Philadelphia, and of the General and Medical .A^lumni of
the University of Pennsylvania; of the .Alpha Mu Psi Omega (medical) frater-
nity ; the Historical Society of Pennsylvania ; the Academy of Political and Social
Science ; and of the Penn and Southern clubs and a number of other social and
charitable associations.

1386 ■ KLAPP

Dr. Wilbur Paddock Klapp married, January 12, 1897, Emma Frederica,
daughter of Edward M. Klemm, by his wife, Eliza Mower, daughter of Edwin M.
Lewis, for many years president of the Farmers' and Mechanics' Bank, of Phila-

Issue of Dr. Wilbur P. and Emma Frederica (Klemm) Klapp:

Eliza Lewis Klapp, b. Dec. 18, 1897;

Edward Meinal Klemm Klapp, b. Jan. 8, 1899;

Wilbur Paddock Klapp, Jr., b. Jan. 25, 1905.


The surname Crozer, Crozier, Crosyer, Croser, Crojier, Croisser. is of French
origin, and is said to have been derived from the French word Croise, a Crusader,
or one devoted to the Cross. The name is common to the southern central district
of France, where the first crusade to the Holy Land was proclaimed by Pope
Urban II.

The American family of Crozer is descended from the Crozier clan, found on
the banks of the Liddel, partly in Roxburyshire, Scotland, and partly in Cumber-
land, England, in the early part of the fifteenth century, and since a number of
French families assisted William of Normandy in his conquest of England in
1066, and were rewarded by him with large grants of land and titles, it is possible
that the Croziers found their way from France to Great Britain at about that date.
The Crozier clan belonged to the class of Border clans, moss-troopers, or raiders,
holding feahy to neither England nor Scotland, but engaged in many forays into
both kingdoms, and again sometimes partisans of one and sometimes of the other.

On February 3, 1413, three learned men of Scotland, Johannes Gyll, Wilhelmus
Forster, and Wilhelmus Crosier, obtained from Henry IV., of England (then
claiming jurisdiction over Scotland, having captured and held prisoner James I,
of Scotland), a charter for the University of St. Andrews, which was confirmed
by Papal authority, after the death of Henry, in the same year. William Crosier
became the first professor of philosophy and logic, in this first University of

Martin Crozier, of Rakestonlees, had a fortified tower or peel-house, near the
source of the Liddell, about fifteen miles from the Hermitage, the historic seat of
the Douglass family, and on the accession of James VI. to the throne of Scotland
in 1587, the Croziers appeared on the roll of Border clans, returned to the first
Parliament. The name still appears in both Roxburgh and Cumberland.

In 1692, WilHam Crosier, the Chief of Clan Crosier, with his three sons and a
number of others of the clan, left the Border, and located in county Down, Ire-
land, where they purchased large estates; those of Lagham, near Gilford, later
known as Strathmore or Stramore; and Drumorin, later known as the Parke,
being held by the three sons and their descendants for many generations; and
from whence representatives of the family migrated to America at diflferent

The arms of the Irish family of Crosier as registered in the College of Arms
at Dublin, are similar to those borne by the Crosiers of Cumberland and North-
umberland, England, several of the latter having received the honor of knighthood.
The arms are. ".Azure, — a cross between four butterflies, or." The usual crest
was, "On a helmet and wreath of colours, a griffin's head and wings, — displayed.
argent;" though as in the case of many other families different crests were used
by diflferent branches of the families. In some cases, also, in the English family,
four bees appear in the place of the four butterflies. The motto was Diligentia
Fortunae Matrix, i. e. "Diligence is the mother of Fortune."

The traditionary account of the Pennsylvania family of Crozer relates that it


was founded by five brothers, Andrew, John, James, Robert and Samuel Crozer,
who came from the North of Ireland and arrived in Philadelphia about 1723.
This is probably substantially true, except that there is a possibility that they were
accompanied by their parents, who acquiring no estate in their own names passed
away without leaving any record. Andrew Crosier was witness to a will in Ches-
ter county in 1729, and the Andrew of the five brothers, and the ancestor of the
Crozer family of Bucks county, was much under legal age at that date, thus indi-
cating that Andrew was the father of the brothers named.

John Crosier, as we find his name spelled on the ancient records, married De-
cember 8, 1730, at the First Presbyterian Church of Philadelphia, Esther Cleave,
born December 10, 1712, daughter of John and Elizabeth Cleave, of Springfield,
Chester county, Pennsylvania, and members of Chester Monthly Meeting of
Friends. Robert Crozer. another of the brothers, married, in 1737, Susanna
Woodward, born December 11, 1718, daughter of Richard and Mary Woodward,
also of Springfield, and she was disowned by Springfield Meeting in that year for
marrying "out of unity." Samuel Crozer married, March 25, 1742, at the First
Presbyterian Church of Philadelphia, Barbara Jones. Andrew Crozer married in
New Jersey, in 1744, Jane Richardson. A John Crozer is mentioned in the will
of Philip Tanner of East Nottingham, Chester county, in 175 1, as the husband of
his daughter, Rebecca, and in the will of Mary Tanner, widow of Philip, in 1759,
a legacy is given to the children of her daughter Rebecca, "now in the custody of
John Crosier."

James Crozer, probably the second in point of age of the five immigrant
brothers, married, in 1737-38, Rachel, third daughter of John and Elizabeth Cleave,
of Springfield township, Chester county, born October 8, 171 5. She was a birth-
right member of the Society of Friends, and being dealt with by Chester Monthly
Meeting for marriage to one not a member, made an acknowledgement of her
transgression of discipline in this particular, on March 27, 1738, and retained her
membership; and in 1773 and 1774, her daughters, Sarah, Elizabeth, Rachel, Mar-
tha, Esther, and Rebecca were received into membership. The will of John
Cleave, dated June 17, 1751, and proven March 3, 1753, mentions his wife, Eliza-
beth; son, John; daughters, Esther, wife of John Crosier, and Rachel, wife of
James Crozer ; grandchildren, Elizabeth, daughter of John Crozer, and Mary and
John Crozer, children of James Crozer. Other children of James and Rachel
(Cleave) Crozer, were, Sarah, who married John Ogden, April 15, 1773; Eliza-
beth, who married John Burchall, September 13, 1792; and Martha, who married
Rumford Dawes, June 2, 1814; at which latter date, James and Rachel Crozer
were both deceased.

John Crozer. son of James and Rachel (Cleave) Crozer, was born in Chester
county, Pennsylvania. In early life he learned the trade of a carpenter and builder
and followed that vocation in Philadelphia prior to his marriage. He had received
a liberal education and was a good Latin scholar, and well versed in classic litera-
ture. He married Sarah Price, daughter of John Price, of Marcus Hook, Dela-
ware county, and for a time resided on the farm of John Knowles, of whose estate
John Crozer was the e.xecutor, in Delaware county. A few years after their mar-
riage, however, John Crozer purchased the John West farm, in Springfield town-
ship, Delaware county, on which Swarthmore College now stands, noted as the
birthplace of Benjamin West, the celebrated painter. Mrs. Crozer had been



reared in the doctrines of the Protestant Episcopal church, while her husband,
though not a member of any religious denomination, inclined to the doctrines of
the Society of Friends; in which faith his mother had been reared ; both were sin-
cere Christians of fine character and their children were carefully reared in the
doctrines of practical Christianity.

Issue of John and Sarah (Price) Crozer:

Elizabeth, m. John Lewis, of Delaware co. ;

Sarah, m. Samuel V. Campbell, of Uniontown, Fayette CO.;

James, b. 1785, for some years engaged in mercantile business in Phila., later in
employ of his brother, John P. Crozer; d. at Upland, at house of brother, Oct.,
1859, in his seventy- fourth year;

John Price, b. Jan. 13, 1793: m. Sarah L, Knowles; of whom presently;

Samuel, b. 1796: came to Phila. at age of seventeen, to learn drug business, soon
after entered machine shop of Large & Co., devoted much time to study of
chemistry and other scientific branches; went to Liberia, Africa, in charge of first
colony sent out by Colonization Society, sailed from New York in winter of
1820; d. Africa, April 6, 1821.

John Price Crozer, fifth child of John and Sarah (Price) Crozer, was born
in Springfield township, Delaware county, Pennsylvania, January 13, 1793, in the
same house in which Benjamin West was born. His educational advantages were
very limited; he attended the country school near his home, where he was able to
acquire the merest rudiments of an English education; but his father, always a
scholarly man. had accumulated a small but well selected library, and his ambitious
son devoted his leisure hours to study at home, and with the assistance of his
parents acquired a broader and more liberal education than was attained by the
greater number of young men of his time. From early boyhood he assisted in the
conduct of his father's farm, and at the age of seventeen years, had almost the
entire management of the farm. On arriving at age he took entire charge of the
farm for one-third of the profits initil the death of his father, on January 8, 1816.
His mother died a year later, and in 1820 he leased the farm to others, and made
a trip as far west as Illinois, principally on horseback, occupying about seven

During his absence the paternal farm was sold and with his share of his father's
estate and his small savings, amounting to less than $3,500, he started into busi-
ness for himself. Entering into partnership with Judge G. G. Leiper, he conduct-
ed the latter's saw and grist mills at Leipersville, Delaware county, for a few
years and later engaged in the cotton manufacturing at Leiper's mill on Brown
creek. The business was at first small, but under the successful management of
Mr. Crozer so increased in magnitude and profits, that in 1825, he purchased the
Mattson Paper Mill on the west branch of Chester creek, to which he removed
his cotton manufacturing machinery, and continued to operate it for the next
twenty years.

Mr. Crozer now abandoned entirely the mill rented of Mr. Leiper, and trans-
ferred his business to the Mattson property, which included a large farm, farm
house, tenant houses and complete farm buildings.

Beginning now to prosper in business Mr. Crozer was able to devote some time
and means to the cause of education and religion, both being always close to his
heart. In the year 1828 he erected a school house at West Branch, sixty by forty
feet, designed not only for the children of his employees, but likewise as a place
of religious worship on the Lord's Day ; the preaching being sustained when ob-


tainable at his own expense. The building was also used for a Sabbath school,
of which he was superintendent, continuing to fill that position there, and at his
subsequent places of residence, to near if not quite the close of his Hfe.

After locating at West Branch some years, he began to weave cotton goods as
well as to spin yarns, first introducing twenty looms, and increasing the number
later; and from this period his advancement in temporal affairs was rapid and

In the autumn of 1839 he purchased another old paper mill property at the
junction of West Branch with Chester creek, and tearing away the old paper mill,
erected another cotton factory; and, the dwelling-house on the new purchase
being better than at West Branch, he removed his family there in November,
1839, and expecting to make it his permanent home he named it Crozerville. The
Sunday school established some years before at West Branch, was thereafter held
in his own house at Crozerville. The railroad now running through the little
town was not then thought of, and his nearest railroad station was at Chester,
seven miles away.

In March, 1842, Mr. Crozer, in common with other mill owners, experienced
the first "strike" or "turn-out," as he terms it in his diary, all his workmen quitting
work for a period of nearly two months on the refusal of their demand for higher
wages, during a severe depression in the business and manufacturing interests.
This depression sadly affected the laboring class, not only in his immediate neigh-
borhood but in Philadelphia and in all manufacturing towns, and Mr. Crozer did
much charitable work in their relief. On February 16, 1843, Mr. Crozer met with
a serious accident, being thrown from his sleigh and suffered a fracture of his
thigh, which confined him to his house until the 15th of May, following, and was
compelled to move about on crutches for some additional weeks. During this
period his eldest son, Samuel A. Crozer, was first called into active participation
in the administration of his father's business, taking charge of the office and
financial business though but a few weeks over seventeen years of age. He was
at this time operating the factories, the one at West Branch, another at Knowlton,
and the one at Crozerville. In the freshet of August, 1843, the factory at Knowl-
ton, practically new, was swept away with all its machinery and stock of yarns and
goods, and the factory at West Branch was partially destroyed with its water-
wheel, a number of looms and several thousands of dollars worth of yarns and
other goods. At Crozerville his cotton house with about thirty bales of cotton
was carried away, the race and dam much damaged, and the machinery in the mill
injured. His loss was about fifty thousand dollars. However, the entries in the
diary of Mr. Crozer during this period, and his letters to his sister, Mrs. Campbell,
indicate that he was less concerned over the loss of his mills and substance than
for the loss to the workingmen, and bemoans the necessity of being so tied down
to business in rebuilding his mills, that he is unable to keep up his reading, and
give proper attention to his spiritual and intellectual improvement.

The mills at Knowlton were never rebuilt, but those at West Branch and Crozer-
ville were restored and put into operation, and though he soon afterwards trans-
ferred the most extensive part of his business to another point, were kept in oper-
ation for many years thereafter.

In February, 1845, Mr. Crozer purchased the Flower estate, situated about two
miles from Chester, with a fine mill seat, and at once began the erection of


factories and buildings for his workmen there, naming the place Upland. It was
not his intention to remove there, but to establish his growing business on a more
eligible site. Two years later he, however, changed his mind and erected a hand-
some and commodious residence there in which he spent the two last decades of
his useful life, amid the greatest activity in philanthropic work. The mill seat was
the site of the ancient Chester Mills, framed in England and brought to the Dela-
ware in the "Welcome" with William Penn. It not only supplied the original set-
tlers on the Delaware, but furnished breadstuffs to the Patriot army during the
Revolution. It included a tract of sixty odd acres of land, and in 1846, Mr. Cro-
zer erected thereon his cotton mill No. i, a stone structure of five stories, 139x50
feet, and installed therein one hundred and fifty power looms and six thousand
spindles. He also erected forty-six tenements on the property for his workmen.
In 1852 Mr. Crozer erected mill No. 2, somewhat larger than No. i, containing one
hundred and fifty power looms and seven thousand spindles. In 1853 he erected
Cotton Mill No. 3, 222x52 feet, of four stories high, and introduced one hundred
and fifty power looms and six thousand spindles. The three mills worked up
ninety bales of cotton weekly and turned out eighty-two cases of finished goods.

John P. Crozer married, March 12, 1825, Sarah L., daughter of James Knowles,
who had been reared in the same locality as himself. She was a woman of fine
endowments and liberal education and a fitting helpmeet for the masterful, culti-
vated and progressive captain of industry, and philanthropist. Until April i, 1847,
they made their home at West Branch, near his first cotton mill, but on that date
he removed to the Flower estate, two miles from Chester, which he named Upland.
Here he had erected a mansion which became noted as a seat of culture, hospitality
and benevolence, where husband and wife evolved many benevolent and charitable
enterprises which they later instituted. In 1849 Mr. Crozer erected at his own
expense a school building at L'pland, and turned it over to the school directors of
the district for the use of the neighborhood, the children of that neighborhood
having previously been compelled to go a great distance to school. It was used
for nine years, when owing to the large increase in population, due to the indus-
tries established by Mr. Crozer, larger buildings were provided at public expense.

Mr. Crozer, at the age of fourteen years, had professed religion under the min-
istration of Rev. Dr. Staughton, pastor of the First Baptist Church of Philadel-
phia, and became a member of that church, and was thereafter a devout member
of that denomination. On his removal to Upland, he provided religious services
in a building adjoining his factory, until 185 1, when he began the erection of a
church edifice, which was completed November 17, 1852. when it was publicly
recognized as a Baptist church several prominent clergyman of that denomination
taking part in its dedication. In i860 an addition was erected, and in 1873 ^ far-
ther addition was erected by Mr. Crozer at a cost of $14,000. In 1855 Mr. Crozer
also erected a substantial parsonage adjoining the church. From the little church
established by Mr. Crozer in 1847, has grown not only the large congregation
worshipping at the church later erected by him, but four other churches in the
neighborhood, as the population increased.

In 1857 Mr. Crozer established the Crozer Normal School, expending forty-
five thousand dollars in the erection of what is now the main building of the
Crozer Theological Seminary at Uplanfi. In 1858 it was opened as a high grade
academy, and continued to give instruction in the higher branches until the break-


ing out of the Civil War. The school being closed by the stagnation caused by the
war, Mr. Crozer tendered the use of the academy building to the government free
of expense, as a hospital for sick and wounded soldiers, and on June i8, 1862, it
was opened as such. On the same day the ladies of Upland and vicinity organized
the Soldiers' Relief Association, of which Mrs. John P. Crozer was treasurer,
and her two daughters-in-law, Mrs. Samuel A. Crozer, and Mrs. J. Lewis Crozer,
were respectively the first directress and assistant secretary. The other officers
were Mrs. Abigail Kerlin, assistant directress, and Mrs. Samuel Arthur, secretary.
For some time the hospital, which was equipped with one thousand beds, and pro-
vided accommodation for three hundred nurses, attendants and guards, was sup-
plied entirely by this association. The patients were almost exclusively Union
soldiers, until after the battle of Gettysburg, in July, 1863, when a great number
of the sick and wounded Confederates left on the field by General Lee were pro-
vided for at the Chester Hospital, which during the war provided for more than
six thousand patients. At the close of the war in 1865, the government surrender-
ed the building to Mr. Crozer, who rented it to Col. Theodore Hyatt, but soon
after the death of Mr. Crozer, which occurred on March 11, 1866, his widow and
children set apart the academy building and grounds, for a particular educational
purpose, as a memorial to the deceased husband and father, to be known as the
Crozer Theological Seminary, under the control of the Baptist Church, for the
education of divinity students of that denomination, and it was dedicated with
appropriate ceremonies on October 2, 1868. The theological department of the
Lewisburg University, with the founding of which Mr. Crozer had taken a promi-
nent part, twenty years earlier, was merged into that at Upland, and after the
death of Mrs. Crozer, her children devoted fifty thousand dollars to the endow-
ment of a professorship in the Crozer Theological Seminary, as a memorial to her.

Mr. Crozer had already contributed a considerable sum towards the founding
of the University at Lewisburg, Pennsylvania, in 1847, when he made a tour of
the central and western counties of the state; at which time he visited the proposed
site. When the building was about to be erected in 1849, he spent considerable
time at Lewisburg and secured the title to the land upon which they were erected.
In February, 1853, he proposed an endowment of a new professorship there, and
offered the sum of twenty-five thousand dollars for that object, conditioned that a
like amount should be raised by others, which was promptly done. In 1855 he
offered a further endowment of fifty thousand dollars provided the institution
should be removed to a point nearer Philadelphia, where he felt it would be of
much greater use to the Baptist denomination, in whose interest it was founded ;
this proposition was however rejected.

In middle life John P. Crozer began the practice of setting apart his birthday,
January 13, as a day of meditation and prayer. After his business had begun to
be extremely prosperous, that was also a time when he considered plans by which
a portion of the accumulations of the past year was to be devoted to charitable
uses. Among the objects of his charity was the Training School for Feeble-mind-
ed Children, to which his donations had reached the sum of ten thousand dollars
in i860 ; he was one of the most active of its board of managers until his death,
and succeeded Bishop Potter as its president some years prior to his death.

John P. Crozer was always an opponent of human slavery, and his sympathy
and aid was early given to prevent its expansion. On the outbreak of the Civil


War, he was one of the organizers of the Christian Commission, November 14,
1861, and during its whole existence was an active and worthy member of its
executive committee, and a large contributor to its funds ; one of his subscriptions
amounting to five thousand dollars and members of his family at the same time
contributed fourteen thousand dollars more ; his total contribution to this humane
organization exceeding ten thousand five hundred dollars.

The charitable projects evolved and consummated by Mr. Crozer were almost
invariably on the line of education for those so situated as to be deprived of the
ordinary means of Christian enlightenment in his own country. On February 18..
1864, he donated ten thousand dollars to the American Baptist Publication Society,
in trust, the income thereof to be used to aid Sunday school libraries in procuring
proper books. On February 28, 1865, he donated to the same society, five thous-
and dollars, the income to be used for procuring books for Baptist ministers.

Online LibraryJohn Woolf JordanColonial families of Philadelphia (Volume 2) → online text (page 64 of 114)